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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Hard Times, by Charles Dickens This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. hard times by charles dickens (zlibraryexau2g3p_onion).pdf Born a Crime. have carefully edited the electronic transmit the PDF files (except Hard Tim. Hard Times. Charles Dickens. First published in This web edition published by [email protected] Last updated Wednesday, December 17, at
Part of the Management, Work and Organisations book series MWO Abstract Viewing the management of expertise through the lens of social theory produces interesting refractions of cause and effect. The post-modern fragmentation of expert authority creates a space for the recognition of many voices and knowledges. But does this acceptance of diversity reflect a liberating and democratic shift in social sensibilities or the final subordination of knowledge production to global markets and capitals? This chapter addresses the fate of expert groups as an important component of the service class in Britain. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Seeing the circus with the horses, elephants, clowns and acrobats for the first time, makes them wonder if life has something else to provide them than their daily routine. In their mind they previously had blurred thoughts that something else existed but did not know what it could be. Gradgrind has thwarted his children's imaginative side, and they begin to wonder if life has nothing else to offer them but facts.
The characters of Sissy Jupe and Mr. Sleary show that facts and fancy can work together. The circus plays an important role when people want to be entertained. Sleary tells Mr.
This is an attempt to approach the gap between poor and rich people, and also an effort to understand them. Stephen Blackpool the poor weaver at Mr. Stephen has been married to a dissolute, drunken woman for eighteen years. He wants to get a separation, and goes to Mr. Bounderby offers him no help and Stephen cannot afford the divorce.
He is in love with Rachael who also is a Hand at the factory.
He wants to marry her, but the marriage law in England bans any separation from a woman, unless the man is able to pay for it or if the woman has committed adultery. He is thus stuck with his wife because of his poverty. Bounderby is arrogant towards Stephen, and says that he must accept his miserable marriage. Dickens message is to describe that divorce is not for all people, only for those that are prosperous as Bounderby who uses his influence and money to do what he thinks is the best solution for himself when he divorces Louisa.
Josiah Bounderby and Thomas Gradgrind are friends. The name Josiah has a religious allusion, but the fact is that he is not an honest man. He boasts of being a self-made man who was abandoned by his mother, Mrs.
Pegler, as a young boy, and often declares that he has worked his way out of the gutter. Louisa, Gradgrind's daughter, is twenty years old, but Mr. Bounderby is fifty when he proposes to marry her. Louisa is not in love with Bounderby; she only feels emptiness in her heart.
She only feels love and tenderness for her brother Tom. Louisa is rather quiet and reserved, but she is good looking, as James Harthouse notices when he sees her for the first time. However, her appearance has a cool composure because it seems to lack a sweet temper such as Sissy and Rachael have.
Louisa was brought up by her father in accordance with his Utilitaritan beliefs, which prevents her to let herself fancy about things she does not understand and that are fantastic and imaginative.
She has difficulty communicating with people and her father has problems in understanding her, like when he tries to convince her that it would be utilitarian to marry Mr. Bounderby, which she had never considered. She has never dated a man, so she is bewildered what to say to him.
Unable to clarify to her father what she means, she can only describe what she is used to see through her window. The smoke from the factory is the only thing she has fanciful thoughts about when she sees it take a different form.
Gradgrind seems to unconsciously try to suffocate the feelings of his daughter but she is aware of them although she cannot define her emotions. Gradgrind learns what his philosophy of facts has done to them.
Sparsit, an elderely lady, is Mr. She had been a member of the aristocratic elite, and Bounderby is very proud of having a former aristocrat as his servant, because his reputation increases through the rumour that a mean-born but now a wealthy man houses such a celebrity.
In Book the Second, Bounderby discovers to his agony that he has charitable feelings, when Mrs. Sparsit and Bounderby are talking together in a warm tone.
Sparsit tells him that he should not abandon old habits, such as to take a glass of warm sherry with lemon-peel and nutmeg that she is used to prepare for him. Bounderby went to bed, with a maudlin persuasion that he had been crossed in something tender, though he could not, for his life, have mentioned what it was. This is the only time in the novel that Bounderby feels warm emotion towards anyone, but he cannot define whether it is towards Mrs.
Sparsit or Louisa.
He wonders, however, what this feeling might be. Sparsit is not described in the novel as a supporter of the facts philosophy and Dickens insinuates here that Mrs. Sparsit has a lot of fancy and imagination, but this fancy and imagination have the consequence that Bounderby decides to discharge her from his service because of her interference in his private life.
He wants to get some fun out of life because he feels bored.
He has been situated in different places before and wonders if he finds some place where 14 he will get some pleasure. He wants alteration in his lifestyle, and is ready to try entering politics as a disciple of Gradgrind.
Louisa is rather a reserved person.
Her cool personality indicates that she has no emotion but it is not so because she returns to her father after experiencing tumultous feelings towards James Harthouse who declared his love for her. She shows determination to change her life when she begs her father to solve her problem. She knows that something is wrong about her relationship with James Harthouse, but she cannot distinguish what it is.
She has always done what her father determined for her and now she is convinced he can guide her.
The Utilitarian education of facts begins to falter when Gradgrind realizes that his daughter is in pain and that she, in her agony, has come to him. Let me fall upon the ground! This illustrates that Louisa wants to escape the philosphy of facts which her father has forced upon her. This expresses restrained longing for something that was missing in her upbringing.
At this moment Gradgrind sees his whole philosophy crumble down, and he realizes that it was destructive rather than constructive. This can also symbolize a self-destructive element in Louisa, which Gradgrind has fostered in her from childhood with his philosophy of facts. Louisa is unable to understand what has happened to her.
Her father nurtured neither fancy nor imagination in her, and this is apparent in her home with Bounderby. Her home is a vacuum that lacks every detail a woman longs for in a home she is fond of. Stephen Blackpool is not as self-centered as Mr. Bounderby, for others' welfare comes first for him. They have established a union in Coketown, and he does not want to participate in their action.
Stephen is cast out by the other Hands and fired by Bounderby from the factory when he refuses to spy for him. Stephen experiences the fact that he is lonely and has no friends. This is very hard for him although he is used to being alone without much companionship.
Dickens was against strikes, because he felt they only created a muddle between the employee and employers. Sonstroem, Dickens depicts an upcoming strike in Hard Times, and he hints that it is there that the workers in Coketown are mislead by Slackbridge, their union leader. Stephen Blackpool is an honest man, but is suspected of being a thief when money disappears from Mr. Tom tricks Stephen to wait at the bank, and he says he will help him with some money.
Stephen loiters near the bank for three evenings. He is seen at the bank by Mrs. Sparsit the third evening before he goes away to seek a job elsewhere. Stephen suffers the destiny to die for Tom's crime of stealing money from the bank and thus becomes a victim. He falls into a mine shaft on his way back to Coketown, when he wants to clear his name. He tries to encourage himself by looking at a bright star that seems to shine on him during his suffering and misfortune.
The 16 star is a symbol of some imagination and fancy, which enables him to escape the hard facts of his sad reality. The first chapter reveals Gradgrind in his school talking about what is most needful in life that is facts. But, the in first chapter of Book the Third Gradgrind reveals another tone.
He has realized by the conduct of his daughter Louisa and his son Tom that facts cannot be the only source to obtain fulfillment and Louisa and her father begin the process of emotional healing.
Gradgrind does not know how to make Louisa happy, and hopes that Sissy will be able to help her, because she is a good-natured girl and imaginative. Louisa has treated her with coldness, but nevertheless Sissy understands her difficulties and helps her together with Louisa's younger sister, Jane, to come to terms with her loneliness and chaotic feelings.
Harthouse has not expected this. He is self-centered and has manipulated Louisa's heart. She cannot stand it, and does not understand the passions she has for him, and gets desperate. This episode with Harthouse has awakened Louisa's emotions and fancy, which only makes her unhappy, for she had never realized that she could have such feelings.
Harthouse is an egoist, and does not care how he influences other people and so fails to understand Louisa's plight. But this declaration has no effect on Sissy, and the fact is that Harthouse has no alternative but to leave Coketown never to return. Josiah Bounderby is a self-made man as he often declares.
There was such a thing sometimes, even in Coketown. Seen from a distance in such weather, Coketown lay shrouded in a haze of its own, whi They went about recruiting; and where could they enlist recruits more hopefully, than among the fine g THE WHELPIT was very remarkable that a young gentleman who had been brought up under one continuous system of unnatural restraint, should be a hypocrite; but it was certainly the case with Tom. Oh, my friends and fellow-countrymen, the slaves of an iron-handed and a grinding despotism!
Oh, my friends and fellow-su Come in, and speak up. The shadows of night had gathered so fast, that he did not look about him when he closed the door, but plodded strai With the aid of a little more coaching for the political sages, a little more genteel listlessness for the g DOWNTHE national dustmen, after entertaining one another with a great many noisy little fights among themselves, had dispersed for the present, and Mr.
Gradgrind was at home for the vacation. He sat It seemed, at first, as if all that had happened since Sparsit, with a violent cold upon her, her voice reduced to a whisper, and her stately frame so racked by continual sneezes that it seemed in danger of dismemberm LOSTTHE robbery at the Bank had not languished before, and did not cease to occupy a front place in the attention of the principal of that establishment now.
In boastful proof of his promptitude an No Stephen Blackpool. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play. LitCharts From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Hard Times by Charles Dickens. Download this LitChart! Themes All Themes. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Themes and Colors. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Hard Times , which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Fact vs. Thomas Gradgrind believes completely in this system, and as a superintendent of schools and a father, he makes sure that all the children at the schools he is responsible for and especially… read full theme analysis. Industrialism and Its Evils. Dickens depicts this situation as a result of the industrialization of England; now that towns like Coketown are focused on producing more and more, more dirty… read full theme analysis.
Unhappy Marriages. Louisa marries him… read full theme analysis. Download it!
Louisa , as disadvantaged as she is by her terrible upbringing, manages to get out of her crisis at the last minute by fleeing home to her father for shelter, in contrast to… read full theme analysis. Cite This Page. MLA Chicago.