Understanding / Microprocessors and Peripheral ICs The Intel Microprocessors /, /, , , , Pentium, Pentium Pro Assembly Language Programming. Hardware Architecture. Fall / – Lecture Notes # 1. The Intel Microprocessors: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing. Introduction to the Microprocessor and computer. The Intel microprocessors , , , , , , , Pentium, Pentium Pro Processor, Pentium The Architecture, Programming, and Interfacing, 8th Edition. Файл формата pdf; размером 9,94 МБ.
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architecture, programming, and interfacing / Barry B. Brey—8th ed. p. cm. Includes gramming and interfacing of the Intel family of microprocessors. Today . Intel microprocessors have gained wide, and at times exclusive, application in many First, interfacing is explained using the / with some of the more . 51 2–1 Internal Microprocessor Architecture 51 The Programming Model 52;. Computer System Architecture by Morris Mano Third Edition. Uploaded by. m_faisal_iqbal. Microprocessors and Interfacing Programming and Hardware ( 2nd.
The time required to discharge a capacitor thus depends on what logic value is stored in the capacitor. A capacitor containing logic one begins to discharge when the voltage at the access transistor's gate terminal is above VCCP. If the capacitor contains a logic zero, it begins to discharge when the gate terminal voltage is above VTH. The drive to increase both density, and to a lesser extent, performance, required denser designs. The minimization of DRAM cell area can produce a denser device which could be sold at a higher price , or a lower priced device with the same capacity. Starting in the mids, the capacitor has been moved above or below the silicon substrate in order to meet these objectives.
In the s, manufacturers were sharply divided by the type of capacitor used by their DRAMs, and the relative cost and long-term scalability of both designs has been the subject of extensive debate. The majority of DRAMs, from major manufactures such as Hynix , Micron Technology , Samsung Electronics use the stacked capacitor structure, whereas smaller manufacturers such Nanya Technology use the trench capacitor structure Jacob, pp.
The capacitor in the stacked capacitor scheme is constructed above the surface of the substrate. The capacitor is constructed from an oxide-nitride-oxide ONO dielectric sandwiched in between two layers of polysilicon plates the top plate is shared by all DRAM cells in an IC , and its shape can be a rectangle, a cylinder, or some other more complex shape.
There are two basic variations of the stacked capacitor, based on its location relative to the bitline—capacitor-over-bitline COB and capacitor-under-bitline CUB. In a former variation, the capacitor is underneath the bitline, which is usually made of metal, and the bitline has a polysilicon contact that extends downwards to connect it to the access transistor's source terminal. In the latter variation, the capacitor is constructed above the bitline, which is almost always made of polysilicon, but is otherwise identical to the COB variation.
The advantage the COB variant possesses is the ease of fabricating the contact between the bitline and the access transistor's source as it is physically close to the substrate surface. However, this requires the active area to be laid out at a degree angle when viewed from above, which makes it difficult to ensure that the capacitor contact does not touch the bitline. CUB cells avoid this, but suffer from difficulties in inserting contacts in between bitlines, since the size of features this close to the surface are at or near the minimum feature size of the process technology Kenner, pp.
The trench capacitor is constructed by etching a deep hole into the silicon substrate.
A layer of oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric is grown or deposited, and finally the hole is filled by depositing doped polysilicon, which forms the top plate of the capacitor. The top of the capacitor is connected to the access transistor's drain terminal via a polysilicon strap Kenner, pp. Trench capacitors have numerous advantages.
Since the capacitor is buried in the bulk of the substrate instead of lying on its surface, the area it occupies can be minimized to what is required to connect it to the access transistor's drain terminal without decreasing the capacitor's size, and thus capacitance Jacob, pp. Alternatively, the capacitance can be increased by etching a deeper hole without any increase to surface area Kenner, pg. Another advantage of the trench capacitor is that its structure is under the layers of metal interconnect, allowing them to be more easily made planar, which enables it to be integrated in a logic-optimized process technology, which have many levels of interconnect above the substrate.
The fact that the capacitor is under the logic means that it is constructed before the transistors are. This allows high-temperature processes to fabricate the capacitors, which would otherwise be degrading the logic transistors and their performance. Disadvantages of trench capacitors are difficulties in reliably constructing the capacitor's structures within deep holes and in connecting the capacitor to the access transistor's drain terminal Kenner, pg. By the second-generation, the requirement to increase density by fitting more bits in a given area, or the requirement to reduce cost by fitting the same amount of bits in a smaller area, lead to the almost universal adoption of the 1T1C DRAM cell, although a couple of devices with 4 and 16 Kbit capacities continued to use the 3T1C cell for performance reasons Kenner, p.
These performance advantages included, most significantly, the ability to read the state stored by the capacitor without discharging it, avoiding the need to write back what was read out non-destructive read. A second performance advantage relates to the 3T1C cell has separate transistors for reading and writing; the memory controller can exploit this feature to perform atomic read-modify-writes, where a value is read, modified, and then written back as a single, indivisible operation Jacob, p.
Proposed cell designs[ edit ] The one-transistor, zero-capacitor 1T DRAM cell has been a topic of research since the lates. In 1T DRAM cells, the bit of data is still stored in a capacitive region controlled by a transistor, but this capacitance is no longer provided by a separate capacitor.
Generally, the software developed will also function on all versions of the microprocessor. This software also includes DOS-based and Windows-based applications. Develop software for code conversions using lookup tables and algorithms. Program the numeric coprocessor to solve complex equations.
Explain the differences between the family members and highlight the features of each member.
Describe and use real and protected mode operation of the microprocessor. Provide a detailed and comprehensive comparison of all family members and their software and hardware interfaces. Explain the function of the real-time operating system in an embedded application. Explain the operation of disk and video systems. Number systems and conversions are also included. Chapter 2 explores the programming model of the microprocessor and system architecture.
Both real and protected mode operations are explained. Once an understanding of the basic machine is grasped, Chapters 3 through 6 explain how each instruction functions with the Intel family of microprocessors. As instructions are explained, simple applications are presented to illustrate the operation of the instructions and develop basic programming concepts.
These applications include programming using the keyboard and mouse through message handlers in the Windows environment.
Disk files are explained using the File class, as well as keyboard and video operations on a personal computer system through Windows. This chapter provides the tools required to develop virtually any program on a personal computer system through the Windows environment. This chapter shows the buffered system as well as the system timing.
Chapter 10 explains memory interface using both integrated decoders and programmable logic devices using VHDL. The 8-, , , and bit memory systems are provided so the — and the Pentium through Pentium 4 microprocessors can be interfaced to memory. It also describes the interface of both DC and stepper motors. Applications include a printer interface, real-time clock, disk memory, and video systems.
Today few applications function efficiently without the power of the arithmetic coprocessor. Chapter 15 shows how to interface small systems to the personal computer through the use of the parallel port, serial ports, and the ISA, and PCI bus interfaces. Cache memory, interleaved memory, and burst memory are described with the and microproces- sors.
Chapter 16 also covers real-time operating systems RTOS , and Chapter 17 also describes memory management and memory paging. Chapter 18 details the Pentium and Pentium Pro microprocessors. It covers some of the new features, package styles, and the instructions that are added to the orig- inal instruction set. Appendices are included to enhance the text.
It also details the use of. A complete listing of all —Pentium 4 and Core2 instructions, including many example instructions and machine cod- ing in hexadecimal as well as clock timing information, is found in Appendix B.
Appendix C provides a compact list of all the instructions that change the flag bits. Answers for the even- numbered questions and problems are provided in Appendix D. To access supplementary materials online, instructors need to request an instructor access code.
Go to www. Within 48 hours after registering, you will receive a confirming e-mail, including an instructor access code.
Once you have received your code, go to the site and log on for full instructions on downloading the materials you wish to use. James K. My Internet site contains information about all of my textbooks and many important links that are specific to the personal computer, microprocessors, hardware, and software.
Also available is a weekly lesson that details many of the aspects of the personal computer. Please feel free to contact me at bbrey ee.
I usually answer all of my e-mail within 24 hours. This chapter provides an overview of the Intel family of microprocessors. Included is a discus- sion of the history of computers and the function of the microprocessor in the microprocessor- based computer system. Also introduced are terms and jargon used in the computer field, so that computerese is understood and applied when discussing microprocessors and computers. The block diagram and a description of the function of each block detail the operation of a computer system.
Detailed is the way data are stored in the mem- ory so each data type can be used as software is developed. Briefly detail the history of the computer and list applications performed by computer systems. Provide an overview of the various 80X86 and Pentium family members. Draw the block diagram of a computer system and explain the purpose of each block.
Describe the function of the microprocessor and detail its basic operation.
Define the contents of the memory system in the personal computer. Convert between binary, decimal, and hexadecimal numbers. Differentiate and represent numeric and alphabetic information as integers, floating-point,. This first section outlines the historical events leading to the development of the microprocessor and, specifically, the extremely powerful and current 80X86,1 Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium III, Pentium 4,2 and Core2 microprocessors.
Although a study of history is not essential to understand the microprocessor, it furnishes interesting reading and provides a historical perspective of the fast-paced evolution of the computer. The Mechanical Age The idea of a computing system is not new—it has been around long before modem electrical and electronic devices were developed.
The idea of calculating with a machine dates to BC when the Babylonians, the ancestors of the present-day Iraqis, invented the abacus , the first mechanical calculator. The abacus, which uses strings of beads to perform calculations, was used by the ancient Babylonian priests to keep track of their vast storehouses of grain.
The abacus, which was used extensively and is still in use today, was not improved until , when mathematician Blaise Pascal invented a calculator that was constructed of gears and wheels. Each gear contained 10 teeth that, when moved one complete revolution, advanced a second gear one place. Incidentally, the PASCAL programming language is named in honor of Blaise Pascal for his pioneering work in mathematics and with the mechanical calculator.
The arrival of the first practical geared mechanical machines used to automatically com- pute information dates to the early s. This is before humans invented the lightbulb or before much was known about electricity. In this dawn of the computer age, humans dreamed of mechanical machines that could compute numerical facts with a program—not merely calculat- ing facts, as with a calculator.
In it was discovered through plans and journals that one early pioneer of mechanical com- puting machinery was Charles Babbage, aided by Augusta Ada Byron, the Countess of Lovelace. Babbage was commissioned in by the Royal Astronomical Society of Great Britain to produce a programmable calculating machine. This machine was to generate navigational tables for the Royal Navy. He accepted the challenge and began to create what he called his Analytical Engine.
This engine was a steam-powered mechanical computer that stored a thousand digit decimal num- bers and a variable program that could modify the function of the machine to perform various calcu- lating tasks.
Input to his engine was through punched cards, much as computers in the s and s used punched cards. The punched cards programmed the loom. The Analytical Engine required more than 50, machined parts, which could not be made with enough precision to allow his engine to function reliably.
The Electrical Age The s saw the advent of the electric motor conceived by Michael Faraday ; with it came a multitude of motor-driven adding machines, all based on the mechanical calculator developed by Blaise Pascal. These electrically driven mechanical calculators were common pieces of office. Monroe was also a leading pioneer of electronic calculators, but its machines were desktop, four-function models the size of cash registers.
The X86 assembler is not in a good shape, either: it cannot understand many modern Intel instructions. This white paper is an introduction to x64 assembly. Overview This is a brief introduction to X assembly language novice compiler writers using the GNU software tools. One is 32 bit package and another is 64 bit package. Specifically, this text addresses the x instruction set for the popular x class of processors using the Ubuntu bit Operating System OS.
It is even possible to create a miniature operating system.
This document contains very brief examples of assembly language programs for the x In using a design that Rust's release build optimizations can work effectively with, it provides the ability to embed the assembled machine code instructions as templates inside Rust code, so as to make specialized code generation as fast as possible.
The installation is an automated process that installs the correct directory tree structure on the local drive of your choice.
The compiler is only some KByte in. It uses GCC and objdump behind the x86 operating system. This is well-known for being the most popular assemblers for Linux.
The x86 instruction set architecture is at the heart of CPUs that power our home computers and remote servers for over two decades. Documentation for x86 is new, you may need to create initial versions of those related topics. Download your software on emu How-ever, real x86 programming is a large and extremely complex universe, much of which is beyond the useful scope of this class.
See also the x86 DOS interrupt list. All users of Keystone are encouraged to upgrade to v0. All use radically different assembly languages. It is not an exhaustive description of the architecture, but it is enough to orient you toward the official manuals and write most of the backend of a C compiler for an undergraduate class.
It is a learning tool to show how simple bit, real-mode OSes work, with well-commented code and extensive documentation. As such, the assembler they wrote followed their own syntax precisely. The legacy assembler is included to help with migration of existing projects from Arm Compiler 5 or earlier. MikeOS is an operating system for x86 PCs, written in assembly language.
Emu Microprocessor Emulator Overview. NASM, also called Netwide Assembler is a disassemble and assembler for Inter x86 architecture for portability and modularity. The contents of the site are manuals, guides, articles, source code and information. For x64 environment. You will be able to develop complex Image Processing Algorithms in x86 Assembly.
The book has extensive coverage of interfacing assembly and C code and so might be of interest to C programmers who want to learn about how C works under the hood. Microsoft Macro Assembler 1. Later versions were bundled with Microsoft Visual Studio. Looking for an assembler or linker or librarian to write that high speed routine or application? This page lists assemblers, cross-assemblers, linkers, and librarians, where available, for a wide variety of operating systems and processors. If you are a UWP developer, please ensure that you submit an ARM package for your app as this will provide the best user experience for the device.
Examples x86 Assembly Language The family of x86 assembly languages represents decades of advances on the original Intel architecture. Mac OS X: Bring a 64 bit version and improve performance. For a time, it competed with Borland Turbo Assembler. A maintenance release for DOSBox 0. When referring to x86 we address the complete range of xbased processors since the original Intel in Desktop Interface in the Browser Speed and flexibility from the web.
Being able to read and write code in low-level assembly language is a powerful skill to have.