The Knights Templar. Brief History of the Crusades and Knights Templar by. Philippe L. De Coster, echecs16.info,D.D.. Grand Master General of O.S.F.A.R. C. many of the theories that have been put forth about the. Knights Templar, from such elusive notions as what secrets they possessed or what their alleged secret. cence. This venerablestructure was one of the chief ecclesiastical edifices of the Knights Templars in Europe, and stood next in rank to the Temple at Jerusalem.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Genre:||Children & Youth|
|ePub File Size:||23.45 MB|
|PDF File Size:||18.83 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
The Order of the Knights Templars has its roots in the crusades. To some extent, we States, some lodges that convene under the name of the Knights Templar. PUBLISHING. OSPREY. Knight Templar. 1 Warrior - 9| vi. en. N1 “ annuvng. 'llustrated by Wayne Reynolds. Helen Nicholson -. Professor Helen Nicholson, Cardiff University, for advice on Templars and . Since the Order of the Knights Templar was dissolved, the sto ries about them have.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Landowners and landscapes: John S. February Landowners and landscapes:
Land in the neighbouring village of Chapel Haddlesey, which the Templars received in , was provided with banks. At Faxfleet, Temple Dam is thought to have been constructed by the Templars, and at Sutton in Essex, the Templars maintained coastal ditches to prevent flooding from the sea.
It is not clear whether Temple Hirst was as well-defended as the fictional preceptory of Templestowe in Ivanhoe with its moat, drawbridge and walls. The site seems a likely location for a moat, given their prevalence in the vicinity, including those along the northern bank of the River Aire at Drax, East Haddlesey and Birkin.
Two major excavations have taken place at nearby moated sites associated with lay landlords— East Haddlesey and Wood Hall, Womersley. These moats seem to have had only a minor role in defence and drainage, and were mostly created for prestige. It has been suggested that surviving moats at Whitley and Fenwick may have been Templar properties, but there is no secure evidence for these.
By , there was a windmill at Temple Hirst worth 13s 4d, a windmill at Kellington worth 8s, and the watermill at Burghwallis was let for a year rent of 15s. This was probably the field known by the late-eighteenth century as Cow Close. A similar feature can be seen at, for example, Temple Balsall. These included the partial demolition of the first tower and the extension of the nave westwards, by the late-twelfth century, and the construction of a new tower, which seems to have been ambitiously decorated.
Around this tower was replaced by the present one, possibly because it had become unsafe. A north aisle was added in the thirteenth century.
Later alterations, including the widening of the north aisle, the extension of the chancel, and the installation of the arcade, may have taken place when the church became the property of the Knights Hospitallers. On this basis it has been suggested that the church was built at their expense,57 but there is no documentary evidence to link this church with the Order.
The many privileges of the Templars included freedom from paying tithes. As some later landowners continued to enjoy this privilege, the presence of tithe-free land can sometimes be used to 3.
Temple Farm, Temple Hirst in and trace former Templar suggested plan of the preceptory both from H.
In the keepers of the Templar manor of Hirst were ordered to pay to William de Couf of Ireland 2d daily for food, a robe at Christmas, a summer tunic, and 5s yearly for other necessities, which he ought to receive out of that manor, providing that he served in the manor for as long as he was able to. When Philip IV of France gave orders to arrest the Templars in , it was widely believed that his motives were financial. In January , under the orders of Edward II, the sheriffs arrested the Templars in England and made an inventory of all their goods.
By a writ of 3 April the sheriff of Yorkshire was to deliver the manor of Temple Hirst and the surrounding estates to Miles Stapleton, who held lands in the neighbouring townships of Haddlesey and Carlton. There were only two brothers in residence at Temple Hirst, but most preceptories were small communities by this date: During the trials informers gave evidence against the Templars, among them John de Nassington, official of the archbishop of York, who was said to have formerly belonged to the Order and afterwards became their penancer.
Nassington claimed that Miles Stapleton and Adam Everingham, two local landowners, had informed him that they were once invited with other knights to a feast at Temple Hirst where they were told that the Templars celebrated a solemn festival at which they worshipped a calf. Such an account is typical of the hearsay that witnesses produced. But the transfer was slow and tortuous, and in several cases the families whose ancestors had granted property to the Templars took the opportunity to take the lands back into their own hands.
This happened at Temple Hirst, where Thomas, earl of Lancaster, who had inherited the Lacy estates, seized the manor and granted it to William de Holand. The Hospitallers made two unsuccessful attempts to acquire Temple Hirst, in after the death of the Countess of Pembroke and accession of Philip Darcy, and in after the accession of John Darcy, but the estate was to remain with the Darcy family for two centuries.
He served in military campaigns in France and on the Scottish borders, was elevated to the peerage in , and was steward of the honour of Pontefract, which had become part of the Duchy of Lancaster after The private chapel is also described in an inquisition post mortem of A three-storey octagonal brick tower survives, housing an oak staircase with its newel or central post, and at the other end of the range is a buttress which may have formed part of another turret.
Others include brick additions to the palaces of the archbishops of York at Bishopthorpe and Cawood Castle, Riccall Manor House a late fifteenth-century three-storey brick tower and octagonal stair turret, part of the residence of the prebend of Riccall , and Paull Holme a three-storey brick tower on the Humber estuary. There were also brick additions to the moated manor house at nearby East Haddlesey. They are shown on aerial photographs taken in —, and were surveyed in , but have since been ploughed out.
In the fishery in the River Aire generated 40s per year. The toll of boats sailing or mooring was farmed for 10s, and with 4d charged for each ship and 2d for each boat, there would need to have been at least 30 vessels paying toll during the year before the farmer made any profit. The same account also describes repairs to staithes, to withstand the loading and unloading of cargo from boats.
The fields called Little Lawn, Great Lawn, and Lawn Foot, shown on the map drawn to indicate the enclosures made in , lay across the road from Temple Manor. Lodge Close may have been the site of a hunting lodge, while Low Hall or Barn Close may also have been a building originally connected with the park.
Traces of the pale which surrounded the park at Temple Hirst, and enclosures within the park, may be found in the banks known as reins, some of which still form field boundaries. This probably included the fields called Potterleys and Warren closes, shown on the Eggborough enclosure map of A warren house or lodge at Potterley is mentioned in We need to view Temple Manor, with its towers, fishponds, gardens and park, as part of a medieval designed landscape, intended to impress visitors and create an aristocratic setting.
But, as with any landowner, wealth and status were vulnerable to political miscalculation. Thomas Darcy was at Temple Hirst in when the rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace emerged in opposition to the policies of Henry VIII, notably the dissolution of the smaller monasteries. After surrendering Pontefract Castle to the rebels, Darcy emerged as one of their leaders.
Darcy later summoned Creswell and told him that he could not carry out the instructions. Aske then arrived and Creswell retired to his lodging. Mass was celebrated in the chapel the following morning.
When the properties were confiscated by the Crown in , Temple Hirst was sparsely furnished, with only tables, trestles, forms, cupboards, and two bedsteads recorded, worth a total of just 10s. The house appears to have been largely rebuilt in the seventeenth century and in the late- eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a succession of tenant farmers occupied the farm.
Temple Manor: In it became a public house, and in was converted to a nursing home and a further extension of bedrooms was added. The preceptory may have been the first foundation in Yorkshire, and its first known preceptor served the English and French kings. But by the early-fourteenth century, like most of the English preceptories, it had a very small community, with only two brothers resident. The estate that the Templars assembled seems to have passed relatively intact to the Darcys.
The preceptory became their residence and some buildings such as the chapel may have continued in use. Managing water was always essential in this low-lying landscape, as reflected in references to ditches and riverbanks in the Templar charters and the Tudor accounts. The River Aire continued to provide an important communication link as well as fishing rights. More striking though, are the changes which took place. Under the Knights Templar, a small estate centre tried to maximise the income from the land to finance the activities of a multi-national organisation.
The Darcy family created a landscape of prestige and pleasure, building an impressive residence with gardens, parkland and a warren. This study has tried to demonstrate the value of drawing together evidence from the landscape, maps, architecture and archaeology as well as documents, to explore the local history of a historic Yorkshire site during and after the Middle Ages. Penguin, and Natural History, vol.
England in the twelfth century, British Academy manor, soke and parish unpublished Ph. D Records of Social and Economic History, vol. Chetwynd- 12 D.
Andrews, ed Cressing Temple: Worsfold, survey: White and P. Wilson, eds , Stock, , pp. For when it happens that they wish to treat serious matters like the giving of communal land, or to speak of the affairs of the house, or receive a brother, then if the Master wishes, it is appropriate to assemble the entire congregation to hear the advice of the whole chapter; and what seems to the Master best and most beneficial, let him do it.
Brothers who are sent throughout divers countries of the world should endeavour to keep the commandments of the Rule according to their ability and live without reproach with regard to meat and wine, etc. And if possible, the house where they sleep and take lodging should not be without light at night, so that shadowy enemies may not lead them to wickedness, which God forbids them.
Each brother should ensure that he does not incite another brother to wrath or anger, for the sovereign mercy of God holds the strong and weak brother equal, in the name of charity. In order to carry out their holy duties and gain the glory of the Lord's joy and to escape the fear of hell-fire, it is fitting that all brothers who are professed strictly obey their Master.
For nothing is dearer to Jesus Christ than obedience.
For as soon as something is commanded by the Master or by him to whom the Master has given the authority, it should be done without delay as though Christ himself had commanded it. For thus said Jesus Christ through the mouth of David, and it is true: Ob auditu auris obedivit mihi. For this reason we pray and firmly command the knight brothers who have abandoned their own wills and all the others who serve for a fixed term not to presume to go out into the town or city without the permission of the Master or of the one who is given that office; except at night to the Sepulchre and the places of prayer which lie within the walls of the city of Jerusalem.
There, brothers may go in pairs, but otherwise may not go out by day or night; and when they have stopped at an inn, neither brother nor squire nor sergeant may go to another's lodging to see or speak to him without permission, as is said above.
We command by common consent that in this Order which is ruled by God, no brother should fight or rest according to his own will, but according to the orders of the Master, to whom all should submit, that they may follow this pronouncement of Jesus Christ who said: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus que misit me, patris.
Without permission from the Master or from the one who holds that office, let no brother exchange one thing for another, nor ask to, unless it is a small or petty thing. Without permission from the Master or from the one who holds that office, let no brother have a lockable purse or bag; but commanders of houses or provinces and Masters shall not be held to this. Without the consent of the Master or of his commander, let no brother have letters from his relatives or any other person; but if he has permission, and if it please the Master or the commander, the letters may be read to him.
If anything which cannot be conserved, like meat, is given to any brother by a secular person in thanks, he should present it to the Master or the Commander of Victuals.
But if it happens that any of his friends or relatives has something that they wish to give only to him, let him not take it without the permission of the Master or of the one who holds that office. Moreover, if the brother is sent any other thing by his relatives, let him not take it without the permission of the Master or of the one who holds that office. We do not wish the commanders or baillis, who are especially charged to carry out this office, to be held to this aforementioned rule.
If any brother, in speaking or soldiering, or in any other way commits a slight sin, he himself should willingly make known the fault to the Master, to make amends with a pure heart.
And if he does not usually fail in this way let him be given a light penance, but if the fault is very serious let him go apart from the company of the brothers so that he does not eat or drink at any table with them, but all alone; and he should submit to the mercy and judgement of the Master and brothers, that he may be saved on the Day of Judgement.
Above all things, we should ensure that no brother, powerful or not powerful, strong or weak, who wishes to promote himself gradually and become proud and defend his crime, remain unpunished. But if he does not wish to atone for it let him be given a harsher punishment. And if by pious counsel prayers are said to God for him, and he does not wish to make amends, but wishes to boast more and more of it, let him be uprooted from the pious flock; according to the apostle who says: Auferte malum ex vobis.
Moreover the Master, who should hold in his hand the staff and rod- the staff with which to sustain the weaknesses and strengths of others; the rod with which to beat the vices of those who sin--for love of justice by counsel of the patriarch, should take care to do this. But also, as my lord St Maxime said: We command you by divine counsel to avoid a plague: So each one should zealously guard against what the apostle said: Ne sis criminator et susurro in populo. Those who disparage others suffer from a terrible blindness and many are full of great sorrow that they do not guard against harbouring envy towards others; by which they shall be plunged into the ancient wickedness of the devil.
Although all idle words are generally known to be sinful, they will be spoken by those who take pride in their own sin before the strict judge Jesus Christ; which is demonstrated by what David said: Obmutui et silui a bonis.
That is to say that one should refrain from speaking even good, and observe silence. Likewise one should guard against speaking evil, in order to escape the penalty of sin. We prohibit and firmly forbid any brother to recount to another brother nor to anyone else the brave deeds he has done in secular life, which should rather be called follies committed in the performance of knightly duties, and the pleasures of the flesh that he has had with immoral women; and if it happens that he hears them being told by another brother, he should immediately silence him; and if he cannot do this, he should straightaway leave that place and not give his heart's ear to the pedlar of filth.
This custom among the others we command you to adhere to strictly and firmly: It will therefore be done in this manner: Each knight brother may have three horses and no more without the permission of the Master, because of the great poverty which exists at the present time in the house of God and of the Temple of Solomon.
To each knight brother we grant three horses and one squire, and if that squire willingly serves charity, the brother should not beat him for any sin he commits. We utterly forbid any brother to have gold or silver on his bridle, nor on his stirrups, nor on his spurs. That is, if he downloads them; but if it happens that a harness is given to him in charity which is so old that the gold or silver is tarnished, that the resplendent beauty is not seen by others nor pride taken in them: But if he is given new equipment let the Master deal with it as he sees fit.
Let no brother have a cover on his shield or his lance, for it is no advantage, on the contrary we understand that it would be very harmful. This command which is established by us it is beneficial for all to keep and for this reason we ordain that it be kept henceforth, and that no brother may make a food bag of linen or wool, principally, or anything else except a profinel.
We collectively forbid any brother to hunt a bird with another bird. It is not fitting for a man of religion to succumb to pleasures, but to hear willingly the commandments of God, to be often at prayer and each day to confess tearfully to God in his prayers the sins he has committed. No brother may presume to go particularly with a man who hunts one bird with another.
Rather it is fitting for every religious man to go simply and humbly without laughing or talking too much, but reasonably and without raising his voice and for this reason we command especially all brothers not to go in the woods with longbow or crossbow to hunt animals or to accompany anyone who would do so, except out of love to save him from faithless pagans.
Nor should you go after dogs, nor shout or chatter, nor spur on a horse out of a desire to capture a wild beast. It is the truth that you especially are charged with the duty of giving your souls for your brothers, as did Jesus Christ, and of defending the land from the unbelieving pagans who are the enemies of the son of the Virgin Mary.
This above-mentioned prohibition of hunting is by no means intended to include the lion, for he comes encircling and searching for what he can devour, his hands against every man and every man's hand against him. This kind of new order we believe was born out of the Holy Scriptures and divine providence in the Holy Land of the Fast.
That is to say that this armed company of knights may kill the enemies of the cross without sinning. For this reason we judge you to be rightly called knights of the Temple, with the double merit and beauty of probity, and that you may have lands and keep men, villeins and fields and govern them justly, and take your right to them as it is specifically established. You who have abandoned the pleasant riches of this world, we believe you to have willingly subjected yourselves to poverty; therefore we are resolved that you who live the communal life may receive tithes.
If the bishop of the place, to whom the tithe should be rendered by right, wishes to give it to you out of charity, with the consent of his chapter he may give those tithes which the Church possesses.
Moreover, if any layman keeps the tithes of his patrimony, to his detriment and against the Church, and wishes to leave them to you, he may do so with the permission of the prelate and his chapter. We know, because we have seen it, that persecutors and people who like quarrels and endeavour to cruelly torment those faithful to the Holy Church and their friends, are without number.
By the clear judgement of our council, we command that if there is anyone in the parties of the East or anywhere else who asks anything of you, for faithful men and love of truth you should judge the thing, if the other party wishes to allow it.
This same commandment should be kept at all times when something is stolen from you. We command by pious counsel that ageing and weak brothers be honoured with diligence and given consideration according to their frailty; and, kept well by the authority of the Rule in those things which are necessary to their physical welfare, should in no way be in distress.
Let sick brothers be given consideration and care and be served according to the saying of the evangelist and Jesus Christ: Infirmus fui et visitastis me. For those brothers who are wretched should be treated quietly and with care, for which service, carried out without hesitation, you will gain the kingdom of heaven.
Therefore we command the Infirmarer to studiously and faithfully provide those things which are necessary to the various sick brothers, such as meat, flesh, birds and all other foods which bring good health, according to the means and the ability of the house. When any brother passes from life to death, a thing from which no one is exempt, we command you to sing mass for his soul with a pure heart, and have the divine office performed by the priests who serve the sovereign king and you who serve charity for a fixed term and all the brothers who are present where the body lies and serve for a fixed term should say one hundred paternosters during the next seven days.
And all the brothers who are under the command of that house where the brother has passed away should say the hundred paternosters, as is said above, afrer the death of the brother is known, by God's mercy. Also we pray and command by pastoral authority that a pauper be fed with meat and wine for forty days in memory of the dead brother, just as if he were alive. We expressly forbid all other offerings which used to be made at will and without discretion by the Poor Knights of the Temple on the death of brothers, at the feast of Easter and at other feasts.
Moreover, you should profess your faith with a pure heart night and day that you may be compared in this respect to the wisest of all the prophets, who said: Calicem salutaris accipiam. For just as Jesus Christ gave his body for me, I am prepared in the same way to give my soul for my brothers.
The whole of the common council commands you to render all offerings and all kinds of alms in whatever manner they may be given, to the chaplains and clerks and to others who remain in charity for a fixed term.
According to the authority of the Lord God, the servants of the Church may have only food and clothing, and may not presume to have anything else unless the Master wishes to give them anything willingly out of charity. Those who serve out of pity and remain with you for a fixed term are knights of the house of God and of the Temple of Solomon; therefore out of pity we pray and finally command that if during his stay the power of God takes any one of them, for love of God and out of brotherly mercy, one pauper be fed for seven days for the sake of his soul, and each brother in that house should say thirty paternosters.
We command all secular knights who desire with a pure heart to serve Jesus Christ and the house of the Temple of Solomon for a fixed term to faithfully download a suitable horse and arms, and everything that will be necessary for such work. Furthermore, we command both parties to put a price on the horse and to put the price in writing so that it is not forgotten; and let everything that the knight, his squire and horse need, even horseshoes, be given out of fraternal charity according to the means of the house.
If, during the fixed term, it happens by chance that the horse dies in the service of the house, if the house can afford to, the Master should replace it. If, at the end of his tenure, the knight wishes to return to his own country, he should leave to the house, out of charity, half the price of the horse, and the other half he may, if he wishes, receive from the alms of the house. As the squires and sergeants who wish to serve charity in the house of the Temple for the salvation of their souls and for a fixed term come from divers regions, it seems to us beneficial that their promises be received, so that the envious enemy does not put it in their hearts to repent of or renounce their good intentions.
By common counsel of all the chapter we forbid and order expulsion, for common vice, of anyone who without discretion was in the house of God and of the Knights of the Temple; also that the sergeants and squires should not have white habits, from which custom great harm used to come to the house; for in the regions beyond the mountains false brothers, married men and others who said they were brothers of the Temple used to be sworn in; while they were of the world.
They brought so much shame to us and harm to the Order of Knighthood that even their squires boasted of it; for this reason numerous scandals arose. Therefore let them assiduously be given black robes; but if these cannot be found, they should be given what is available in that province; or what is the least expensive, that is burell.
If married men ask to be admitted to the fraternity, benefice and devotions of the house, we permit you to receive them on the following conditions: Meanwhile, they should lead honest lives and endeavour to act well towards the brothers. The company of women is a dangerous thing, for by it the old devil has led many from the straight path to Paradise.
Henceforth, let not ladies be admitted as sisters into the house of the Temple; that is why, very dear brothers, henceforth it is not fitting to follow this custom, that the flower of chastity is always maintained among you. We believe it to be a dangerous thing for any religious to look too much upon the face of woman. For this reason none of you may presume to kiss a woman, be it widow, young girl, mother, sister, aunt or any other; and henceforth the Knighthood of Jesus Christ should avoid at all costs the embraces of women, by which men have perished many times, so that they may remain eternally before the face of God with a pure conscience and sure life.
We forbid all brothers henceforth to dare to raise children over the font and none should be ashamed to refuse to be godfathers or godmothers; this shame brings more glory than sin. All the commandments which are mentioned and written above in this present Rule are at the discretion and judgement of the Master.
Let it be known to all present and future brothers of the Temple that they should fast at the vigils of the twelve apostles. The vigil of St John the Baptist; the vigil of the Ascension and the two days before, the rogation days; the vigil of Pentecost; the ember days; the vigil of St Laurence; the vigil of Our Lady in mid-August; the vigil of All Saints; the vigil of Epiphany. And they should fast on all the above-mentioned days according to the commandments of Pope Innocent at the council which took place in the city of Pisa.
And if any of the above-mentioned feast days fall on a Monday, they should fast on the preceding Saturday. If the nativity of Our Lord falls on a Friday, the brothers should eat meat in honour of the festival. But they should fast on the feast day of St Mark because of the Litany: However, if it falls during the octave of Easter, they should not fast. None of the lesser feasts should be kept by the house of the Temple.
And we wish and advise that this be strictly kept and adhered to: And if it happens that the feast of St Martin falls on a Sunday, the brothers should go without meat on the preceding Sunday.
Copyright C , J. Excerpted here by kind permission of the author. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents,including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Templar store Templiers.
The Names of the Fathers who Attended the Council 6. The Manner in which Brothers should be Received On Excommunicated Knights On Not Receiving Children On the Brothers' Dress On Shirts On Bed Linen On Pointed Shoes' and Shoe-Laces How They Should Eat On the Reading of the Lesson On Bowls and Drinking Vessels On the Eating of Meat On Weekday Meals On Friday Meals On Saying Grace On Taking Collation On Keeping Silence On Ailing Brothers On the Communal Life On the Master On Giving Counsel On Brothers Sent Overseas On Keeping the Peace How the Brothers Should Go About How they should Effect an Exchange On Locks On Secular Gifts On Faults On Serious Faults On Rumour Let None Take Pride in his Faults Let None Ask