Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not. Shakespeare's life: he was born in Stratford-Upon-Avon, on 23rd April ;his father was a glove- maker, and his mother came from a wealthy country family. Biography. William Shakespeare, a British poet and playwright, is often considered the Shakespeare retired to Stratford before and lived as a country.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||25.45 MB|
|PDF File Size:||18.16 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
William Shakespeare: Who was he, and why do we study him? Section III: Shakespeare's Life œ The Dates. .. William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-. William Shakespeare (–) was an English playwright, poet, and actor who Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England, to John and Mary. William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April – 23 April ) was an English poet, playwright and Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
For terms apply: E. Dowden, Highfield house. Stedman to Edward Dowden, 29 June In the s the term reconciliation gained new prominence as a concept by which to rebuild political cultures and develop transi- tional states, from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission to the Northern Ireland Good Friday Agreement. Forgiveness is the key psychological term in almost any account of reconciliation, and on the South African model forgiveness is sought from two sources. On one hand the new state grants amnesty to almost all of the applicants who have committed human rights abuses on either side of the conflict. On the level of communal healing, on the other hand, a more important element of forgiveness comes from the victims and survivors themselves.
Dowden emphasized discipline as the gatekeeping device for the cultural clerisy of reconciliation. The Irish were especially not suited to this morally elevating discipline because they were not suited to any kind of discipline at all.
When he gained notoriety for denouncing the Irish Revival, he argued that Irish writers had not yet disciplined themselves enough.
Both are notable for their indiscipline, and their recalcitrance to taking orders makes it necessary for wiser rulers to control them.
When Dowden disparages Irish nature, he means the nature of Gaelic and Catholic Ireland; his Anglo-Irish Protestant students at Trinity were a natural talent pool for the priesthood of culture. Being fit to study Shakespeare also meant being fit to govern Ireland; Shakespearean wisdom was English imperialist in general and Irish Unionist in particular. Here Dowden invokes the Arnoldian and Burkean notion of the best self. When criticizing W.
Whereas he often disparaged the Nationalist mob, in this article Dowden celebrates an Ulster Unionist demonstration: The men of Ulster did not assemble to enter on a debate and a discussion. They had come to their conclusions; they gathered together to declare their convictions and to formulate their determination as to a line of action.
They constituted in their own persons a formidable basis of reasoning against any Separatist scheme. Each of the twelve thousand delegates was a living argument, the logic of which must in the end prove irresistible. The worst self of Irish Nationalism was totally illegitimate and could be detected through literature no less than through politics.
Dowden had long articulated his antidemocratic ideology through the language of Arnoldian culture. Therefore when Dowden uses the term in a political context he is not attempt- ing to share responsibility for past injustices, or to forge a democratic parity of esteem between estranged parties.
In addition to this political definition of reconciliation, Dowden maintained a claim on the authoritarian resonances of sacramental reconciliation in his literary criticism. He cannot wrong his own higher nature, he cannot wrong the nobler reason, by cherishing so unworthy a passion as the desire of vengeance.
Sebastian and Antonio, from whose conscience no remorse has been elicited, are met by no comfortable pardon. They have received their lesson of failure and of pain, and may possibly be convinced of the good sense and prudence of honourable dealing, even if they cannot perceive its moral obligation.
Alonzo, who is repentant, is solemnly pardoned. The forgiveness of Prospero is an embodiment of impartial wisdom and loving justice.
M, In contrast to these human characters who receive their various pardons from Prospero, the subhuman Caliban is not eligible for forgiveness. His new master also sings his impassioned hymn of liberty, the Marseillaise of the enchanted island.
M, Dowden identifies Stephano and Triniculo as French Revolutionar- ies, bringing their corrosive ideology to a colonized island in a cynical attempt to grab power for themselves. Dowden was not alone in his interpretation of Caliban as Irish, as Republican, or as anticolonial. The Victorian Caliban was frequently associated in political caricature with the Irish Nationalist, and both of these types were in turn associated with African slaves and revolutionary Republicans.
Why, for instance, would a Unionist Prospero desert the enchanted island at the end of the play? The lines that Dowden leaves out, however, suggest that Caliban might do these things.
In order to marginalize the character Dowden downplays his lan- guage, ignoring lines that have received the most attention from modern critics. In Lytton Strachey attacked the sentimental orthodoxy by protesting that Dowden had taught a generation to underestimate the dark characters in the late plays. Iachimo, and Leontes, and even Caliban, are to be left out of account, as if, because in the end they repent or are forgiven, words need not be wasted on such reconciled and harmonious fiends.
First, it allows us to think about a Victorian Joyce, responding to the disciplinarity of English Literature as it was being worked out in the Dublin of his student days. Near the beginning of chapter 5, Stephen imagines to himself the lecture he is missing: He fancied to himself the English lecture and felt, even at that distance, reckless and helpless. He saw the heads of his classmates meekly bent as they wrote in their notebooks the points they were bidden to note, nominal definitions, essential definitions and examples or dates of birth or death, chief works, a favourable and an unfavourable criticism side by side.
His own head was unbent for his thoughts wandered abroad. Joyce coldly rejected the coercive hypocrisies attendant upon sacra- mental reconciliation as he saw them in the Catholic Ireland of his youth. By taking his revenge on the Revivalists through an attack on Shakespearean reconciliation, Joyce highlights their ironic debt to Dowden, who rejected the idea of an Irish literary renaissance to begin with.
Joyce had reason to compare himself to Moore, whose collection of short stories The Untilled Field was a kind of forerunner to Dubliners.
He had even turned to Dowden, who was a trustee of the National Library, for a reference towards this end and been denied. Joyce therefore depicts the Revivalists as a petty colonial intellectual culture in league with Dowden, all denying Stephen a place at the table.
Joyce also places a sundering within Revivalist reconciliation from the beginning of the episode, when Thomas William Lyster attempts to reconcile Stephen and John Eglinton, who are already arguing about Hamlet. This attempt sets off a destabilizing set of associations through an accidental invocation of Matthew Arnold: Urbane, to comfort them, the quaker librarian purred: —And we have, have we not, those priceless pages of Wilhelm Meister.
A great poet on a great brother poet. A hesitating soul taking arms against a sea of troubles, torn by conflicting doubts, as one sees in real life. The beautiful ineffectual dreamer who comes to grief against hard facts.
He dwells on Shakespeare the cuckold, the wounded sexual adventurer who is never fully recon- ciled to his wife. He lifted his hands and said: All we can say is that life ran very high in those days. It is a mystical estate, an apostolic succession, from only begetter to only begotten. On that mystery and not on the Madonna which the cunning Italian intellect flung to the mob of Europe the church is founded and founded irremovably because founded, like the world, macro and microcosm, upon the void.
Upon incertitude, upon unlikelihood. Dowden and Joyce addressed the German Romantic problem of knowing the character of the artist through the work of art in divergent ways. He eludes me at first, and much more afterwards. And yet there ought to be methods by which one could force a dramatic poet to discover himself, and announce his name, and tell you his secret. D, 69 In this fascinating appeal to get de Vere, a Catholic poet, to turn Irish informer on Shakespeare for the colonial police, Dowden reaffirms his faith in the disciplinarity of his approach, if not in the results they have given him.
It shows that the author function, itself a police agent, must be policed in its own right. Mind and Art, as a monument to a knowable Shakespearean author function, was founded upon an uncertainty or doubt so profound that Dowden felt the necessity of identifying himself with the colonial police to keep it under control. In W. When writing Finnegans Wake Joyce continued to link Dowden and the unknowable personality of the artist with doubt and the void.
By asking the question, Dowden begs it: Is he not Dowd? Rather than pleading with us not to doubt him, Dowden may be protesting that he is not the son of Dowd. This reminds us that in the comic universe of the Wake, even during the breakthrough moments of revolutionary backtalk, all language remains irreducibly comic. Hereafter abbreviated U and cited parenthetically by page number.
Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time. Mountjoy , a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.
No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died. Half a century later, John Ward , the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: "Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting and, it seems, drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted",   not an impossible scenario since Shakespeare knew Jonson and Drayton.
Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in ,  and Judith had married Thomas Quiney , a vintner , two months before Shakespeare's death. Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family. Some time before , a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing.
Its plaque compares him to Nestor , Socrates , and Virgil. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date precisely, however,   and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors , The Taming of the Shrew , and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period.
By William Blake , c. Tate Britain. Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mids to the romantic atmosphere of his most acclaimed comedies. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work. Henry Fuseli , — In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called " problem plays " Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.
The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies, Hamlet , has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins " To be or not to be; that is the question ".
According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play-offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty". His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus , contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T.
Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors. The title page of the edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.
Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November , and 31 October , including two performances of The Merchant of Venice. In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees.
Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.
In the case of King Lear , however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the folio version is so different from the quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion. Geoffrey Marsh found the site of Shakespeare's house in St Helen's Church, Bishopsgate parish, at the corner of St Helen's churchyard and Bishopsgate Street , north of the churchyard, from the records of the Leathersellers Company.
Many wealthy and notable people including Sir John Spencer and Dr.