PDF format on the SAP CD, and can also be accessed from within the program using SAP Verification Manual, containing examples showing the. CSI ANALYSIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR SAP, ETABS AND SAFE - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Bridge Designers can use SAP Bridge Templates for generating analysis, SAP is the answer to all structural analysis and design needs.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|ePub File Size:||29.70 MB|
|PDF File Size:||9.24 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
CSI Anal y sis Reference Manual. For SAP®, ETABS®, SAFE® and CSiBridge®. ISO# GENM1 Rev Berke ley, Cal i for nia, USA. July CSI Analysis Reference Manual. For SAP®, ETABS®, SAFE® and CSiBridge™. ISO# GENM1 Rev Berkeley, California, USA. December SAP is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. This tutorial describes the modeling and analysis of a seven-story two-dimensional.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Henry Limantono. Version 9. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc.
Click OK to accept the changes and return to the select mode. Alternatively, use the Move Up in List button to toggle to the other elevation.
Click OK to accept changes. Save the Model During development, save the model often. Although typically you will save it with the same name, on occasion you may want to save it with a different name to record your work at various stages of development.
Specify the directory in which you want to save the model and, for this tutorial, specify the file name Truss. Step 3 Add Area Objects In this step, a concrete deck is added to the model. Click the XY View button to display the lowest plan view. The Area Sec- tions form will appear.
Click the Add New Section button in the Click to area of the form. The Area Section Data form shown in Figure 18 appears.
Set the Thickness both Membrane and Bending to 5 to indicate that the concrete deck is 5 inches thick. Now draw an area object to represent the deck using the following Action Items. The Properties of Object pop-up box for areas will appear as shown in Figure If it is 2 not, click once in the edit box opposite the Property item to activate the drop-down menu and select DECK from the list.
Figure 19 Properties of Object box B. Check that the Snap to Points and Grid Intersections command is active. This will assist in accurately drawing the area object.
Then moving clockwise around the model, click once at these object points in this order to draw the out- line of the deck: To better view the deck addition, click the Set Display Options button. When the form appears, check the Fill Objects check box and the Apply to All Windows check box, as shown in Figure Click OK to accept the changes, and the model now appears as shown in Figure The area object will now be meshed rather than subdivided as done for the frame objects.
Draw a Selection Box from Left to Right around each of the bottom chords to select all of the points on each of these frame objects. Click anywhere on the area object to select the deck.
Items currently selected are indicated in the lower left corner of the interface. The area object representing the deck was drawn as a single object, but needs to be re-meshed into additional objects so that there will be 2 connectivity between the deck and the intermediate points along the chord elements.
Meshing creates new objects — subdividing does not. Click on the Mesh using selected Joints on edges option, and then click OK. Step 4 Add Restraints In this step, supports for the truss bridge are defined.
Click on the two joints marking the right ends of the two bottom chords. Click on the roller button to assign restraints in the Translation 3 direction for these two joints. Click on the two joints marking the left ends of the two bottom 2 chords.
Step 5 Define Load Cases The loads used in this tutorial consist of dead and live static loads acting in the gravity direction. For this example, assume that the dead consists of the self-weight of the bridge plus an additional 10 pounds per square foot psf applied to the concrete deck. The live load is taken to be psf applied to the deck.
Note there is only a single de- fault load case defined, which is a dead load case with self-weight DEAD. Note that the self-weight multiplier is set to 1 for the default case. This indicates that this load case will automatically include 1. However, the program automatically creates a cor- responding analysis case when a load case is defined, and the analy- sis cases are available for review at the time the analysis is run.
Click in the edit box for the Load Name column. Type the name of the new load, LIVE. Make sure that the Self Weight Multiplier is set to zero. The Define Loads form should now appear as shown in Figure Click the OK button in that form to accept all of the newly defined static load cases. Draw a Selection Box from Right to Left across the entire deck to se- lect all of the deck objects. If you make a mistake in select- ing, press the Clear Selection button, and try again.
This brings up the Area Uniform Loads form. Figure 25 Area Uniform Loads form 1. Select lb-ft from the Units drop-down box. Type 10 in the Load edit box in the Uniform Load area. Again, remember that the Gravity Direction is in the negative Global Z direction.
Click the OK button to accept the dead load. These actions select all of the deck objects. Type in the Load edit box in the Uniform Load area. Click the OK button to accept the live load. Step 7 Assign Area Stiffness Modifiers In this Step, the membrane properties of the Area objects are modified to prohibit the deck from acting as a flange for the bottom chords of the trusses.
Type 0 in the Membrane f11 Modifier edit box. Type 0 in the Membrane f22 Modifier edit box. These actions will prohibit the deck objects from carrying in- plane axial loads.
Click OK to accept these changes. This will shut off the grid lines in the 3-D View providing a less cluttered image of the model. Figure 27 Set Analysis Cases to Run form Note that the program has automatically defined three different analysis cases: Click the Run Now button. The program will create the analysis model from your object-based SAP model, and will soon display an "Analyzing, Please Wait" window. LOG extension. Click OK to close the analysis window.
The program automatically displays a deformed shape view of the model, and the model is locked. Locking the model prevents any changes to the model that would invalidate the analysis results. Step 9 Graphically Review the Analysis Results In this Step, the analysis results will be reviewed using graphical repre- sentation of the results.
Then click on the XZ View button to reset the view to an elevation. Select the Axial Force option. Check the Fill Diagram. Click the OK button to generate the axial force diagram shown in Figure Note that the program displays the force diagrams for the entire top chord object just as it was drawn, even though the program has automatically subdivided the frame object into smaller elements for analysis.
Click the Scroll for Values option and you may obtain the values at any location by moving the mouse over the diagrams with the left button held down.
Click the Done button to close the form. Check the Cubic Curve. Each step of the model creation process is identified, and various model construction techniques are introduced. At the com- pletion of this chapter, you will have built the model shown in Figure 1. The bridge spans 60 feet, and has a width and height of 12 feet each.
The supports are roll- 2 ers at one end, and pins at the other. These listed menus contain the commands that will be needed most often when using SAP, and many of the most frequently used commands are accessible as a single click button in the screen regions surrounding the drawing areas.
The availability of a button is indicated in the main menus by the existence of an icon to the left of the command. The lower right corner shows the current unit selection. Figure 2 shows the layout of the interface. Then a list of double angle sections will be se- lected for the truss Auto Select list.
The form shown in Figure 3 will display. Verify that the de- fault units are set to Kip-in. Figure 3 Model Templates B. The Model Template form allows for the quick generation of numer- ous model types using parametric generation techniques. However, in this tutorial the model will be started using only the grid genera- tion. Select the Grid Only button, and the form shown in Figure 4 will display.
Set the number of grid lines to 11 for the X direction, and to 2 for the Y and Z directions. Type 6 ft into the X direction spacing edit box and press the Enter key on your keyboard. Note that the program automatically converts the 6 ft to 72 to be consistent with the default units of inches. Enter 12 ft or for both the Y and Z direction spacing. Click the OK button to accept the changes, and Figure 5 will appear.
When the window is ac- tive, the display title bar is highlighted. Set a view active by clicking anywhere in the view window. Auto select section lists are 2 assigned to frame objects in the same manner as an individual section property. When an auto select section list is assigned to a frame object, the program can automatically select the most economical, adequate sec- tion from the list when designing the member. When performing the ini- tial analysis, the program will assign the median section from the list for the analysis properties.
For this particular tutorial, the program will analyze and design from a set of double angles, which will be chosen from an auto select sections list created now.
Figure 6 The Frame Properties form B. Otherwise, pro- ceed to Step C. Scroll down the list of import options until you find Import Double Angle — see Figure 7. Figure 7 Import Double Angle D. PRO from the Section Property File form, as this file contains the properties of the double angles to be used in the model. The Sections. Scroll down the list of double angles in the Sections Labels area until you find the first 2L4X4. Click once on that member to highlight it.
Scroll further down the list until you find the last 2L4X4. Single click on it. Click the Add button to move the selected list to the Auto Selections edit box on the right side of the form. This view should be in the left window. Also check that the Snap to Points and Grid Intersections command is active. This will assist in accurately positioning the frame objects. This command is active when its associated button is de- pressed.
By default, this command is active. The Proper- ties of Object pop-up box for frames will appear as shown in Figure The cursor location is indi- cated in the lower right-hand corner of the interface. A frame line should appear in both views plan and 3D.
If you have made a mistake while drawing this object, click the Se- lect Object button, to leave the Draw mode and go to the Select mode. These members form the bottom chords of the trusses.
Right click to stop drawing. Replicating Objects Make sure that the program is in the Select mode. Select the transverse member spanning between the longitudinal chords by a left click directly on the member, or left click to the right of the object, and while holding the left mouse button down, drag the mouse across the member.
See Figure 11 for selection options. On the Linear tab, type into the dx edit box. Type 5 into the Number edit box. Click the OK button. Note that transverse members have been gen- erated at every other grid line. Left click once on each of the longitudinal chord members to select them.
From an analytical standpoint, the chords will now be connected to all of the elements framing into them, but for design and selection they will remain as single objects. Type 72 into the dx edit box, 0 into the dy box, and into the 2 dz box. Type 1 into the Number edit box. Click OK to accept the changes.
The framing at the bottom plan will be replicated at the top level with a shift of 72 inches in the X direction. Trimming Objects Make sure that the program is in the select mode, and that the X-Y view is active.
Click on both top chords, the next to last transverse member to the right, and the two point objects at the far right ends of both chords, as shown in Figure The selected objects should be shown as dashed lines.
Select the Trim Frames option, and click OK. Selecting the Trim Frames option will trim the two top chords be- yond the next to last transverse member. To trim a Frame member, select the member, select a member to be used as the trim location, and select a point object on the side to be trimmed. Make sure that the plan view is active and click the XZ View button. Your model now appears as shown in Figure The Properties of Object pop-up box for frames will appear.
Diagonals for one bay are now drawn. Draw a Selection Box from Right to Left across the two diagonals just drawn to select both diagonals. See figure 11 for selection op- tions. Type into the dx edit box, 0 into the dy box, and 0 into the dz box. Type 4 into the Number edit box. All of the diagonals for one truss have been drawn. Draw a Selection Box from Right to Left across all of the diagonals. On the Linear tab, type 0 into the dx edit box, into the dy box, and 0 into the dz box.
Make sure that in Frame Section Property Type, Concrete is selected and click the Rectangular button, which will display from shown in Fig. Step 4 Add Frame Objects In this Step, Frame objects with the associated column and beam sections list are drawn using the grids and snap-to options, and generated using Edit menu commands.
This view should be in the left window. Also check that the Snap to Points and Grid Intersections command is active. This will assist in accurately positioning the frame objects. This command is active when its associated button is depressed. By default, this command is active. The Properties of Object pop-up form for frames will appear as shown in Fig. Single click on it to assign the auto select list CX to the members you will draw. The cursor location is indicated in the lower right-hand corner of the interface.
A frame lines should appear in both views Side and 3D. If you have made a mistake while drawing this object, click the Select Object button, to leave the Draw mode and go to the Select mode. Right click to stop drawing. Click in the Section drop-down list on the Properties of Object form Fig. Single click on it to assign the auto select list B- X to the members you will draw.
Select the support nodes i. Click the Fixed support button to assign restraints in the Translation and Rotation in 1, 2 and 3 directions. Click OK to accept the changes. When the form Fig. Type 90 in Angle in degrees edit box.
Click OK to accept changes. Replicate Objects Make sure that the program is in the Select mode. See Fig. On the Linear tab, type 3 into the dy edit box. Type 1 in the Number edit box. Click the OK button. Repeat Item A-B. On the Linear tab, type 5 into the dy edit box. Again repeat Item A-B G. On the Linear tab, type 8 into the dy edit box. On the Linear tab, type 5 into the dx edit box. Type 3 in the Number edit box. Note that the self-weight multiplier is set to 1 for the default case.
This indicates that this load pattern will automatically include 1. However, the program automatically creates a corresponding Load case when a load pattern is defined, and the load cases are available for review at the time the analysis is run. Click in the edit box for the Load Pattern Name column. Type the name of the new load Fig. Make sure that the Self Weight multiplier is set to zero. Type the name of the new load pattern, LIVE. Make sure that the Self Weight Multiplier is set to zero.
The Define Loads form should now appear as shown in Fig. Click the OK button in that form to accept the newly defined static load cases. If you make a mistake in selecting, press the Clear Selection button, and try again. This brings up the Frame Distributed Loads form Fig. In the Load Type and Direction area, verify that the Forces option is selected and that the Gravity direction is selected. Type Remember that the Gravity Direction is in the negative Global Z direction.
In the Trapezoidal loads area, verify that in all Load edit boxes values are zero. Click the OK button to Fig.
Type 7. Click the OK button to accept the Dead Wall load. Select all external walls. Type 6.
Yield line pattern for slab load is shown in Fig. In Trapezoidal loads area, type 0 in first Distance and Load edit boxes. Type 1. Type 3. Type 5 in fourth Distance edit box and type 0 in fourth Load edit box 4. In the Uniform load area, Type 0 in Load edit box. In the Trapezoidal loads area, Type 0 in all Load edit boxes. In the Uniform load area, Type 3. Type 3 in fourth Distance edit box and type 0 in fourth Load edit box.
Click the OK button to accept the Dead Slab load.
Type 5 in fourth Distance edit box and type 0 in fourth Load edit box 6.