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HQ DG NCC · State Directorates. You are here. Home» Handbook: Common Subject SD / SW» Handbook: Common Subject SD / SW. Handbook: Common . NCC: Handbook of NCC Cadets for 'A', 'B' and 'C' Certificate Examinations [RPH Editorial Board] on echecs16.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. NCC App is the Handbook for the NCC Cadets. All the contents is from http:// echecs16.info and Content Owned, Updated and Maintained by National Cadet .

Review quote From the inside flap This volume, featuring the U. It shows the Enterprise-D in detail, inside and out, with illustrations of all the key locations - with special features on the bridge, the transporter room and crew quarters, plus technical features on the warp drive, the holodeck and weapons and defensive systems. Technology - including phasers, tricorders and replicators - is analyzed and explained, together with auxiliary vehicles such as shuttles and the captain's yacht. Each full-color, heavily illustrated reference work is packed with isometric illustrations, artwork, photographs and CG renders, and features detailed technical information from official sources. He has been involved with Star Trek for 20 years. Ben was the launch editor of the huge Star Trek Fact Files reference work, which sold over 50 million units.

This will be delivered by NCC Education at no cost. For the purposes of this document: The centre is approved by NCC Education for the registration of candidates for NCC Education qualifications and for the conduct of the related assessments. A centre may also be accredited to deliver teaching and learning programmes. Who should read this handbook? NCC Education reserves the right to notify the UK regulator and other awarding bodies of such actions.

It is not acceptable for teaching staff to share an individual live assignment with other candidates NCC Education reserves the right to withdraw approval of inactive centres. In the event that the centre withdraws from its role in delivering a qualification, NCC Education will take all reasonable steps to protect the interests of the candidates. This is subject to a registered acceptable centre email address being included in the correspondence. Details of the Centre Support Executive are available on the Connect web portal.

Announcements can come from any department and contain important information that you will need to know, for example, a change to an examination date, a change to a unit within a qualification or a new service that will be of benefit to centres. Operational Service Standards have been put in place to help monitor service levels and maximise operational efficiency. All announcements are sent to the Centre Coordinator via email. The views of centres are of paramount importance to NCC Education.

There is a dedicated area in all online systems specifically aimed at canvassing thoughts and experiences. Academic Support The Academic Development Manager provides centres with guidance and on-going support on all aspects of academic quality as well as practical advice and training on the delivery and assessment of qualifications.

Complaints Policy and Procedure We intend that centres and candidates will have no cause to complain about the quality of the service they receive. We will act fairly, courteously, legally and without bias or prejudice in all such matters and those who choose to submit a complaint will not be disadvantaged in any way by doing so.

Definitions A complaint is an expression of dissatisfaction by any customer regarding the quality of service provided by NCC Education but which does not explicitly question examination results awarded. An enquiry about results is any communication which questions, on any grounds, the result awarded to a candidate or group of candidates.

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Complaints Procedure Our aim is to solve the problem as quickly and efficiently as possible. Complaints can be made by email or in writing. Section C. Where issues such as academic misconduct or malpractice come to light after the issuing of a Statement of Results, NCC Education reserves the right to revoke results and issue an amended Statement of Results. The responsibilities of centres administration staff are being entered for assessments Centre Management The Head of Centre must be familiar with the system of assessments which operates in the United Kingdom.

The Head of Centre must ensure compliance with the published regulations in order to deliver the qualification s at all times. This must be the registered address of the centre. A senior member of staff or a member of the administration staff must be available until such time that all afternoon examinations have been completed, scripts despatched or placed in secure storage ready for collection by courier service Centres must provide NCC Education with an official school or college email address and landline telephone number.

In the case of states like Delhi, Gujrat, Dadra Nagar Haveli, Chattisgarh and Mizoram, incentives in the form of concessions for employment, education are not being given. However, other incentives like scholarships and cash awards are being given in these States. The incentives keep changing from time to time. Hence, the cadets must keep themselves aware of the incentives published in various orders.

The youth of Independent India are extremely fortunate to have such an organization existing in the country which devotes vast amount of financial and physical resources towards their personality development, and thus is indeed a nursery for grooming of future leaders in various walks of life. The teachers of various schools and colleges can also have the opportunities to be associated with any of the three wings i.

There are six major religions in India with Hindus comprising of The historical analysis has proved that religion has played an obstructive role in the rise of nationalism. In ancient and mediaeval time it has worked as a system of exploitation. Under the British rule, religion acted as a main barrier against national unity.

The public has now realized the fact that, religion is a private affair of an individual and it should not be mixed with political affairs of the state. That is why most of the advanced democratic states have adopted secularism in their constitution, which is a factor for unity in multi-religious societies like ours. AIM 5. Religion for the Hindus is experience or attitude of mind. It is not an idea but a power, not an intellectual proposition but a life conviction.

It is consciousness of ultimate reality. Man becomes aware of God through experience. The source of Hindu thought is the Vedas. The goal of religious quest is earned by intellectual and moral discipline.

The Hindus believe in re-birth, spirit and salvation. Perfection in life as per Hinduism is attained through knowledge of truth. The theory of Hinduism lays stress on Bhakti, Karma and Re-birth. Islam means Submission or resignation to Allah God. The Quran, the highest authority is revealed and created being the eternal word of God incarnate. All the prophets from Adam to Mohammad and the books revealed to them are regarded as religious heritage of Islam.

Muslims have to bear witness to the oneness of God and message of Muhammed and have to observe prayer five times daily with a weekly Juma prayer on Friday noon. They keep dawn to dusk fast for purity of soul in the ninth month of Ramzan of the Islamic year. Muslims and who can afford, make pilgrimage to Haj once in life time. The Islamic teaching highlights the purity of life, charity to the poor and spread of brotherhood. Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ, commands the largest following in the world.

Christ was born in 4 BC in Judaea. He started preaching about the kingdom of God when he was thirty. His activities roused the opposition of the Jewish high priests who accused him. He was crucified on the orders of Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor. Christianity preaches charity, love and peace. The massage of Jesus Christ is given in the Holy Bible.

Christianity is not a religion but a way of life, which guides the actions and life for mental peace and love of humanity. Jainism derives its name from Jaina the Conqueror. Mahavira belonged to a princely family in Vaishali. At the age of 30 he renounced the world and spent 12 years in austerity and meditation in search of truth. At the age of 47, while meditating, he received enlightenment. As per Jainism teachings, anger, pride, deception and greed must be counteracted by the ten best virtues such as forgiveness, humility, straight forwardness, contentment, truthfulness, restraint, austerity, purity, chastity and renunciation.

To keep himself steady on path of liberation and to destroy karma, a monk has to bear all the trouble that might cause him pains. The monk has to practice austerity external and internal.

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It is pure meditation which ultimately leads to liberation. The sorrow and suffering of the world tormented his heart and he abandoned his house and started pursuit for enlightenment.

Gautam found enlightenment while meditating under a Pipal tree at the age of Buddha preached that emancipation from cycle of re-birth i. Buddhism is essentially a religion of kindness, humanity and equality. It denounces all claims to superiority on grounds of birth or caste. God the original Guru, imparted his message to his disciple Nanak, who having absorbed the divine spirit became the Guru himself.

The message is known as Gurmat. He who follows the teaching of Gurmat is a pure person and known as Sikh. The same spirit was passed on to the successive Gurus and ultimately the divine spirit has been passed onto the sacred script of Guru Granth Saheb. The teachings of Sikhism are that God is one. Equality in society and leading a life of purity are important. The institution of Gurudwara and common kitchen langar are noble examples of equality in Sikhism. Culture of India Dimensions of Indian Culture.

Various races have been coming to India from time immemorial. The civilizations of these races differed a great deal from one another. On entering India, they had conflicts with the earlier inhabitants of the country.

These conflicts affected their respective cultures and through the process of assimilation and synthesis, Indian culture grew all the more richer. Arrival of Various Races in India and their Effects. They were not very high from the point of view of civilization. They did not know how to make use of the instruments made of stones and bones, how to cultivate the land, how to make earthen wares or how to build houses. They are now found only in Andaman Islands. After the Negrito race, came the Proto-Australiod or the primitive Australian race.

They are also called Austric in English and Agneya in Hindi. The people of Australoid race influenced the material and religious life in India. Indians learnt, how to cultivate the land with the help of pick - axe and to grow rice, bananas, coconuts, brinjals, betel leaves, lemons, jamboo fruit and cotton from them. In the religious field, they brought to India many things like the belief in rebirth, various fabulous stories about the origin of creation, a myth about incarnation of God in a tortoise, belief about the existence of Gods in stones, the worship of various creatures like snakes, crocodiles, monkeys etc.

The interesting stories in Mahabharat and Ramayan about Vasuki, the ruler in Patal Lok, the origin of the creation from snakes and eggs, interesting stories about Ganesh, etc have been taken from the myths of this race. Perhaps, this very race taught the Indians, how to count the dates according to moon phases and fixation of sacred festivals etc. They were more civilized than the people of both the races which came to India earlier. Under their influence new Gods and new methods of worship came to the Indian religious field.

In fact, the word Pooja worship , belongs to Dravidian language. The acceptance of an idol, as representative of some God, to offer it flowers and tree leaves, to offer it vermilion and sandal paste, to burn incense before it to ring bells, to sing to dance before it, to offer and accept sweets and such other ways of worship were given to India by the Dravidians.

Under the Dravidian influence, the number of Gods increased. Gods and Goddesses, village God, family God and other Gods of Hindu religion supposed to be million in number, are all the result of their influence. The importance of the sacred places of worship increased under the influence of the Dravidians.

In the same way, they also preached the worship of the trees, like workship of tulsi, banyan, peepal, bel and many others. It was the Dravidians who gave Indians the festivals of Holi and Basant. Aryans made the greatest contribution towards the development of Indian culture. It is their tongue which is in use today in major parts of India.

Their Vedas are the main roots of Indian culture. The contribution of the Aryans towards the Indian culture has been thus described by Dr Jadunath Sarkar as a feeling of sympathy and adjustment, a wonderful evolution of science and philosophy, fixation of adjustment among different castes through their principle of Varna system and the spread of civilization among the demons and wild tribes through Tapovan system.

Muslims came to India after the Aryans. In his book titled Influence of Islam on Indian Culture, Dr Tarachand has written that the influence of Muslims on the various parts of Indian life has been very great and this influence has been seen specially on Hindu customs, on the very minute things of their family, on music, dress, cooking methods, marriage traditions, festivals, fairs and on the institutions and manners of the Maratha, Rajput and Sikh courts.

After the Muslims, the British deeply influenced all aspects of Indian culture. The spread of English language brought hundreds of English words into the Indian languages.

The influence of western culture on the prose, novel,. Western education created a wave of reformation in the whole country. On the one hand, the ideas of equality, freedom and nationality helped in uprooting the social evils like Sati custom, killing of female child, child marriage and prohibition of widow marriage, on the other hand, they created a political awakening in the country. The present form of administration in India is the outcome of the great influence of the British ideology.

The present economic organization, joint stock companies, managing agencies, big factories, production through machines, railways, telegraphs, telephone, aeroplanes and other means of conveyance and communication were brought to India from the west.

This influence has regularly been on the increase and it is also needed for the countrys progress, although its assimilation is equally necessary. India is a multiracial, multilingual civilization with rich culture heritage and has provided peaceful atmosphere for the development of many religions. Indian culture and customs are influenced by these religions.

The customs of India depict very colourful panorama. There are certain customs which are prevalent in a particular religion and some are common to all religions of the country.

Indian festivals are famous in the world. Most of the festivals are related to the change of weather and crop harvesting since India is an agro based economy.

There are certain festivals which are prevalent in particular regions only like Bihu in Assam, Baishakhi in Punjab etc. Customs and Traditions. There are different customs of Hindu marriage as compared to a Muslim marriage or a Sikh marriage. Similarly, there are different customs of festival celebrations. All these customs have been protected by law. These customs have religious value and are a means of entertainment also.

These are associated with particular regions, which give a very colorful dimension to Indian customs and traditions. Similarly, all regions have their distinctive ornaments. The customs and traditions of India though varied, has a binding force in them, which ultimately serves as a unifying factor of Secular India.

India being a multi lingual, multi racial and multi religious secular society, has a vast pool of customs and traditions.

Today, most of the modern thinking has broken all barriers in society. People have become more tolerant and celebrate most festivals, even if they happen to belong to other religions and they whole heartedly join all celebrations. Indian civilisation is one of the oldest civilisations in the world. In the past people belonging to different races and religions came and settled here.

They brought with them their distinctive language and life style. Different tribes with their distinct languages intermingled with various tribes of our country.

That is why our culture is described as an example of composite culture. It is made up of all communities, races and religions. National integration means a feeling of togetherness and unity among the people of a country. It also means an atmosphere in which all citizens, irrespective of their caste, religion and region live together peacefully. It refers to integration in all respects, social political, economic and above all emotional.

In an integrated country people share common goals. They all work together and co-operate with each other for the prosperity of the nation.

We must understand that national integration does not mean uniformity of all. It does not stand for uniformity of religion, dress and food habits etc. It means both, preservation of diverse cultures and, at the same time living and working in harmony with each other.

No country or society can survive if its people do not remain united. The feeling of togetherness and a sense of belonging are absolutely necessary for a nation to survive. Such a feeling can only be generated through the process of integration. Thus national integration is a positive concept which provides strength to the people to fight against all evil forces.

It provides a congenial condition in which people can make good progress. Importance 8. National integration has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to the fast changing ethos and moral values in the society. The need for national integration was probably never felt before as is felt today. The turbulent atmosphere and the deteriorating law and order situation in the country due to various religious, social and political factors have led to the realisation of the necessity of national integration.

The realisation of its importance in itself is a step in the desired direction. The Government having appreciated the urgency and seriousness of the subject is taking positive steps towards achieving the national integration. NCC, one of the prime organisations of the country training the youth, the future of this great nation, makes the ideal ground to start with. National integration has been made part and parcel of NCC training.

Lot of emphasis is laid on national integration by conducting national level camps and number of other activities where cadets from all over the country participate. National integration is necessary particularly in a country like India, where people with different languages, religions, races and culture are required to be weaved together.

The unity in diversity of which we are proud of can only be maintained if, we have the understanding and respect for each others religion, customs and traditions. If we have to survive as a nation and safeguard our sovereignty and national integrity, we have to remain united. National integration is a pre-requisite for the survival and prosperity of any nation and hence needs no emphasis.

National integration is therefore a basic necessity for survival of any nation such as: It is the duty of each and every citizen of our country to strive to achieve unity in spite of diversity and further cement it.

We must remember that there should be no divisions between North and South or East and West of India. There is only one India of which we all Indians are inheritors. We are Indian first and Indians last. In ancient times, people from all over the world were keen to come to India. The Aryans came from Central Europe and settled down in India. The Persians followed by the Iranians and Parsis immigrated to India.

Then came the Moghuls and they too settled down permanently in India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times. Alexander the Great too, came to conquer India but went back after a battle with Porus.

Hue-en Tsang from China came in pursuit of knowledge and to visit the ancient Indian universities of Nalanda and Takshila. Columbus wanted to come to India, but instead landed on the shores of America. Vasco da Gama from Portugal came to trade his country's goods in return for Indian species.

The French came and established their colonies in India. Lastly, the Britishers came and ruled over India for nearly years. After the battle of Plassey in , the British achieved political power in India. Their supremacy was established during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie, who became the Governor- General in He annexed Punjab, Peshawar and the Pathan tribes in the north-west of India. And by , the British conquest and its authority were firmly established.

While the British power gained its heights during the middle of the 19th century, the discontent among the local rulers, the peasantry, the intellectuals, common masses as also of the soldiers who became unemployed due to the disbanding of the armies of various states, became widespread.

This soon broke out into a revolt which assumed the dimensions of the Mutiny. The conquest of India, which could be said to have begun with the Battle of Plassey , was practically completed by the end of Dalhousie's tenure in It had been, by no means, a smooth affair as the simmering discontent of the people manifested itself in many localized revolts during this period.

However, the Mutiny of , which began with a revolt of the military soldiers at Meerut, soon became widespread and posed a grave challenge to the British rule. Even though the British succeeded in crushing it within a year, it was certainly a popular revolt in which the Indian rulers, the masses and the militia participated so enthusiastically, that it came to be regarded as the First War of Indian Independence. Introduction of zamindari system by the British, where the peasants were ruined through exorbitant charges made from them by the new class of landlords.

The craftsmen were destroyed by the influx of the British manufactured goods. The religion and the caste system which formed the firm foundation of the traditional Indian society was endangered by the British administration. The Indian soldiers as well as people in administration could not rise in hierarchy as the senior jobs were reserved for the Europeans. Thus, there was all-round discontent and disgust against the British rule, which burst out in a revolt by the 'sepoys' at Meerut whose religious sentiments were offended when they were given new cartridges greased with cow and pig fat, whose covering had to be stripped out by biting with the mouth before using them in rifles.

The Hindu as well as the Muslim soldiers, who refused to use such cartridges, were arrested, which resulted in a revolt by their fellow soldiers on 9 May The rebel forces soon captured Delhi and the revolt spread to a wider area and there was uprising in almost all parts of the country. Rani Lakshmibai was proclaimed the ruler of Jhansi who led her troops in the heroic battles with the British.

The Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs and all the other brave sons of India fought shoulder to shoulder to throw out the British. The revolt was controlled by the British within one year, it began from Meerut on 10 May and ended in Gwalior on 20 June Consequent to the failure of the Revolt of rebellion, one also saw the end of the East India Company's rule in India and many important changes took place in the British Government's policy towards India which sought to strengthen the British rule through winning over the Indian princes, the chiefs and the landlords.

Queen Victoria's Proclamation of 1 November , declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a Secretary of State. The Governor General was given title of Viceroy, which meant the representative of the Monarch. Queen Victoria assumed the title of the Empress of India and thus gave the British Government unlimited powers to intervene in the internal affair of the Indian states.

In brief, the British supremacy over India, including the Indian States, was firmly established. The British gave their support to the loyal princes, zamindar and local chiefs but neglected the educated people and. They also promoted the other interests like those of the British merchants, industrialists, planters and civil servants.

The people of India, as such, did not have any say in running the government or formulation of its policies. Consequently, people's disgust with the British rule kept mounting, which gave rise to the birth of Indian National Movement.

During this time, the binding psychological concept of National Unity was also forged in the fire of the struggle against a common foreign oppressor.

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Raja Rammohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in which aimed at purging the society of all its evil practices. He worked for eradicating evils like sati, child marriage and purdah system, championed widow marriage and women's education and favoured English system of education in India.

It was through his effort that sati was declared a legal offence by the British. Swami Vivekananda the disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, established the Ramkrishna Mission at Belur in He championed the supremacy of Vedantic philosophy. The aim of the Association was to represent the views of the educated middle class, inspire the Indian community to take the value of united action. The Indian Association was, in a way, the forerunner of the Indian National Congress, which was founded, with the help of A.

Hume, a retired British official. The birth of Indian National Congress INC in marked the entry of new educated middle-class into politics and transformed the Indian political horizon. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay in December under the president ship of Womesh Chandra Banerjee and was attended among others by Badr-uddin-Tyabji. At the turn of the century, the freedom movement reached out to the common unlettered man through the launching of the "Swadeshi Movement" by leaders such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo Ghose.

The Congress session at Calcutta in , presided by Dadabhai Naoroji, gave a call for attainment of 'Swaraj' a type of self-government elected by the people within the British Dominion, as it prevailed in Canada and Australia, which were also the parts of the British Empire. Meanwhile, in , the British Government announced certain reforms in the structure of Government in India which are known as Morley-Minto Reforms.

But these reforms came as a disappointment as they did not mark any advance towards the establishment of a representative Government. The provision of special representation of the Muslim was seen as a threat to the Hindu-Muslim unity on which the strength of the National Movement rested. So, these reforms were vehemently opposed by all the leaders, including the Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Subsequently, King George V made two announcements in Delhi: The disgust with the reforms announced in led to the intensification of the struggle for Swaraj. While, on one side, the activists led by the great leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal waged a virtual war against the British, on the other side, the revolutionaries stepped up their violent activities There was a widespread unrest in the country.

To add to the already growing discontent among the people, Rowlatt Act was passed in , which. This caused widespread indignation, led to massive demonstration and hartals, which the Government repressed with brutal measures like the Jaliawalla Bagh massacre, where thousands of unarmed peaceful people were gunned down on the order of General Dyer. Jalianwala Bagh Massacre. Jalianwala Bagh massacre of 13 April , was one of the most inhuman acts of the British rulers in India.

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The people of Punjab gathered on the auspicious day of Baisakhi at Jalianwala Bagh, adjacent to Golden Temple Amritsar , to lodge their protest peacefully against persecution by the British Indian Government. General Dyer appeared suddenly with his armed police force and fired indiscriminately at innocent empty handed people leaving hundreds of people dead, including women and children.

During this struggle, Mahatma Gandhi had developed the novel technique of non-violent agitation, which he called 'Satyagraha', loosely translated as 'moral domination'. Gandhi, himself a devout Hindu, also espoused a total moral philosophy of tolerance, brotherhood of all religions, non-violence ahimsa and of simple living. With this, new leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose also emerged on the scene and advocated the adoption of complete independence as the goal of the National Movement.

After a series of events including the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Gandhiji realised that there was no prospect of getting any fair treatment at the hands of British, so he planned to withdraw the nation's co-operation from the British Government, thus launching the Non-Cooperation Movement and thereby marring the administrative set up of the country.

This movement was a great success as it got massive encouragement to millions of Indians. This movement almost shook the British authorities. Simon Commission The Non-cooperation movement failed. Therefore there was a lull in political activities. The Simon Commission was sent to India in by the British Government, to suggest further reforms in the structure of Indian Government.

The Commission did not include any Indian member and the Government showed no intention of accepting the demand for Swaraj. Therefore, it sparked a wave of protests all over the country and the Congress as well as the Muslim League gave a call to boycott it under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.

The crowds were lathi charged and Lala Lajpat Rai, also called Sher-e-Punjab Lion of Punjab died of the blows received in an agitation. Civil Disobedience Movement The aim of this movement was a complete disobedience of the orders of the British Government.

During this movement it was decided that India would celebrate 26th January as Independence Day all over the country. On 26th January , meetings were held all over the country and the Congress tricolour was hoisted. The British Government tried to repress the movement and resorted to brutal firing, killing hundreds of people. Thousands were arrested along with Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru.

But, the movement spread to all the four corners of the country and following this, Round Table Conferences were arranged by the British, and Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London. But nothing came out of the conference and the Civil Disobedience Movement was revived. During this time, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested on the charges of throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall which is now Lok Sabha in Delhi, to demonstrate against the autocratic alien rule.

They were hanged to death on March 23, Quit India Movement In August , Gandhiji started the 'Quit India Movement' and decided to launch a mass civil disobedience movement 'Do or Die' call to force the British to leave India.

The movement was followed, nonetheless, by large-scale violence directed at railway stations, telegraph offices, government buildings, and other emblems and institutions of colonial rule. There were widespread acts of sabotage, and the government held Gandhi responsible for these acts of violence, suggesting that they were a deliberate act of Congress policy. However, all the prominent leaders were arrested, the Congress was banned and the police and army were brought out to suppress the movement.

The Second World War broke out in September of and without consulting the Indian leaders, India was declared a warring state on behalf of the British by the Governor General. Subhash Chandra Bose, with the help of Japan, preceded fighting the British forces and not only freed Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the Britishers but also entered the north-eastern border of India. But in , Japan was defeated and Netaji proceeded from Japan, through an aeroplane to a place of safety but, met with an accident and, it was given out that he died in that air-crash itself.

Partition of India and Pakistan The Labour Party was largely sympathetic towards Indian people for freedom. A Cabinet Mission was sent to India in March , which after a careful study of the Indian political scenario, proposed the formation of an interim Government and convening of a Constituent Assembly comprising members elected by the provincial legislatures and nominees of the Indian states.

An interim Government was formed headed by Jawaharlal Nehru. However, the Muslim League refused to participate in the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly and pressed for the separate state for Pakistan.

Lord Mountbatten, the Viceroy of India, presented a plan for the division of India into India and Pakistan, and the Indian leaders had no choice but to accept the division, as the Muslim League was adamant. Thus, India became free at the stroke of midnight, on 14 August Since then, every year India celebrates its Independence Day on 15th August. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minster of free India and continued his term till Giving voice to the sentiments of the nation, Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said, Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially.

At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance We end today a period of ill fortune, and India discovers herself again.

India has inherited the federal structure from the Government of India act, , which prescribed a federal type union of autonomous provinces, whose governments were to derive their powers directly from the crown. Such a decision was taken because, during the post independence era, India was divided into various segments and empowering them could hamper the democratic working of the country.

It was also believed that the sound economic development of the country required centralized planning without any hindrance from the state. As India is a multi-lingual, multi-religious and multiracial country, we all Indians should rise above vested partisan interests and strive towards the welfare of the country.

To attain such objectives certain national interests are pre-requisites, which are as follows: The nation should be a secular union of states with political power belonging to a central confederate authority, with united and undivided goals without factional , sectarian or fanatical prejudices.

It should be tolerant towards caste, colour, creed, religion and language of each other. The nation must ensure safety, territorial integrity and protection of the state against external threat or subversion. National Objectives 7. India is a developing country. It has made rapid progress in all the spheres after its independence, viz, agriculture, industrialisation, urbanization etc.

To visualise what India would be in future in all spheres is not on easy task. While ultimate objectives and millennium goals of the nation lie ahead, the basic objectives are found in the Directive Principles of State Policy enshrined in the Constitution of India which took effect when India became Republic.

Directive Principles of State Policy lays down a code of conduct for the administrators of India in the discharge of their responsibilities as agents of the sovereign nation. They guide the path which will lead the people of India to achieve the noble ideals which the preamble of the constitution proclaim justice, social, economic and political, liberty, equality and fraternity. There are 16 articles of the constitution from that deal with the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Important ones out of these are as follows: Certain factors stand against the all round integration of our nation, which impedes our progress towards national integration. The cadets need to understand the following factors, in order to successfully tackle them, and play their part in achieving the goals that align with national interest: Regionalism gives more importance to ones own region than to ones nation.

When regionalism is linked with language and religion it creates regional interests rather than national interests. This creates parochialism among the people. Casteism is a divisive force. One section considers another section as inferior. They are exploited. Positions and opportunities are monopolized by a particular section. It creates enmity among the other castes.

Caste organizations interfere in politics. They function as pressure groups and obtain benefits undeservedly. These factors prevent national integration.

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Communalism is not believing in any particular religion or observing its rites. Excessive affinity to one's own religion transforms into hatred towards other religions. Thus religious fanaticism arises. When religion, caste and race are used to make social and political gains, it is called communalism. The real cause of communalism lies in political and economic factors.

The partition of India is an instance for the intervention of religion in politics. Linguistic Claims. We have seen that the Indian constitution recognises 22 languages. Hindi is the official language and English is the link language. About languages are spoken by the various sections of the Indian people.

Another problem faced by India was the linguistic reorganization of the states. In the states were reorganised on linguistic basis.

Agitations are going on in many parts of India demanding state re-organisation. Linguistic jingoism has become an important factor which hinders national integration. The extremist movements going on in different parts of the country are yet another challenge to national integration. You must have heard about naxalite movement or Maoist movement. These movements quite often use violence, create fear in public life, cause loss of lives of government personnel and people and destroy public property.

Mostly the youth participate in such movements. The basic reason for taking up arms by the youth is the continuing state of socio-economic deprivations. Moreover, the day-to-day humiliation, denial of justice, human rights violations, various kinds of exploitation and political marginalization prompt them to join the Naxalite movement. But the extremist activities have been threat to law and order and peaceful living of the people residing in the affected areas.

Social disparity among the people of different communities, castes and sometime within the community and caste causes tension and imbalance among the people.

Social disparity poses great threat to national integration. Opportunities The following opportunities must be exploited at all times to ensure National Integration: These organisations provide us with a an opportunity to maintain National Integrity at all times since, these are all India based organisations and consist of personal from the whole country, working, eating, living and fighting together for the integraty of the country.

India is a land of the great diversities and infinite varieties. It is a country with at least 18 major languages and over important dialects. It is a land that has given rise to four of the worlds major religions.

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It is home to the worlds second largest Muslim population. It is a society with over 4, ethnic communities or castes or endogamous groups. India is thus a multireligious, multi-linguistic, multi-ethnic and multi-regional civilization without a parallel. Therefore, in order for our nation to succeed and prosper, national integration is an important tool that this nation needs to embark on.

India is a country with innumerable diversities, an entity composed of many communities, races classes, languages and sub cultures. In any such nation, there are many obstacles to the achievement of national integration.

In India, various hindrances are obstructing the growth of national feeling, viz. India is a land of various races; various religious and various languages.

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Still then, the Indians developed into one nation by the influence of common territory, common history and common fight for freedom against the foreign rule. When India came under the British, they followed the policy of Divide and Rule in order to perpetuate their authority over India.

Consequently, the racial, the religious and the linguistic groups in the Indian nation first began to disintegrate emotionally and psychologically and then, desired to disintegrate territorially. This resulted into division of India into Bharat and Pakistan. Today, the integrity of the Indian nation is awfully threatened as the communal quarrels are fanned by the hostile neighbours of India.

Hence, the necessity of strong national Integration in India has become so necessary at present. Caste is an imported part of our social fabric. This was developed in the past on the basis of division of labour in the society.

But now casteism has segregated the society. Unity and integrity has become a dream in a caste ridden society. The feeling of socially neglected scheduled castes under the suppression of upper caste ruined the sense of feeling and unity.

It becomes a problem for national integration. Religions antagonism has posed a serious challenge to national integration in India. India is a multi- religious land. Political manipulation has projected one religion against the other which resulted in communal riot, bloodbath, mutual, distrust and disintegration of the country.

Large scale illiteracy and superstition are responsible along with other causes for raise communalism in the country. It is very difficult to promote national integration under these situations. Linguistic Fanaticism. Multi-linguism is one of the important characters of India.

India has fifteen officially recognized languages. There are about languages which are spoken in India which shows its diversities. There is conflict and riots on the languages issue. People of one language try to establish their language over others. When Hindi was declared as the national language people of South India resented against this decision supporting English language.

Language issue became a barrier on the way of national integration. There are several regions in India having their unique traditions, food habits, dress and languages. Each regional differs from the other in one or other ways which leads to disintegration of the country. People of one region compete with the person of other regions which leads to conflict and riots.

Land dispute, language problem are some of the reasons which pose hurdle on the way of national integration. Social Disparity. Social disparity poses great challenge to national integration. Economic Inequalities. Economic standard of people in a state depends on the fertility of land, resources available and manpower management.

All the states are not equal in the above matter which leads to economic backwardness of the people. Even in a state distribution of wealth is not properly done. Day by day poor becoming poorer and rich become richest this causes tension and conflict. Education of the masses can become a very powerful instrument of national unity provided that it is used in the right manner. Religious Tolerance. India is a multi religious country with various religious communities, such as Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Jains and Parsies.

Each community should help and share the religious festivals of every other community. Linguistic Tolerance. India, is a multi-lingual country with linguistic groups speaking different languages, such as Hindi, Urdu, Bangali, Oriya, Assamee, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi and so on.

Each linguistic group should respect the language of every other linguistic group. Every Indian student should be given full facility to learn his own language wherever he is in India.

The work must be begun at the grass-root levels, for this, a band of honest and popular teachers must work. From the impressionable age, boys and girls, must be taught and encouraged to mix with each other.

The services of the Radio and TV must be intelligently used. People of different states must be introduced to each other's cultures and ways of life and common elements should be stressed upon. But these will only create an atmosphere of goodwill and mutual understanding.

Other steps are necessary. Government Initiative.

At government level, it should be obligatory for members of the All India Services to learn at least one language of a state other than that to which they may belong. On the same principle an All India Educational Service should be organized so that teachers of one State may serve in another at the popular level, political parties or organizations with a communal or racial bias should be ruthlessly banned.

Finally, all healthy cultural movements to foster a national, all-India outlook should have to be encouraged. We need national integration on permanent footing and this can be achieved by enlightening our children. All the children, during their formative years, must be taught that we all are Indians belonging to the one Motherland.

We must not believe in separate identities. It is the time to merge in one main stream. Unless we develop a sense of unity and leave our narrow outlook, we might loose our independence.

India is a vast country with diversity in caste, religion, customs and traditions where people from different ethnological groups having different languages or dialects, follow different rituals in daily life and work together shoulder to shoulder. In spite of diversity in physical features and social systems, there is unity in India.

It is held together by many ties like territory, language, culture, traditions, economic growth and inter-dependence. National unity is extremely essential for social peace and harmony.

We can enjoy peace and security, if there is a mutual trust and goodwill among all the sects of people of the country. No progress can be made by the nation in any field if disruptive tendencies and divisive forces keep on destroying the very fabric of national unity. Fundamentals of Unity 7. Narrow minded love towards ones own language and negative feeling towards others is a major hindrance to unity. No country can stand on the pillars of an alien language.

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A language, instead of dividing, should be a unifying force. A via media acceptable to all would go a long way in bringing about linguistic unity in the country.

Along with regional languages one national language should be fully developed. Languages of different states should be encouraged in the educational institutions. It is felt in offices and colleges, in politics and almost in all walks of life. The feeling of belonging to an upper caste and hatred for the lower caste is not only an offence against mankind it is a threat to Indias unity.

The system of casteism and untouchability would eat into the very vitals of a society. Casteism should be tackled with an iron hand. There should be no communal or special constituents. The minority communities should be given their due share of advancement and communal favouritism should be sternly dealt with. In India about half of the total population is illiterate. An illiterate person cannot understand what is good or bad for himself or his country. Literacy is an important ingredient for unity.

The pattern of education should be so oriented that it encourages love, brotherhood and unity amongst various communities. There could be exchange of teachers from one state to another and there should be no bar on the students of one state for admission into the universities of other states. It would help to cement the bonds of unity which is an essence of any nation. Communalism means discriminatory feelings of an individual against another on the basis of religion or caste.

This also endangers the unity of our country. Fundamentalism is the greatest challenge to Indias unity. This has to be sternly dealt with. The politicians who encourage provincialism and regionalism should be debarred from elections as members of legislative bodies.

All citizens should regard themselves as Indians first and build unity between different sections of our society. India is a vast country where regional diversities exist. The feeling of loyalty towards ones own state or region first is also a major hindrance in unity. People from different parts of the diversified subcontinent should meet under a common wing of national consciousness, forgetting the regional differences, sharing the feelings of togetherness and realise the proud feeling in themselves of being part and parcel of a common Indian diaspora.

NCC creates awareness amongst youth about the diverse heritage of our country and fosters national integration despite linguistic, cultural, religious and geographical barriers. It helps cadets gain experience to live together, co-operate with each other and work in harmony with cadets of other states whom they have not known before, thus helping in strengthening unity as under: These are very important values in day-to-day activities on the ground and are the essentials of personality.

NCC helps to cultivate these values through which the spirit of unity and value of personal sacrifice are ignited in the minds of cadets. Our country has diverse groups which have been divided on grounds of religion, caste, creed and language. NCC organises various camps and group activities where ample opportunity is given to the cadets to closely watch the cultural and traditional shows of other regions. It provides the cadets with an opportunity to appreciate each others uniqueness and cultivate friendship.

A cadet is trained to give selfless service to society and be available anytime for national cause. NCC can be described as the nations. It is the duty of each and every citizen of our country to strive to achieve total unity despite of diversity in culture, language and religion. We must remember that there should be no divisions between any religion or community. There is only one India of which, we all Indians are inheritors. We are therefore - Indian first and Indians last.

National integration is essential for any nation with socio-cultural, religious, linguistic and geographical diversities.

A unique feature of our country is that all the major religions of the world are practiced here such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism. There are more than one thousand languages that people of India speak.

There are also great varieties in costume, food habits, and social customs. Geographically, our land is diverse and there are amazing differences in climate. Despite all these differences India is one political entity. We have to co-exist with each other peacefully, respect the culture and religion of our fellow Indians. This is possible only when national integration is realised in true sense of the term. National integration is necessary also for the security and development of the nation.

The purpose was to find ways to address the problems of communalism, casteism and regionalism The conference set up the NIC to review national integration issues and make recommendations. The NIC met for the first time in June The NIC was reconstituted and met again in August The new council had members including twelve Chief Ministers, twelve Union Ministers and leaders of all the main political parties.

In April , the NIC was again reconstituted with members. These included the following: Standing Committee. The committee would decide on agenda items for future council meetings. The Supreme Court had commended the role of the National Integration Council, set up by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ie, To find ways to counter problems that are dividing the country including attachment to specific communities, castes, regions and languages.

Other steps that have long been kept pending are: Hate campaigns are the incubators of communal violence. The following are important: The15th NIC meeting was held on 10 Sep , where in, some of the important agenda points emphasized and discussed by the Honorable Prime Minister are under: These need to be enhanced and encouraged. National integration assumes greater importance particularly in a country like India where, people with different language religions races and culture are required to be weaved together.

The unity in diversity of which we are proud of can only be maintained if we have the understanding and respect for each others religions, customs and traditions. It is said that united we stand and divided we fall.

A Nation is a community which considers itself one. It is held together by many ties just like territory, language, culture, economic inter dependence etc. Thus a Nation is a large group of people, sharing the same culture, language or history and inhabiting a particular state or area. India is a Nation sharing different culture, religion and history under one sovereign state. Indian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Different tribes with their distinct languages intermingle with various tribes of our country.

This has a very positive effect on his thinking and actions. It is one of the most effective methods of conveying a social message.

Some of the important slogans related to National Integration are as under: Images, posters and slogans have a lasting impression on the minds of people. Hence it is an important tool for promoting National Integration in India. The youth of a nation are the backbone and the most powerful force within the nation. They are the hope of the future and can shape the destiny of a country. History shows that countries subjected to alien rule have without exception sought the help of youth in times of crisis.

The youth have also been instrumental in the change of governments, whenever need for such a change has been felt. They have always been in the forefront in the building of political, social and economic orders of a society. They play a positive role for the cause of a nation and national integration.

Todays generation faces greater challenges in national building due to the force and pressure of internal politics and external conflicts. To acquaint the cadets about the Contribution of Youth in Nation Building.

National Integration 5. The youth act as a catalyst in an already vibrant country aspiring to find its rightful place in the world politics and play a more effective role of a true leader.

To help India realise its dreams the youth can and ought to play a leading role in bringing together the people of different states with diverse religions and integrate them emotionally, culturally and geographically, contribute in extricating society from age old stigmas of casteism, communalism, parochialism and regionalism, help preserve cultural heritage and infuse the spirit of patriotism, thus keep the country together and defeat all separatist attempts by unscrupulous elements.

Political Measures 6. Todays youth can contribute immensely to the politics of the country. If a nation does not rejuvenate its political leadership profile it would be-come old in thought and slow in action.

The youth are the future of a nation and its future leaders. The opportunity provided at educational. Security 7. The nation today faces grave security concerns both externally and internally.

This intensifies when viewed with the fact that our country is a respected democratic country with a secular base. The terrorist, fundamentalists are a grave danger to our unity. The youth are the pulse and strength of the nation and with their alertness and their balanced approach can help in bringing stability to the nation and help in thwarting selfish designs of the enemy. The youth are a big force which if channelized correctly, can ensure and enhance the security of the country.

Social and Cultural 8. The youth are the privileged persons in the society who can contribute to development. Therefore they have a special responsibility and should actively participate in the development plans of the nation. Youth should be acquainted with the major problems facing the country. Our society is experiencing a constant change and faces the conflicting ideologies of the past vis-a-vis the West.

Our past with a shadow of casteism, superstition and religious over tunes needs a balanced approach and the youth can play a very important role in this regard and educate the general public about the misnomers relating to superstition.