echecs16.info Theory LEONARDO DA VINCI INVENTIONS BOOK PDF

LEONARDO DA VINCI INVENTIONS BOOK PDF

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AmazinG Leonardo daVinci Inventions You Can Build Yourself Learn some hands-on history Author: DOWNLOAD PDF .. This book will help you discover Leonardo da Vinci, his life, ideas, and most importantly, his amazing inventions. Science and inventions of Leonardo da echecs16.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text Begun at Florence Light 3 4 Publication Leonardo illustrated a book on . Leonardo da Vinci (–) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the . Leonardo illustrated a book on mathematical proportion in art written by his friend Luca Pacioli and Museum of Art; Leonardo da Vinci, Master Draftsman, exhibition catalog fully online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art.


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Leonardo da Vinci continue to fascinate us because T Learn about the importance of books and libraries as and inventor to gain access to the highest levels. EONARDO DA VINCI found in drawing the readiest and most stimulating unknown in modern illustrated books. Open the realise the extent of" that continent called Leonardo." The in- ward- .. ether, and himself as inventor and originator. Vasari says, and rightly, in his Life of Leonardo, "that he laboured much more by his .. Put this in the Book of useful inventions and in proving them bring.

Born as the illegitimate son of a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant girl, Caterina, at Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the "Renaissance man", a man whose seemingly infinite curiosity was equalled only by his powers of invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. It is primarily as a painter that Leonardo was and is renowned. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number due to his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.

It was one of the few paintings that Leonardo finished and kept for himself, so it must have been very important to him. Leonardo was in his sixties and quite ill and weak, but he loved living in France, and he and King Francis became very close. Leonardo was paralyzed on his right side, but still drew every day, working on sketches and designing inventions. Leonardo died on May 2, He was 67 years old.

Leonardo da Vinci is born in Vinci, near Florence — Leonardo probably helped design the machinery to put the 2-ton copper ball that was placed on the top of the dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Leonardo goes to work for Ludovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan, as his military engineer. Leonardo creates paintings, designs costumes, and fills his notebooks with ideas and drawings about nature, science, hydraulics, mechanics of inventions, and machines.

This eventually results in nearly 4, pages of sketches and notes. Leonardo writes his theory on the flight of birds and draws many sketches of machines designed to mimic bird flight.

Leonardo may have tried out some of his flying machine ideas. Leonardo paints The Last Supper using a new technique of oil and varnish on dry plaster. Unfortunately, the experiment was a disaster and the painting began to disintegrate almost immediately. The French invade Milan and Ludovico Sforza falls from power, leaving Leonardo unemployed and without a source of income. Leonardo works for Cesare Borgia as a mapmaker and military engineer.

Leonardo begins to paint Mona Lisa. Leonardo leaves Florence for Milan, where he studies anatomy, creating anatomical sketches so accurate they are used by medical students for several hundred years. The Divine Proportion, a book on mathematical proportion written by Luca Pacioli and illustrated by Leonardo, is published. It is the first book on geometric proportion with illustrations and becomes the standard text on the subject for many years to come.

Leonardo works for the Pope in Rome. Leonardo paints his last painting, St. John the Baptist, which today hangs in the Louvre Museum, in Paris. Leonardo is hired by King Francis as a member of his court, and moves to France. Leonardo dies in Cloux, France, and is burried in Amboise. Leonardo began drawing when he was a child growing up in Florence and showed talent early.

During the Renaissance, being an artist was a trade, similar to being a blacksmith, weaver, or other craftsperson. Artists often worked equally well in many different media. Andrea del Verrocchio was a gifted goldsmith as well as a painter and sculptor. In his studio he trained Botticelli, another very famous painter, and also worked with Michelangelo. It is a bronze sculpture of a famous Venetian soldier named Bartolomeo Colleoni. What makes this statue so remarkable is that it was the first time a sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio had created a statue of a horse with one of the legs in a raised position—the entire weight of the statue is carried on three legs rather than four, a very difficult accomplishment.

If he received a commission to create a sculpture, the same artists might work together on that. Leonardo spent much of his time drawing. He carried a notebook with him at all times, tied to a thong around his waist, and he would often stop to sketch what he saw around him, whether it was a group of old men laughing in a town square or a flock of swallows in flight. This practice made him very aware of how people and animals moved, and he captured this movement in his paintings. He was the first artist to study the physical The Baptism of Christ—Leonardo painted the angel to the far left, as well as the background.

Leonardo also perfected the technique of chiaroscuro, using light and dark or shadow to make his figures look three-dimensional.

It was first developed by Flemish and Venetian painters, but Leonardo perfected it to make his figures in the foreground seem soft and gentle. He used sfumato to create some of his most famous masterpieces, including Mona Lisa. One of the things that set Leonardo apart from artists who came before him was that Leonardo created his paintings to tell a story—not just a scene from a story, but the entire story.

This was a totally new concept in art, and he was a master at it. Brunelleschi designed the dome that covers the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, Italy, which, when it was finally completed in , became the first large-scale dome built in Italy since ancient times.

The result was a symmetrical dome, or cupola, consisting of eight brick faces reaching 91 meters high. The floor ends at a horizon line, and the horizon line has a vanishing point on it. The artist then Horizon line Vanishing point draws parallel lines radiating from the vanishing point outward. Images closest to the vanishing point should appear smaller and closer together, and images farthest from the vanishing point should appear larger and farther apart, giving the impression of depth and space in the painting.

Other painters had also noticed this and even had started showing it in their paintings, but Leonardo carefully measured and recorded what he noticed. For example, Leonardo noticed that in the morning light, distant objects such as hills or mountains looked less distinct and more blue than closer hills or mountains. He also noticed that the farther away the image was, the more its color blended into the color of the air around it.

As a result of his observations, Leonardo came up with some simple rules for painters to follow in creating what he called aerial perspective: This machine he invented was called a perspectograph, and it helped artists design a replica of the scene they wanted to paint in proper perspective. The painter put the pane of glass in the frame, placed the perspectograph in front of the scene to be painted, and then looked through the viewing slot with one eye and sketched the outline of the scene onto the glass.

The artist could then transfer the rough sketch onto canvas as an outline and paint in the details. Artists since Leonardo have created many different versions of the perspectograph, including ones with grids that made it really easy to transfer a rough sketch onto a piece of paper or canvas: Make sure when you look through the eyepiece that you look through the CD case to the scene you want to draw.

If the eyepiece is too high, cut some off template B the bottom of the template until you can see through the CD case when you look through the eyepiece slot. Then remove the CD case from the frame—you will have a small but accurate outline of the scene!

Alternative method for a larger drawing: Remove the CD case from your perspectograph. Move to a large window. Tape a sheet of acetate clear plastic onto the window, and line up the perspectograph with the acetate so when you look through the eyepiece the acetate is between you and the scene you want to sketch.

Draw the outline of the scene you see through the eyepiece onto the acetate, then transfer it to a sheet of tracing paper. Horizon This line is called the horizon. Make a dot roughly in the centerline of this line.

Science and inventions of Leonardo da echecs16.info | Leonardo Da Vinci | Perspective (Graphical)

Orthogonals or This spot is called your vanishing point. Make sure that the box is roughly in the center of the page. These lines are called orthogonals, or vanishing lines. Orthogonals or vanishing lines 4 Draw a horizontal line somewhere between these two orthogonals. Darken this horizontal line as well as the orthogonal lines connecting this line to the box.

Erase the orthogonal lines between the top of the box 19 Amazing Leonardo da Vinci Inventions and the vanishing point. Now, do you see a three-dimensional box? Horizon line Vanishing point 6 Draw three orthogonal lines to the vanishing point this time—one from the top two corners of the square or rectangle and the third from the bottom left corner of the square or rectangle.

Horizon line 7 Draw a horizontal line between the top two Vanishing point orthogonal lines the lines from the top two corners of the square. Darken this line and the orthogonal lines connecting it to the two corners of the box. You should now see the side of the box forming. You should see a box front, side, and top in this image. Erase the orthogonal lines connecting the box to the vanishing point.

Label the points V1 and V2. This should be approximately in the center of the two vanishing points. V2 Orthogonals 4V1 Using your ruler, draw V2 lines from lineline to each vantheV1 top ofHorizon the vertical V2 ishing point, and from the bottom of the Horizon linevanishing point. You vertical line to each V1 V2 should now have four orthogonal lines, two from the top of the vertical line and two from the bottom.

This means V1the vertical line on theV2 that left will have orthogonal lines to V2, whileV2the vertiV1 cal line on the right will have orthogonal lines to V1.

Draw a vertical line V1 V2 between these two intersections. V2 connect the 8V1 Darken the lines that four vertical lines.

You should end up with a picture of a three-dimensional box, in which you can see all sides of the box. Erase the orthogonal lines between your box and the vanishing points. Backgrounds were painted solid colors, very often gold.

Most European art in the time before the Renaissance showed religious figures such as Christ, and since none of the painters had seen heaven, they often painted the backgrounds gold, believing that the air in heaven must be very precious. He played the lute and sang beautifully, loved playing practical jokes and telling riddles, and was often asked to perform for his friends in the evenings.

When Leonardo had his own bottega in Milan during the s, it was often crowded with friends, fellow artists, and musicians. This story may or may not be true, but there is no doubt that Leonardo loved to entertain and be surrounded by entertainment. The Renaissance was a time of elaborate pageants and festivals, especially in the large cities, often held to celebrate special occasions in honor of the ruling families.

Leonardo created costumes and stage sets for many celebrations. Because he was so skilled at making lifelike figures, he was especially good at making masks, which were often worn at parades, festivals, parties, and balls. While many of the masks he made were beautiful, Leonardo also created masks that were grotesque, and some that were downright scary.

For one pageant, Leonardo created a mask with a helmet that had spiraled horns, a serpent sticking out of the top, and a Sketches for masks by Leonardo—when turned upside down, the dog in the upper left becomes a bat.

It was supposed to look like a dragon sitting on top of his head. Others were wearable optical illustions: Leonardo designed one mask that looked like a strange kind of dog—but when the mask was turned upside down, it looked a lot like a bat.

Il Paradiso: Leonardo created the stage in the shape of an egg and covered it in gold. He placed lights behind glass to make them brighter and seem to glow. Around the top of the stage, he created a hidden system of pulleys and levers, so that the twelve signs of the zodiac moved around their orbits, almost as if by magic.

Parts of the set were attached to winches hidden underneath the stage, that were rotated by unseen members of the production—making it appear to the audience that the scenery was moving itself. Sketches of a costume for a theatrical performance. The mix should have a consistency a little bit thinner than white glue. Do the back of the mask first if you want to paint or decorate that side. Work in one direction, and make sure that all the milk jug surfaces get covered by at least one layer of paper.

Put the mask in a safe place to dry, for about 24 hours. White will cover up the newspaper and you can paint color on top of it. Use your imagination and be creative! In order to wear the mask, cut a piece of elastic long enough to go around the back of your head, with some extra to attach to the mask. Staple the elastic to your mask, about halfway up the jug. During the Renaissance, artists made all of their own paints, turning many into very skilled chemists.

Most artists in the early s painted with tempera paints on wood panels. Tempera is a fast-drying paint made from a combination of egg yolks and other ingredients that have been ground into a fine powder.

Different ingredients made different colors. Shades of yellow, for example, could be made by grinding down crocuses, the stamens of lilies, or even saffron, a bright yellow spice. Ultramarine blue, a very bright blue often seen in Renaissance paintings, was made by grind- The Last Supper began deteriorating soon after Leonardo completed it. Oil Paint Egg tempera is made by mixing colored pigments with egg yolk; the egg yolk acts as a binding agent, which keeps the color on the surface of the board, plaster, or canvas—whatever the painter happens to be painting on.

Egg tempera had some major limitations for renaissance painters. Artists also had to be careful to make just the right amount of paint: Because egg tempera dried very quickly, painters layered wet colors over dry colors to give the impression of shading and blending rather than mix colors together. During the Renaissance, though, painters wanted to paint the world around them. They needed to show the natural world in a more realistic way.

Luckily, oil paints enabled them to do this. Since oil paint dried very slowly, it could be stored for extended periods of time.

Amazing Leonardo da Vinci Inventions You Can Build Yourself

Painters could take their time, and mix and blend colors to get shades they had never been able to achieve with egg tempera. The oil made the pigment in the paint translucent, so artists could paint very thin layers, giving their paintings a depth and inner glow that had never been seen before.

Purple could be made from ground mollusk shells. What set Leonardo apart from most other artists of his time was his constant experimenting with different kinds of material to use for paint. He was one of the first Italian artists to use oil paints—invented by painters from the Netherlands—rather than egg tempera.

Leonardo painted his famous masterpiece, The Last Supper, on the wall of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, which had plaster walls.

Instead of using egg tempera on a wet plaster base, which is what had been The problem was that Leonused very successfully for centuries, ardo the Scientist often Leonardo used tempera on dry prevented Leonardo the plaster so he could work more slowly.

Artist from successfully He first treated the plaster with a finishing his work. The plaster began to chip and flake off the wall almost immediately, and only a few years after Leonardo finished the painting, it had already deterioriated badly. Today, even after centuries of attempted restoration, many parts of The Last Supper are lost forever.

But what was great about Leonardo was that many of the experiments he conducted for one reason ended up resulting in something totally new and completely unexpected.

That is how he invented the very first plastic. Do not let it boil. Slowly simmer over medium heat. You will start to see yellowish lumps curds forming. These curds are a mixture of fat, minerals, and the protein casein a natural plastic.

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Take it off the heat, let it cool, then strain the liquid from the casein curds and rinse the curds in cool water. Then shape it any way you like and let it dry overnight.

Go outside and find some interesting colored dirt, or even a crumbly piece of brick. Charcoal will make a grayish black paint. Experiment with natural ingredients you can find around your house, yard, or park. Just remember that in order to work well, they need to be crushed to a fine powder, then mixed with the egg yolk. Luca Pacioli. Pacioli was a Franciscan friar a type of Catholic priest who loved math and wrote several books about mathematics that were read and studied by people all over Europe.

Luca Pacioli — Luca Pacioli is known today as the father of modern accounting, but during the Renaissance he was the most influential mathematician of his time. Pacioli wrote two famous books. The first one was called The Collected Knowledge of Arithmetic, Geometry, Proportion and Proportionality and was a summary of all the mathematics that the world knew at the time. It covered arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, and it was the basis for a lot of changes in mathematics that took place during the Renaissance.

It also included an explanation of double-entry bookkeeping, which was the method ancient Venetian merchants used to keep track of their business accounts. Pacioli also wrote The Divine Proportion, which Leonardo illustrated, and which explained many aspects of geometry and the importance of proportion. These were the first illustrations Leonardo ever made for a book, and were remarkable for two major reasons. Second, shapes inspired many intarsia artno one had ever drawn polygons like ists to include his designs in their these before—scholars learned about artwork.

To make intarsia, an artist proportion and geometry through calwould use a drawing as a template culations and formulas, but no one had for cutting many small pieces of wood drawn them in such a way that the con sometimes more than a thousand. Intarsia was and architects. In fact, the illustrations most popular during the s and helped inspire a new trend in an art many of the most beautiful incalled intarsia, which is the tarsia that are still around art of making mosaics out of today have geometric forms inlaid pieces of wood.

Here are the instructions for building an open-faced octahedron 8-faced figure , an icosahedron faced figure , and a rhombicuboctahedron faced figure. What to do 3. This 2. Where do the names of the polyhedra come from? Leonardo the Artist and Dreamer 1. Use five more toothpicks to 2b. F t m Fold toothpicks down to line up with marshmallows on figure 3. Fold toothpicks down 5b. Attach them to make a square. Bend the line up w corners o other ha 6.

Bend these down to5. The result 6. Bend these down to line up with the corners of other half. Bend these down line up with the corners of other half. Leonardo the Artist and Dreamer Leonardo the Jokester W hile we tend to think of Leonardo as a serious artist and inventor, he was known to his friends as a joker who loved to play pranks, tell jokes and funny stories, and create rebuses and puzzles for other people to solve.

Then he snuck out and pumped air into the intestines with the bellows. Another time, Leonardo brought a box into a room and told people there was a dragon inside it. When he opened the box, out came what looked like a small, very fierce dragon, which completely frightened his friends. It turns out that Leonardo had simply glued fake wings and a horn onto a lizard, but it tricked his friends and made him laugh. He would make with People who are not there, and hear multicolored flames leap out of a someone who does not speak.

He to it, the more unpleasant and harmful it made small wax animals, then filled is. Rebuses are puzzles in which a word or phrase has to be guessed from a picture or diagram, and Leonardo really enjoyed coming up with many different kinds of them. These will be the ends of your balls. Put a single strip of glue down one 2 inches long side of one gore, then attach the second gore. Do this four times so that you have four double gores. Glue together to make four double gores.

Glue down one side of one gore. Glue together 2 double gores. This will make half of the ball. Repeat youof have halves This will makesohalf thetwo ball. Glue together one side of each half. This will make half of This the ball. Repeat so you have two halvesso you have two halves Repeat Glue down one side of one gore. Glue together with the other pairs. Press Glue together one side of the ends of the gores onto it so they are completely covered.

Let dry. Glue one of the circles to the top. Glue last edges of gores together. Make a hole in the second circle Carefully glue the last edgeGlue of together the gores and glue the bottom of the ball. Make a hole into the second circle 2 double gores. This will make half o and glue to the bottom of the ball. Repeat so you have t together. Glue one of the circles to the Glue together.

Glue one top. Decorate by drawing a face and ears onto the ball. Decorategluing by drawing a face and gluing ears onto the ball. Make a hol and glue to 10 Cut ears out of another piece of wax paper. Glue them to the sides of the ball. You can decorate your wax animal by drawing a face on it. Decorate by drawing aDecorate face and by drawing a face and gluing ears onto the ball. To make yourDecorate wax animal float, gently blow air into the hole in by drawing a face and Glue one of the circles to the top.

It will fill up with air, and you can bat Make a hole in the second circle and glue to the bottom of the ball. If your gores are leaking air, add a little glue to seal the seams. You can also use a hair dryer on very low airflow to fill your animal with air. Decorate by drawing a face and gluing ears onto the ball. For example, Leonardo may have coated a piece of paper with a basic solution something like baking soda and water.

He then could have put a little wine in his mouth, licked the stick, and then put the stick onto the coated paper.

The acid from the wine would interact with the base of the baking soda, making it look like the stick magically wrote. You can make invisible ink with either juice or milk. Let dry completely. Why does this work? Because the juice is acidic and the baking soda is a base, and the two interact when they touch. Let it dry completely. The paper will heat up and the message will appear, written in brown.

Milk is acidic and slightly corrodes and weakens the paper. When the heat source is put near the paper, the weaker part begins to brown before the rest of the paper does.

This works with lemon juice and any other highly acidic juice, as well. But painting was his true talent. Leonardo reshaped and polished the shield and decided that the picture on the shield should terrify anyone who saw it. So Leonardo brought all kinds of creatures into his room— lizards, bats, grasshoppers, and locusts—turning his room into a kind of laboratory. He dissected the animals and attached parts of some of the creatures to parts of the others. Leonardo put the shield on an easel, in a small ray of light coming from the window, and darkened the rest of the room.

When his father opened the door, the only thing he could see was a scary creature that looked like it was jumping out at him. Leonardo always believed that the best fantasy creatures should be based on real models: Although he was a trained painter and skilled architect, Vasari is best known for his biographies of Italian artists.

Vasari Giorgio Vasari wrote a history of Italian art that included biographies of the great artists of Italy, including Leonardo. Choose five different animals—they could be anything from a dog to a lizard. Use your imagination; you could use the eyes of a lizard, the nose of a dog, and the ears of a horse, for example. Be creative! Make a rough sketch of your ideas before you start building and figure out the best materials for each part of your shield.

Tape on toilet paper rolls. Allow everything to dry so that it is secure. Add a couple of teaspoons of salt. The mixture should be a little thinner than white glue. Cut ears, tongue 46 and fangs out of construction paper. Ping pong balls can add fun touches. Cut ears, tongue and fangs out of construction paper. Repeat this until the entire shield and monster is covered, overlapping the newspaper pieces as you go. If you decide that you want it to be white for easier painting , do a top layer of white paper.

This may take a couple of days, depending on the humidity in the air. If you place your shield in the sun it may dry faster, but it is more likely to crack. Ideas for the Shield Need some ideas?

Here are a few: Use paint, feathers, buttons, natural objects from outside, or other items to decorate and make your monster look the way you want it to. Cut the strip to a size that will fit on the back of your Side of box folded over when box is made.

Bend the ends of the strip down so you can tape them to Fold ends under. Tape the edges of the handle to the pizza box with Tape ends to back of shield. Now picture having to do these jobs without a washing machine or dishwasher—better yet, imagine that you have to get water from a pump three blocks away, and carry it home in a bucket. Doing everyday chores today is very different from when Leonardo was alive: Everything was made by hand, and completing tasks and making products, whether they were shoes or works of art, took a great deal of time.

When the days became longer and the sun shone for more hours, people worked longer. During the winter months people worked less because there was less daylight.

For example, if you were a baker, your home was also the site of your bakery. If you were a tailor, your shop and house were the same place.

Some industries that were especially dirty, such as dyeing, tanning, and butchering, were usually grouped together in an out-of-the-way place, but most businesses were set up where people lived. Workers would agree on a price for each item they produced, and that would be how much they received, regardless of how long they spent producing it. For example, Leonardo wrote in his notebook that he and Worth Its Weight in Gold the monks of San Donato agreed on During the Renaissance there was a sum of florins for him to paint no paper money, only gold, silver, Adoration of the Magi, no matter how and copper coins, which took their long it took him.

Unfortunately for value from their mass and purity. Some of these machines were very had ducats; in Rome, scudi; and in simple, such as an adjustable wrench Florence, florins. Figuring out just that could help hold different-sized how much money your money was things together more securely.

Some worth was tricky business. Oftentimes, all he could do was dream them up and draw them. One of these sketches features a bicycle that looks very much like the bicycles we ride today. The bicycle was patented by Karl Drais years after Leonardo drew this famous picture, which would mean that Leonardo is the true inventor! But not everyone gives Leonardo the credit for this invention.

Many believe that the drawing is a fake. There is evidence that it could have been drawn in the s while the monks at Grottaferrata near Rome were restoring the folio of drawings that contained it. But this evidence is not conclusive. Did one of the monks draw the bicycle? Did someone sneak into the Ambrosian Library where it was kept and do the deed? Or did Leonardo himself create the drawing? Unless Italian authorities allow a thorough, scientific investigation, the world may never know.

Leonardo invented all sorts of machines for a variety of industries: Some, though, were used by Italians for years and some are still in use today. Leonardo developed a light using a box with a glass lens on one side and a candle inside, which was used as a streetlamp in Milan for more than years, and his drawings for links of chain look identical to the kinds of chains we use for everything from bicycles to chainsaws today.

The common idea of the time was that the eye sent out sight rays that bounced off of objects and then came back to the eye, allowing the person to see. Leonardo realized this was wrong, because it would take too much time for a sight ray to come out of the eye, bounce off something and then come back to the eye.

He used the sun to explain his idea: Leonardo was pretty far off on how far away the sun was. He thought it was 4, miles away. Leonardo thought the eye was the most important and amazing organ in the body.

He dissected human eyes to learn more about them, and as a result of all his studies Leonardo developed a simple projector, bifocals, and even came up with the idea for contact lenses although he never made them. He also worked on an idea for using a giant lens to harness solar energy for the tanning and dyeing industry, and many historians and scientists believe that he came up with the idea of a telescope long before Hans Lippershey, the Dutchman who is credited with inventing the telescope in The image of the planet reflected by the base will show the surface of the planet much magnified.

A camera obscura is nothing more than a dark box or even a very dark room with a very small hole in one wall that lets in light. Directly across from the hole the image from the outside world will be projected onto the wall upside down. This happens because light travels in a straight line, but when some of the rays reflected from a bright subject pass through a small hole, they become distorted imagine trying to cram an object into a space that is too small for it and end up as an upside-down image.

Leonardo realized that this is exactly how the human eye sees things: So the only thing the camera obscura lacks is a brain to flip the image! Leonardo figured out a way to dissect eyeballs: The first photographs were taken by a French chemist named Joseph Nicephore Niepce in Niepce set up a camera obscura and put a polished pewter plate coated with a type of asphalt known as bitumen of Judea in it. After eight hours, Niepce washed the plate with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum, which dissolved away the parts of the bitumen that had not been hardened by light.

The result was the very first kind of photograph. One model is like a small room, and the other is portable. Both use exactly the same principal: Cut the canister apartMeasure 2 inches from bottom about 2 inches from the bottom.

Measure up and cut 2 inches from bottom and cut 2 Put the lid on the shorter piece of the can, then put the longer part of the can on top of that. Tape them together so they are secure. Place cap o bottom pie Place cap on short bottom piece of canister Cove with tape Put top part of canister onto bottom piece and tape in place Put top part of canister onto bottom piece Put top part Poke a hole in the and tape in place of canister bottom of the canister onto bottom piece and tape in place Cover canister with foil and tape in place 4 Poke a hole in the bottom of the short end—or the end with a metal lid.

Cover canister with foil and tape in place 5 To keep as much light out of the Poke a hole in the bottom of the canister Poke a hole in the tube as possible, wrap the entire canofinthe canister bottom foil. Tape the foil to the sides and tuck any extra into the top.

You may need to cup your hands around the eye opening of the tube to block out any extra light from the eye opening. If you are using a large packing box, make the hole smaller: Cut hole no bigger than 3 inches by 5 inches on all sides. Bring the sheet of paper with you. The only light coming into the box should come through the hole you cut. Cut holeagainst no bigger this than side of the box inside.

Hold paper 3 inches by 5 inches Hold paper against this side of the box inside. You are inside the box with the piece of paper. What image do you think you will see on the piece of paper? You may have to move the paper a What image do you think you will see little bit to find the image, but on the piece of paper?

There were no local weather forecasters who could explain that the next few days would be cloudy, or tell that the winter would be harsh or mild. Aristotle first came up with the term meteorology in BCE, when he wrote a book that discussed his theories about the natural world, including clouds, rain, snow, hail, lightning and thunder, and climate. Aristotle gave the book the title Meteorologica because in ancient Greece, anything that fell from the sky or was suspended in the sky such as mist or fog was called a meteor.

In Meteorologica, Aristotle wrote about many aspects of weather that researchers today still study, such as how lightning is caused, why different areas have different amounts of rainfall, where winds originate, and the relationship between the height of clouds and the amount of rainfall they generate. Sketch of hygrometer designed by Leonardo.

Hail is ice, and water freezes in winter; yet hailstorms occur chiefly in spring and autumn and less often in the late summer, but rarely in winter and then only when the cold is less intense. And in general hailstorms occur in warmer, and snow in colder places. Because he based all of his explanations on the assumption that the earth was the center of the universe, and that the elements of earth, water, air, and fire made up everything in the world, including weather.

But since water vapor is invisible, no one quite understood its properties. How could people predict whether it was going to rain? What caused the air to feel so heavy on hot summer days when there were no clouds in the sky? Nicholas of Cusa, a German cardinal and mathematician, in Nicholas of Cusa became the first person to concieve a weather instrument, when he described a hygrometer, an instrument that could measure the amount of humidity in the air.

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His idea was as follows: If someone should hang a good deal of wool, tied together on one end of a large pair of scales, and should balance it with stones at the other end in a place where the air is temperate it would be found that the weight of the wool would increase when the air became more humid, and decrease when the air tended to dryness.

There is no record that Nicholas of Cusa ever built his hygrometer, but Leonardo did. In , he took the description and used it to create his own model. Coat the bottom of one carton with wax 2 Melt a thin coating of wax on the bottom of one container. Poke a hole in each side Coat the bo one carton 3 Poke holes in each side of the containers and thread string through them. If the container with the sponge or cotton balls has grown heavier, it means the humidity level of the air is rising—the higher the humidity, the more water vapor in the atmosphere.

But how could and viscosity? Density measures how people determine how dense one liquid much mass a liquid or anything else was in relation to another?

Leonardo has—how much the liquid weighs. Called a ness. Archimedes said more than a cup of water. Honey is that a solid suspended in a liquid will be also more viscous: That means that cup of water and then try to pull them the lower the density of the liquid, the out quickly. Mark half centimeter marks with your permanent marker on the straw, from the top to about three-quarters of the way down. Do you float better in fresh or salt water? What does this tell you about the composition of the water?

Fill one up with normal tap water. Fill another up with warm tap water, add a handful of salt to the water, and let it dissolve. Salt will dissolve more quickly in warm water. Fill the third with tap water and add dish detergent. Carefully mix the detergent with the water. Which liquid is the most dense? Which liquid is the least dense? How can you tell? Hydrometer in Action: Maple Syrup Making When you pour maple syrup on your waffles or pancakes you may not know that a hydrometer helped make the syrup taste great.

Maple syrup comes from boiled maple sap, a liquid that sugarmakers collect from maple trees in the early spring. Maple sap is mostly water; in fact, to make just one gallon of maple syrup, sugarmakers have to boil 40 gallons of maple sap.

The excess water boils off, while the sugars of the sap remain. Since so much liquid is boiling, sugarmakers rely on both a hydrometer and a thermometer to know when the sap has boiled long enough to turn to syrup.

When the temperature of the liquid is degrees Fahrenheit 7 degrees higher than the temperature of boiling water and the sugar-to-water ratio measured by the hydrometer is 66 percent, the syrup is ready. The adjustable bolt allows the jaw to move closer to or farther from the handle, so it adjusts to different-sized objects. The monkey wrench made it possible to tighten or loosen many different-sized nuts and bolts with the same tool.

In his ongoing quest to come up with new ways to make regular jobs easier and more efficient, Leonardo also invented or drew sketches of large pliers for heavier work which worked the same way as the monkey wrench, with an adjustable jaw and a clampand-screw type of device to remove nails. All of these became prototypes of modern tools that people use every day. Work the nail around in the hole to widen it enough to fit the bolt. Loosely spin the wing nut on to keep the bolt in place.

Tighten the wing nut until the hose is snug against the object. This Secure end of bolt with wing nut hose from bending while you make your adjustment. In the days before vise grips and pocket tools, monkey wrenches were often the only tool that would work in certain situations.

It also slipped around a lot, so it could be difficult and frustrating to use. Because it was liable to slip, it could even be dangerous to use, possibly flying off a bolt when a lot of force was applied to it.

The combination of a flying wrench and slipping bolts made for some serious injuries. Today, we have more precise wrenches as well as adjustable wrenches such as vise grips, which have a locking arm. They are much safer, but lack the great name of the monkey wrench. Leonardo was also afraid of water—he had seen the Arno River in Florence burst its banks and flood the countryside twice, and he thought a lot about the destructive power of water when it was out of control.

His notebooks are filled with drawings of water rising, swirling, and churning, and he drew many pictures of great floods that would wipe out everything in their path.

He also spent a lot of time observing how water moved around rocks and other obstacles, how running water moved when it hit still water, and how waves formed. His drawings of water were so beautiful and accurate, in fact, that they were used by scientists for hundreds of years as diagrams for the study of water and its movement.

Archimedes water screw. Leonardo designed many machines to move water from one place to another as well as many different kinds of boats, bridges, and dams. He designed locks and canal systems—and machines for excavating canals—to connect Florence to the sea. For the city of Milan he designed a series of locks and paddle wheels to wash its dirty streets. He also looked at water with a military eye, and designed many water-based methods for attacking an enemy.

He designed a hook that would attach to the side of a boat and pull the hull apart, he also designed a double-hulled boat, probably to resist his boat hook! Leonardo also viewed water from a scientific perspective. He was one of the first people to recognize that water causes erosion. If it could, it would reduce the earth to a perfect sphere. Instead, he decided that based on common sense and science—and his own study of water—the only way shells could be found in the layers of rock in the mountains was for them to have been buried at a time before the mountains existed.

Life preserver. Also, said Leonardo, the fossils in the mountains included things like oysters and coral, and it would have been impossible for one flood to carry them miles inland to the Italian mountains—or for coral or oysters to crawl miles in the 40 days and 40 nights of the Biblical flood.

Leonardo thought of every possible form of water transportation, including by foot: It is necessary to have a coat made of leather. And when you are obliged to jump into the sea. Follow steps 1—4 twice, then securely tape the two pieces one on top of the other so that your shoes are double-layered. Measure 8 inches at an angle on both sides Find the center Measure down 8 inches and cut that part off so your board looks like a ski.

Measure down 8 inches 4-inch piece of tape 70 Shorter pieces of tape stuck onto longer pieces—sticky side to sticky side 4-inch piece of tape Bottom of water shoe Shorter pieces of tape stuck onto longer pieces—sticky side to sticky side Bottom 8 feet Measure down 8 inches Leonardo and Water Measure down 8 inches 4-inch piece of tape Find the center 4 Do this to both pieces. Measure Thesedown pointed ends 8 inches will be the fronts of your walk-on-water shoes. The sticky sides should all be facing up.

Now cut down 8 inches Measure five more pieces of duct tape to the following lengths: Lay the 3-inch piece sticky-side down in the 4-inch piece of tape center of the five-inch piece of the other strip, the 4-inch piece sticky-side down in the center of the Shorter pieces of tape stuck 6-inch piece of the other strip, and so on, until all onto longer the pieces are used up see diagram.

It should pieces—sticky side to sticky side look something like a pyramid, with sticky surfaces on the top and sides. This will be one of your water pockets. Bottom of water shoe 6 inches 7 Make four tape pockets for each water shoe,7 inches placing them in an alternating pattern from about 8 inches 9 inches 5 inches from the top of the water shoe to a little over halfway down the shoe. Leave slack for pocket to fill with water 71 11 inches Amazing Leonardo da Vinci Inventions 8 Now make your foot holders.

Flip over the wa- Find the center of the water shoe from front to back ter shoes, and make a mark halfway down the length of the shoe. At this mark, measure 4 inches from the inside of each water shoe—this is where the top of your foot holder will go. Cut eightpieces of your foot holder should be attached duct tape in lengths of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 inches, and attach them to each other using the instructions in step 5.

Cut seven more pieces in lengths of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 inches, and attach 6 inches them in the same way as in step 5. Attach the top of the foot holder to the board at the mark you made, then press down one side of the tape, then the other.

You should have a slightly longer, slightly narrower version of Shorter pieces of tape stuck the water pockets it should look a lot like a slipper. Using the leftover blueboard measure two 6-inch-byinch squares and cut them out. If you want, you can cut the corners off of 6 inches the squares to make them more rounded. Jab the sticks into the centers of the squares—these are your poles for walking on water, and will help with balance. One man did, though. Remy Bricka, a Frenchman, walked 3, miles across the Atlantic Ocean in He left the Canary Islands on April 2, wearing a pair of foot pontoons shaped like very large skis and carrying poles with paddles to help propel him along the surface of the water.

Geology[ edit ] A topographical map As an adult, Leonardo had only two childhood memories, one of which was the finding of a cave in the Apennines. Although fearing that he might be attacked by a wild beast, he ventured in driven "by the burning desire to see whether there might be any marvelous thing within.

His notebooks contain landscapes with a wealth of geological observation from the regions of both Florence and Milan , often including atmospheric effects such as a heavy rainstorm pouring down on a town at the foot of a mountain range. It had been observed for many years that strata in mountains often contained bands of sea shells.

Conservative science said that these could be explained by the Great Flood described in the Bible. Leonardo's observations convinced him that this could not possibly be the case. The Virgin of the Rocks And a little beyond the sandstone conglomerate, a tufa has been formed, where it turned towards Castel Florentino; farther on, the mud was deposited in which the shells lived, and which rose in layers according to the levels at which the turbid Arno flowed into that sea.

And from time to time the bottom of the sea was raised, depositing these shells in layers, as may be seen in the cutting at Colle Gonzoli, laid open by the Arno which is wearing away the base of it; in which cutting the said layers of shells are very plainly to be seen in clay of a bluish colour, and various marine objects are found there.

In Leonardo's earliest paintings we see the remarkable attention given to the small landscapes of the background, with lakes and water, swathed in a misty light. In the larger of the Annunciation paintings is a town on the edge of a lake. Although distant, the mountains can be seen to be scored by vertical strata. This characteristic can be observed in other paintings by Leonardo, and closely resembles the mountains around Lago di Garda and Lago d'Iseo in Northern Italy.

It is a particular feature of both the paintings of The Virgin of the Rocks , which also include caverns of fractured, tumbled, and water-eroded limestone. In the early 16th century maps were rare and often inaccurate.

Leonardo produced several extremely accurate maps such as the town plan of Imola created in in order to win the patronage of Cesare Borgia.

Borgia was so impressed that he hired him as a military engineer and architect. Leonardo also produced a map of Chiana Valley in Tuscany , which he surveyed, without the benefit of modern equipment, by pacing the distances. In , Leonardo produced a map of the Roman Southern Coast which is linked to his work for the Vatican and relates to his plans to drain the marshland. Many of these drawings depict the spiralling nature of water.

The spiral form had been studied in the art of the Classical era and strict mathematical proportion had been applied to its use in art and architecture. An awareness of these rules of proportion had been revived in the early Renaissance. In Leonardo's drawings can be seen the investigation of the spiral as it occurs in water.

There are several elaborate drawings of water curling over an object placed at a diagonal to its course. There are several drawings of water dropping from a height and curling upwards in spiral forms. One such drawing, as well as curling waves, shows splashes and details of spray and bubbles. Leonardo's interest manifested itself in the drawing of streams and rivers, the action of water in eroding rocks, and the cataclysmic action of water in floods and tidal waves. The knowledge that he gained from his studies was employed in devising a range of projects, particularly in relation to the Arno River.

None of the major works was brought to completion. And any one standing on the moon, when it and the sun are both beneath us, would see this our earth and the element of water upon it just as we see the moon, and the earth would light it as it lights us.

He was trained in the workshop of Verrocchio, who according to Vasari, was an able alchemist. Leonardo was a chemist in so much as that he experimented with different media for suspending paint pigment.

In the painting of murals, his experiments resulted in notorious failures with the Last Supper deteriorating within a century, and the Battle of Anghiari running off the wall. In Leonardo's many pages of notes about artistic processes, there are some that pertain to the use of silver and gold in artworks, information he would have learned as a student. His practical experiments are also founded in observation rather than belief. Leonardo, who questioned the order of the solar system and the deposit of fossils by the Great Flood , had little time for the alchemical quests to turn lead into gold or create a potion that gave eternal life.

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Leonardo said about alchemists: The false interpreters of nature declare that quicksilver is the common seed of every metal, not remembering that nature varies the seed according to the variety of the things she desires to produce in the world. In Alberti published "della Pittura" "On Painting" , which includes his findings on linear perspective.

Piero della Francesca carried his work forward and by the s a number of artists were able to produce works of art that demonstrated a full understanding of the principles of linear perspective. Draft of the perspective for Adoration of the Magi Leonardo studied linear perspective and employed it in his earlier paintings. His use of perspective in the two Annunciations is daring, as he uses various features such as the corner of a building, a walled garden and a path to contrast enclosure and spaciousness.

The unfinished Adoration of the Magi was intended to be a masterpiece revealing much of Leonardo's knowledge of figure drawing and perspective. There exists a number of studies that he made, including a detailed study of the perspective, showing the complex background of ruined Classical buildings that he planned for the left of the picture.

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In addition, Leonardo is credited with the first use of anamorphosis , the use of a "perspective" to produce an image that is intelligible only with a curved mirror or from a specific vantage point. Practice must always be founded on sound theory, and to this Perspective is the guide and the gateway; and without this nothing can be done well in the matter of drawing.

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While in Milan in Leonardo met a traveling monk and academic, Luca Pacioli. Under him, Leonardo studied mathematics. Pacioli, who first codified and recorded the double entry system of bookkeeping, [18] had already published a major treatise on mathematical knowledge, collaborated with Leonardo in the production of a book called "De divina proportione" about mathematical and artistic proportion.

Leonardo prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates. All the problems of perspective are made clear by the five terms of mathematicians, which are:—the point, the line, the angle, the superficies and the solid.

The point is unique of its kind. And the point has neither height, breadth, length, nor depth, whence it is to be regarded as indivisible and as having no dimensions in space. In addition he used to make models and plans showing how to excavate and tunnel through mountains without difficulty, so as to pass from one level to another; and he demonstrated how to lift and draw great weights by means of levers, hoists and winches, and ways of cleansing harbours and using pumps to suck up water from great depths.

Practical inventions and projects[ edit ] A machine for grinding convex lenses Leonardo was a master of mechanical principles. He utilized leverage and cantilevering , pulleys , cranks , gears , including angle gears and rack and pinion gears; parallel linkage , lubrication systems and bearings. He understood the principles governing momentum , centripetal force , friction and the aerofoil and applied these to his inventions.

His scientific studies remained unpublished with, for example, his manuscripts describing the processes governing friction predating the introduction of Amontons ' Laws of Friction by years.

Among those inventions that are credited with passing into general practical use are the strut bridge, the automated bobbin winder, the rolling mill , the machine for testing the tensile strength of wire and the lens -grinding machine pictured at right.

In the lens-grinding machine, the hand rotation of the grinding wheel operates an angle-gear, which rotates a shaft, turning a geared dish in which sits the glass or crystal to be ground. A single action rotates both surfaces at a fixed speed ratio determined by the gear.

As an inventor, Leonardo was not prepared to tell all that he knew: How by means of a certain machine many people may stay some time under water.

How and why I do not describe my method of remaining under water, or how long I can stay without eating; and I do not publish nor divulge these by reason of the evil nature of men who would use them as means of destruction at the bottom of the sea, by sending ships to the bottom, and sinking them together with the men in them. And although I will impart others, there is no danger in them; because the mouth of the tube, by which you breathe, is above the water supported on bags of corks.

Much of his work on hydraulics was for Ludovico il Moro. Leonardo wrote to Ludovico describing his skills and what he could build: …very light and strong bridges that can easily be carried, with which to pursue, and sometimes flee from, the enemy; and others safe and indestructible by fire or assault, easy and convenient to transport and place into position.

Among his projects in Florence was one to divert the course of the Arno, in order to flood Pisa. Fortunately, this was too costly to be carried out.

He also surveyed Venice and came up with a plan to create a movable dyke for the city's protection against invaders. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosphorus known as the Golden Horn.