Gandhian Ideology in Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable Dr Pranabananda Patusi Lecturer -in –English Hill-Top Degree College, Mohana Gajapati, Odisha India. Editorial Reviews. Review. One of the most eloquent and imaginative works to deal with this Untouchable (Penguin Modern Classics) - Kindle edition by Mulk Raj Anand. Download it once and read it on your Recipients can read on any device. Additional gift options are available when downloading one eBook at a time. P>In Mulk Raj Anand's finest and most controversial novel he conveys precisely, with urgency and barely disguised fury, what it might feel like to be one of.
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PDF | Untouchable is one of the earliest examples in Indian English literature, which makes extensive use of stream of consciousness. “It was a. PDF | The paper presents subaltern and their subalternity which is the mostly debated issue in the Indian Subcontinent, particularly in the Union. Shit Writing: Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable, the Image of Gandhi, and the Progressive Writers' Association Ben Conisbee Baer modernism / modernity volume.
The myth of modernity, an integral part of the colonising project, stood for a market driven industrial economy, a bureaucratic government, a more liberal democratic form of government and Western education. These were held to be of help for the backward nations to achieve the status of a developed nation. The myth of modernity validated imperialism. The older traditional values of India faced challenges from these new ideals. A conflict arose between modernity and tradition which compelled the communities in India to redesign their ideas in many ways.
For example, in Untouchable we see the confectioner throws the "jalebis" to Bakha and his assistant splashes water on the nickel coins Bakha has placed on the shoe-board. Furthermore, human rights are denied and abused because of the social and religious structure in India during that time.
The high castes Hindus are given the authority to degrade the lower-caste. Human rights are held by all persons equally, universally, and forever. To advocate human rights is to demand that the human dignity of all people be respected. Are the human rights an arrival to the acceptance of equality and freedom of all people or is it a departure from the beginning of a process?
Human rights can be interpreted as principles of moral propriety, a set of objectives toward achieving a better world. They advance mostly legal, sociological, psychological, philosophical and political discourses. The focus of this paper however is how human rights connect to literature, mainly to a particular form of literary text, the novel. I examine Mulk Raj Anand 's Untouchable with a focus on their elaborations on the role and purpose of the novel. These writings raise fundamental issues about the state of the novel, which are particularly interesting when examined in the context of the postcoloniality and human rights.
My paper is divided into three parts. In first part, I would like to point out the history and development of human rights in the world.
And also tries to point out the close relation between human rights and literature. In the second part the novel will be examined from point of view human rights and The last part will be on relation between human rights and Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable If the human rights are a dimension of the recognition and acceptance of the equality and diversity of people than the Yogesh S.
Nonetheless the discourse of human rights is a spiral process, which - by definition - requires the understanding of human nature. Human nature and thus human rights cannot be understood merely by logic. Yet values are not based on reason. A great deal of what is integral part of human nature and existence is unconscious, emotional, based on desires none of which have internal logic, yet this irremovable heterogeneity governs much of our lives.
Literature can illuminate on human nature and existence in its fullness - with its logic and illogic — therefore it has a crucial role in understanding humanity and consequently the principles of moral propriety defined in human rights.
The novel brings us closer to human rights. The principles of Human rights hold up the vision of a free, just, and peaceful world and set minimum standards for how individuals and institutions everywhere should treat people. Human rights also empower people with a framework for action when those minimum standards are not met, for people still have human rights even if the laws or those in power do not recognize or protect them.
We experience our human rights every day in our life. Although we usually take these actions for granted, people both here and in other countries do not enjoy all these liberties equally. Human rights violations also occur every day in our country when a parent abuses a child, when a family is homeless, when a school provides inadequate education, when women are paid less than men, or when one person treated differently from another i. One can find its glimpses in the Hindu Vedas, the Bible, the Quran Koran which address questions of people's duties, rights, and responsibilities.
In fact, all societies, whether in oral or written tradition, have had systems of propriety and justice as well as ways of tending to the health and welfare of their members. Certain humanists and thinkers of the world had propagated their views about the importance to individuals worth, wisdom and creative potential and they advocated for individual to be free and endowed with rights and liberties. The philosophers and thinkers like John Locke who have expressed views on the theory social contact and expressed that the man enjoys natural rights and no government can abolish them.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the French revolution , the communist revolution in Russia the establishment of American colonies the horrors of First World War and Second World War gave momentum to the thoughts of human rights which were fully expressed in Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR on 10th Dec; Human right is an idea whose time has come. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a call to freedom and justice for people throughout the world.
Every day governments that violate the rights of their citizens are challenged and called to task. Every day human beings worldwide mobilize and confront injustice and inhumanity. Like drops of water falling on a rock, they wear down the forces of oppression and move the world closer to achieving the principles expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Following the terrible experiences of the World War II, and amid the grinding poverty of much of the world's population, the human rights were drafted to capture the hopes, aspirations, and protections which provide all people a life of human dignity. It recognizes health care, homelessness, environmental pollution, and other social and economic concerns as human rights issues.
Human rights cover economic, social, cultural, political, and civil rights. They are both universal it applies to all people everywhere and indivisible all rights are equally important to the full realization of one's humanity.
It restores social, economic, and cultural rights to their rightful place on the human rights agenda. The right to eat is as fundamental as the right not to be tortured or jailed without charges! Yet many of these documents, when originally translated into policy, excluded women, people of color, and members of certain social, religious, economic, and political groups. Nevertheless, oppressed people throughout the world have drawn on the principles these documents express to support revolutions that assert the right to self-determination.
Anand was widely known for his humanistic writing as the characters of his novels reflect Anand's humanistic approach for mankind. His works reflect the realities of Indian society and Indian culture. In all his novels, Anand stressed the need for a humanistic approach to life.
Like most Indian novelists writing in English, he was inevitably concerned with man in society. He was an artist saturated with a moral understanding of Indian masses. He understood their mute anguish and always succeeded in bringing out their insulted humanity. His novels exposed the silent passions that burst in the hearts of the people who are forbidden to rise up and express themselves.
His aim was to evoke generosity and compassion in the minds of the privileged sections of the society, to which the bulk of his readers belong. Anand was known for his realistic and sympathetic portrayal of the Indian poor. Half Yearly Anand portrayed the trials and tribulations of the down-trodden, dispossessed and the poor with compassion.
He felt the pain of the poor people, who belonged to lower class and weaved the thread of his novels around them. He made the people of India realize that the lower class, down-trodden and poor people are also human beings; they also have the right to live. In the Indian society when one is worshiping the animals like cows and bulls, the poor people are living in pitiable condition.
Showing the worst condition of poor, Anand criticized the upper class, aristocratic people who had no care for humanity. Anand's hatred of imperialism and of hypocrisy of Indian rites with its castes, habits and customs were the greatest motifs for his art. He was aware of the immense suffering of people from poverty and humiliation due to the political and social system of that time.
Anand's major concern revolves around humans and human rights. Anand's purpose is to show that even a person belonging to the lowest social class is a human being who has a dignity and suffers from the alienation forced upon him by caste society.
The story depicts a day in the life of Bakha, a sweeper boy, and reveals the effects on him of the events of that day. Bakha belongs to the lowest fraction of the low social casts. Through this novel, it is clear that the social structure is divided into many classes and the political regime is corrupted and undergoes colonial power. He lives with his father Lakha, brother Rakha and sister Sohini, living in a non-descript, dark, dingy one-roomed hovel-like mud hut in the town of Bulandshahar and performing the hard unpleasant task of clearing three rows of public latrines every day.
Socially, he belongs to the lowest class and is expected to be gross and coarse, abusive and aggressive, vulgar and unrefined in his social and personal dealings with the members of his own caste.
The 18 years old boy Bakha, is one of the sons of Lakha, the Jemadar of the sweepers of the town and the cantonment.
Bakha is the child of twentieth century and the impact of new influences causes stirrings within him. From Tommy he has secured a pair of old breeches, and from sepoy a pair of old boots; he would, if he could, like to look like the white foreigner and so be in a fashion. But as the day dawns, his work of latrine cleaning begins and his dreams turns into nothingness.
He is steady and efficient worker. Each muscle of his body hard as a rock when it came to play seemed to shine forth like a glass. Three rows of latrines to clean single —handed, and several times too changes him into a dexterous worker. Like him, his sister, Sohini, is also a hard worker. Balancing pitchers on pitcher, she approaches to the steps of caste-well for water. But no water yet, till at last the priest, Kali Nath, more as a cure for constipation than in an access of generosity, agrees to draw water from the well for the assembled outcastes.
Having drawn a pail with considerable difficulty, he sees Sohini, feels attracted to her youthfulness, and driving away the others, pours the water into her pot and suggests that she should come to his house later in the day to clean the courtyard.
When she does go, he makes improper suggestions to her, and as she starts screaming, he shouts 'polluted' and gathers a crowd of indignant high-caste people.
Mean-time, Bakha also comes upon the scene, having deputized for his father and swept the streets. He is understandably furious that insult should be added to injury, and sending away Sohini, tries himself to collect bits of bread at the houses of the well-to-do.
He is apt to accept the laws of untouchability with less resentment than Bakha. It is a curse that has to be destroyed. In the afternoon Bakha attends the marriage of his friend Ram Charan's sister- the girl of a higher caste whom he couldn't marry.
Ram Charan the washer man's son, Chota, the leather-worker's son and Bakha forget the caste differences and share the sugar-plums and plan to play hockey in the evening. Again at Havildar Charat Singh the caste is forgotten.
Havildar Charat Singh treats Bakha affectionately and gives him a new hockey stick. Playing hockey against 31st panjabis, Bakha sends a goal. Also waiting for water is Gulabo, mother of one of Bakha's friends and a jealous woman. She hates Sohini and is just barely stopped from striking the young woman.
A priest from the town temple named Pundit Kali Nath comes along and helps Sohini get water. He instructs her to come clean the temple later in the day. Sohini agrees and hurries home with the water. Back at home Lakha fakes an illness and instructs Bakha to clean the town square and the temple courtyard in his stead.
Bakha is wise to the wily ways of his father but cannot protest. He takes up his cleaning supplies and goes into town. His sweeping duties usually keep him too busy to go into town, and so he takes advantage of the situation by downloading cigarettes and candies.
As Bakha eats his candies, a high-caste man brushes up against him. The touched man did not see Bakha because the sweeper forgot to give the untouchable's call. The man is furious. His yelling attracts a large crowd that joins in on Bakha's public shaming. A travelling Muslim vendor in a horse and buggy comes along and disperses the crowd.
Before the touched man leaves he slaps Bakha across the face for his impudence and scurries away. A shocked Bakha cries in the streets before gathering his things and hurrying off to the temple.
This time, he does not forget the untouchable's call. At the temple, a service is in full swing. It intrigues Bakha, who eventually musters up the courage to climb up the stairs to the temple door and peer inside. He's only standing there for a few moments before a loud commotion comes from behind him.
As a crowd gathers around, Bakha pulls his sister away. Crying, she tells him that the priest sexually assaulted her. A furious Bakha tries to go back to confront the priest, but an embarrassed and ashamed Sohini forces him to leave.
Bakha sends his sister home, saying he will take over her duties in town for the rest of the day. Distraught over the day's events, Bakha wanders listlessly before going to a set of homes to beg for his family's daily bread. No one is home, so he curls up in front of a house and falls asleep. A sadhu also begging for food comes and wakes him. The owner of the house Bakha slept in front of comes out with food for the sadhu. Seeing Bakha, she screams at him and at first refuses to give him food.
She finally agrees to give him some bread in exchange for him sweeping the area in front of her house. As Bakha sweeps, the woman tells her young son to relieve himself in the gutter where Bakha is cleaning so he can sweep that up too.
A disgusted Bakha throws down the broom and leaves for his house in the outcasts' colony. Back at home, it's only Lakha and Sohini. Rakha, Bakha's younger brother, is still out collecting food. Bakha tells his father that a high-caste man slapped him in the streets. Sensing his son's anger, Lakha tells him a story about the kindness of a high-caste doctor that once saved Bakha's life.
Bakha is deeply moved by the story but remains upset. Soon after story time, Rakha comes back with food. A ravenous Bakha starts to eat but then is disgusted by the idea of eating the leavings of the high-caste people. He jumps up and says he's going to the wedding of his friend Ram Charan's sister.
At Ram Charan's house, Bakha sees his other friend, Chota. The two boys wait for Ram Charan to see them through the thicket of wedding revellers. Ram Charan eventually sees his friends and runs off with them despite his mother's protestations.
Alone, Chota and Ram Charan sense something is wrong with their friend. They coax Bakha to tell them what's wrong.
Bakha breaks down and tells them about the slap and Sohini's assault. Ram Charan is quiet and embarrassed by Bakha's tale, but Chota is indignant. He asks Bakha if he wants to get revenge. Bakha does but realizes revenge would be a dangerous and futile endeavour.
A melancholic atmosphere falls over the group.