washhouse, and read aloud in French to my monolingual mother as she stirred our Through interaction, students can increase their language store as they. Chapter 1 of Learning through Interaction: The Study of Language hearer. The paragraph that you are reading now involves a writer and a reader, and the. Cambridge Core - Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics - Learning through Interaction - by Gordon Wells. Frontmatter. pp i-iv. Access. PDF; Export citation.
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Download Citation on ResearchGate | Reading through Interaction: From Individualistic Reading Comprehension to Request Full-text Paper PDF. Citations (3). Reading through Interaction: From Individualistic. Reading Index Terms— reading comprehension, interaction, collaboreading, individualistic reading. Data were analyzed using reading comprehension worksheets, Key words- Interaction, reading comprehension, teacher role, student role.
I should emphasize that this reticence only applies to interaction in English but it does seem to apply to groups of all nationalities, ages and levels. Why student to student interaction is desirable Problems we face when trying to increase interaction How we can promote an increase in student interaction Conclusion Why student to student interaction is desirable Participation Most people agree that learning anything involves participation. You can't learn to play a musical instrument without actually picking up the instrument and similarly it is difficult to learn a language without engaging with that language. Given that language primarily exists to facilitate communication, interaction in that language must have an important role to play in developing a learner's ability in that language. In other words, teachers need to promote learner interaction in order to help the learners succeed.
As a result, the process for this group lasted for 21 minutes. As for the other two student groups; the simplified and the unmodified material student; the students of the unmodified version read the same text for about 8 minutes and they had 8 minutes to answer the reading comprehension questions without any kind of contact with their teacher.
Namely, the time taken for this group was 16 minutes. Regarding the students of the simplified text, I asked my colleague to let the students read the simplified text for 8 minutes and then they have 8 minutes to answer the questions, which mean that the whole time for this procedure was 16 minutes.
Results In this part of the study, there is more focus on the statistical analysis including mathematical values, so that it is more accurate to lead the researcher to results that are more subjective. Between Groups Corrected Model Table 4 tested whether the context of test has a significant correlation with the scores of the students.
Namely, table 4 proves that there is a statistical significant relationship between the scores of the students in the reading comprehension and the three contexts of test Simplified, Interactive, and unmodified. R Squared, which means Coefficient of determination is , gives more support to the point that there is a significant relationship between the Means of the student scores and the context of tests.
Deviation Interactive This gives a sign that the students in the interactive text got higher scores than the other two groups. However, the students in the simplified context got higher scores than those in the unmodified context.
Discussion Taking into account the questions of the study, the current research revealed that the students in the simplified and interactive contexts got higher scores in the reading comprehension test than the students in the unmodified context. This is evident in the previous statistical analysis, where the Means of the students in the simplified and the interactive contexts were 9.
Namely, the first two research questions were answered in the positive. It is obvious that the answer to the first question goes in line with the Input Hypothesis. That is, Krashen emphasizes that the input should be comprehensible to the learners, so that comprehension can occur.
On the other hand, the students got acceptable scores in European Journal of Social Sciences — Volume 23, Number 4 the simplified context since some might find the topic of the text very interesting or relevant, and this is a clear reference that the more interesting the input is, the more comprehension occurs. And that feature was obviously discussed in the Input Hypothesis as Krashen considered the relevance to the input assistant in learning. The answer to the third question seems to be the crucial point in the present study as it asks whether the interactive input is more beneficial to the reading comprehension than the simplified input.
However, the statistical analysis made it clear that the students in the interactive context got higher scores in the test than those in the simplified context as the former group Mean was This obviously suggests that the teacher-student interaction over the text is more beneficial to reading comprehension than simplifying the text.
Then, the answer to the third question was answered in the positive. This is consistent with the results of similar studies. This result, however, goes in line with the Interaction Hypothesis premises that the input shaped through interaction between the learners and native speakers is more facilitative to language learning than only the input simplification Long, Lynch: Conclusion This study came up with the following conclusions.
First, it pays more attention to both input and Interaction hypotheses and their role in facilitating language learning. It gave further evidence to the point that the more the learners are exposed to simplified material input , the more they can comprehend Krashen, As for the interaction Hypothesis, the present study explores great aspects of the Interaction Hypothesis as the researcher tried to motivate the students to create a kind of interactive atmosphere between him and the students and the students themselves by encouraging students to raise questions over the main idea of the text, or the content of the text by asking the students to look for the clues that help them to reach the word meanings and asking the other students to take part in the process of guessing.
The second conclusion, drawn from the study, is that there is a need to the interactional method in teaching a foreign language. Namely, it is built upon the interaction between the teacher and the students. This research reveals that the same text with different modes interactive vs. Because teachers are considered knowledgeable in their classrooms, their role in managing the contexts in which the students learn has been shown to be significant.
This can lead to another important conclusion, which is that the EFL learners need some kind of motivation in order to make them communicate with their teachers. That is, learners need quality instruction, input, interaction, and opportunities for better learning outcomes, not only to make progress, but also to maintain motivation for language learning.
What a good teacher must do, then, is European Journal of Social Sciences — Volume 23, Number 4 not only tap into the sources of intrinsic motivation, but also find ways to connect intrinsic motivation with external motivational factors which can be brought to a classroom setting.
Finally, the study encourages the curriculum designers to adopt the authentic materials in teaching foreign language, though their vocabulary might not be relevant to the student's immediate needs and it contains incomprehensible input, but they can be mastered by following the interactional method in teaching foreign language skills.
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Cambridge: University Press. Oxford: University press. Oxford: University Press. Instructed Second language Acquisition: Learning in the Classroom. London: Blackwell. Learning A Second Language through Interaction.
Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Competence and Performance in Linguistic Theory. New York: Harper and Row. Understanding Communication in Second Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Building Perspective Through Reading. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press. The Input hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman. New York: Longman. The Classroom and the Language Learner. London: Longman House.
Native Language and Foreign Language Acquisition. Input and Second language acquisition Theory. New York: Newbury House. Communication in the Language Classroom.
Language Teaching Methodology. Macquarie University. Contemporary Linguistics 1st ed. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: University press. Communicating Naturally in a Second Language. Theory and Practice Language Teaching. Interactive Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University press. Conversation and Interlanguage Development: Rethinking the Connection.
Cambridge: Newbury House. Second Language Learning: Theoretical Foundations. Discussions That Work. She lived during a time of social disparity for African Americans in the United States. Marian Anderson's capacity and bravery opened doors for women and men of color.
Anderson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Anderson's father died when she was ten, and her family had little money. She always loved music and singing. As a child, she sang with her singing group in a church. Everyone liked her voice, and many people told her to take lessons.
Her mother was not able to bear the cost of singing lessons, so the members of church raised money for her lessons. Anderson had a strong voice.
She was able to sing both operas and popular music. She took lessons from several great singers of the time. In , she won an important competition.
The prize was a chance to sing with the New York philharmonic Orchestra. Her presentation was very successful, but she had problem finding work in the United States. Because she was African American, she was not allowed to sing in many theaters. Anderson decided to move to Europe. There she sang in many famous opera houses.
When she sang in Austria, the famous singer Arturo Toscanini heard her. He said, "A voice like yours is heard only one time in a hundred years. Anderson went back to the United States in The next year, she sang at the White House. She was a famous singer, and many people wanted to hear her. However, in , Anderson had a problem that became big news. She was not allowed to sing at constitution Hall in Washington, D. Because of racial separation, the owners of the hall only allowed white artists to sing there.
This annoyed many people, including Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of the president. Eleanor Roosevelt believed that racial separation was wrong, so she invited Anderson to sing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.
More than 75, people came to hear Anderson sing. Millions of people heard her beautiful voice and found that her color had nothing to do with her singing ability. This show was important for all Americans. More and more people questioned the laws of racial separation of the time. Anderson opened doors for many African American artists. She was the first African American to sing there. In , Anderson sang on a tour of several East Asian countries.
This tour was for the United Nations. In , she sang at the appointment of President John F. Millions of people watched on television or listened to the radio as she sang for the president. Marian Anderson died in at age She saw many changes during her life, and she helped change the lives of many people. She showed that ability is more important than skin color.
She lived during a time of inequality for African Americans in the United States. Marian Anderson's talent and courage opened doors for women and men of color. As a child, she sang in her church choir. Everyone admired her voice, and many people told her to take lessons. Her mother could not afford singing lessons, so members of her church raised money for lessons. She took lessons from several talented singers of the time. My learners copy them into the vocab record books too, of course.
Pre-teaching task language I try to analyse tasks before using them in order to predict what language is critical to task achievement. If I think some of this language may be unfamiliar I pre-teach it before the students do the task. If there is too much language for pre-teaching, I find a more suitable task. Providing support As well as providing language for tasks, where appropriate I try to provide ideas too. These can be brainstormed before the task and put on the board so that the learners have plenty of things to talk about.
Giving preparation time I have often found that interaction breaks down because the learners haven't had time to think about what they want to say and how to say it. I plan to give some thinking time before starting a task during which the students can ask me or each other for support. Providing a supportive atmosphere I try to raise confidence by giving lots of praise and giving feedback on task achievement as well as language use.
When monitoring I try to do so as unobtrusively as possible so the students don't feel that I'm necessarily listening to them personally. On the other hand in feedback I try to make it clear to the class that I have been listening to them and through feedback show them that there is a point to interaction and thereby overcome student resistance.
Varying the interaction and repeating tasks When teaching large classes I plan to move students around so that they are not always talking to the same partner. A good way to do this I have found is by asking the learners to perform the same task a number of times but each time with a different partner. As well as providing variety of interaction, this approach also maximises practice of the language being worked on.
Having different levels of task With mixed ability classes I prepare an easy, medium, and difficult version of the same task so students of different levels can interact together at a level appropriate to the language level. For example, after some listening practice students with different tasks can tell each other what they have found out. Consider structuring your class so that it: Provides opportunities for students to work in pairs and small groups and use multiple modes of communication e.
Encourages students to work together as a class to contribute to a comprehensive answer to an open-ended problem. Encourages in-depth conversations among students and between students and instructor. Features several students explaining their ideas to a respectful class that listens well. Tips and examples for improving student-student classroom interaction I want students to interact at different scales and engage in discussion my classroom. Consider using In-class assignments where students think individually about a question, talk to their peers about an idea, and then report their findings back to the class.
These think-pair-share exercises work best when there are multiple answers to a question nurturing and valuing divergent thinking. Conceptual multiple-choice questions ConcepTests about themes from the lesson mingled with peer instruction. The use of clickers can facilitate this technique. More structured discussion exercises such as jigsaw activities where students become experts in some facet of a topic and then work as teams of mixed experts to further explore a topic.