echecs16.info Theory GRAPHIC DESIGN THEORY PDF

GRAPHIC DESIGN THEORY PDF

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Graphic Design and Print Production Fundamentals by Ken Jeffery is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Chapter 3. Design Elements, Design Principles, and Compositional Organization hugo-ball-dada- echecs16.info Gavin Ambrose + Paul Harris The Fundamentals of Graphic Design F The .. The discipline is at the forefront of creative thought, advancing theory on how to. The fifth edition of this text continues to weave a concern for design principles with specialized information about applications in the field of graphic design.


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Graphic design theory: readings from the field / edited by Helen Armstrong. p. cm. — (Design briefs). PDF | Graphic design is more usually discussed through the material outcomes of the process of graphic designing, rather than process itself. This is common in. PDF Worksheet. Get started four sections: Section 1: Graphic Design theory .. 'Typography' Visual element of Graphic Design / Design theory ep 8. Design.

Why do you need to download them? They can give you a clean starting point. Most of the time, the hardest part of making a design is getting started. Through these resources, you can create a more seamless process that could help you address any roadblocks you may be having every single time you work on a project. There are also quite a few new concepts here, so these could also be something you can inject to your existing routine. Remember that there will always be some room for improvement, especially in an ever evolving industry such as design.

Never short-cut this stage, because it determines the strength of the final solution. For a student, the thumbnails are more important than the final project, because they demonstrate thinking, experimentation, and growth.

Keep these thumbnails. The ideas in them may be of use to you in other projects. Prospective employers may wish to see evidence of the flexibility and tenacity of your thinking Figure Tammy Roemer created the computer generated thumbnail experiments in Figure for an ice drink logo to be placed in her student portfolio.

Thumbnails are usually small because they are meant to be fast and not detailed. Fill a sheet of paper with ideas. The accompanying Web site for this chapter has a blank thumbnail page to fill with concepts. Never reject an idea; just sketch it in and go on. Work through the idea with your pencil or mouse from every perspective you can imagine. Then try taking one good idea and doing several variations on it.

You may also want to cut and paste and recombine existing images for new effects. It may be faster to work at a size determined by existing elements. In that case the thumbnails may become larger or smaller. Be as neat and precise as is necessary to show the relationship between elements and their general shapes. The stages of thumbnails, roughs, comps, and camera-ready art, however, often blend together when executed on a computer.

The danger with this blending is that, although software may help provide quick, workable solutions, it can be tempting to short-cut the planning stages.

Thumbnails are often best done by hand. They are vital to good design, in whatever size or stage of polish. They must exhibit flexible, tenacious visual thinking.

Figure shows how the pen and ink thumbnails for the cover design of this text investigate a variety of approaches. You may want to talk this choice over with other designers and with the instructor. Later, as a professional designer, you will present the thumbnails to an art director or the roughs to a client for review. Often, considerable redefining and rethinking occur at these stages.

The thumbnail process may begin all over again. On a computer, you may want to do a full-size rough. The purpose is to test whether the original idea works on a larger scale. Take this opportunity to work out small problem areas that you could not deal with or foresee at the thumbnail stage.

The type style, the other shapes, the relationship of these elements to the edge of the format, and the color and value distribution can all be refined at this stage.

Figure shows the rough designs presented for the cover of this text. The butterfly-dominated proposals were rejected by the publisher because they seemed too close to the InDesign identity. Comprehensives The comprehensive, or comp, is the fourth step in the design process.

It is the piece of art you present to the client for final approval. Although based on the rough, it is much more carefully done. Once again, consult with art directors, editors, or the instructor before choosing the rough idea to refine for your final solution. The client can judge the design solution from the comp, because it looks much like the finished printed piece.

It might include such diverse elements as photographs, computer-generated type, tight electronic illustrations, and a scanned pen-and-ink rendering. These comps will form the basis of your portfolio, which you will continue to develop in future classes Figures and show photographs of three-dimensional comprehensives. In the workplace, the final stage is the printed project. Compare the final printed cover for this text with its thumbnails and roughs, and consider what choices and changes you might have made.

Comps take different forms depending on the media for which they are intended. Television and film ideas are presented as storyboards, with key scenes drawn in simplified and stylized fashion, or as abbreviated animation. The three-dimensional comp for a package design may be presented in multiples in order to demonstrate the stacking display possibilities of the package.

A publication such as an annual report or a newsletter is usually represented by the cover and certain key pages in the layout design. A Web site is presented to the client with a flow chart and key pages completed. A rough or a comp can be sent to a client for approval via CD, e-mail, or fax. Presentation Practice selling the concept verbally before presenting it.

Discuss your design enthusiastically in terms the client or art director can understand. Be prepared, however, to listen and to compromise. If revisions are called for, note them carefully.

In this text, you will often be asked to write a brief presentation that will accompany your visual solution. Class critiques will give you an opportunity to practice your verbal presentation skills and your listening skills. Ready for Press Once accepted, the job is now ready for production. The comprehensive shown to Computergenerated rough designs for the cover of this text. CD comprehensive. Inkjet prints with folding insert and plastic holder makes this student portfolio piece look very professional.

Everything must be sent to the printer ready for press. The file must be cleanly prepared, with all links and fonts included. The disk or e-mail that contains the file must be carefully prepared. Base the designs you create on a sound knowledge of the reproduction and printing process introduced later in this text. The first chapters focus on building concepts and understanding design structure, while later chapters discuss the reproduction process. You need to practice building a strong design before focusing on how to reproduce it.

Begin your very first project with a respect for precision, accuracy, and cleanliness. There can be no compromise with perfection in this line of work. Many designers are responsible for selecting and communicating with a printer. Often the work must be bid on by two or three printers, giving each an opportunity to estimate costs. Selecting printing firms to bid for the work is often based on prior experience with the firms.

A three-dimensional comprehensive of the Artico product developed from the thumbnails shown in Figure Quality in printers, like quality in designers, varies.

Finding a good printer and establishing an easy working relationship is important. A good printer can be an excellent reference for answering tricky production questions and suggesting alternate solutions to an expensive design. What suits one person may feel like a limitation or undue pressure to another. You will want to have an idea of what the opportunities are before beginning your job search after college. Design Studios Clients with various needs and backgrounds may seek the assistance of a design studio.

The studio will have designers, production artists, account service representatives, and often illustrators and photographers on staff or on call. Design studios hire freelance creative help when their regular staff is too busy or lacks specific skills to handle a project. Designers working in a studio generally have other artists around to discuss and share ideas.

Clients consist primarily of various advertising agencies and large and small companies or institutions. The graphic design work prepared for these clients includes brochures, mailers, illustration and photography, catalogs, display materials, Web sites, and promotional videos.

Studios vary in size and in their client roster. Small studios with only a couple of designers who have good skills and equipment can provide full-service design.

Larger studios can provide room for advancement and a stimulating creative environment. Many in-house design operations offer services free to the other departments within the company.

Individual designers may work closely with the client or receive all information and instructions funneled through an art director. An in-house design organization may lack the variety of other artists and the challenge of interpreting and representing various clients that a design studio provides. However, an advantage to working in an in-house operation is the opportunity to get to know one company in depth by developing a relationship with it and its various departments.

Oftentimes the deadline pressure is less and the job security better than in a studio. It is sometimes possible to develop a corporate career by moving up within the organization.

The growth of computer software has caused a boom in in-house design as more and more companies find it possible to meet many of their publication needs themselves.

Printing Companies Many positions for designers exist at local printing companies. These companies sometimes have their own in-house design departments or hire graduates to do prepress work. A printing company can be an excellent place to gain valuable experience in the technical aspects of reproduction.

These in-house designers serve the particular needs of institutions ranging from hospitals, banks, newspapers, insurance companies, publishers, and colleges and universities to large and small manufacturing concerns. In-house design organizations vary greatly according to the type of product or service their institution provides.

Individual designers may keep track of their hours if the design department bills its time to Ideas and sales are the cornerstones of the advertising agency. It is dominated by people who deal in words. Account executives bring in the jobs and develop the advertising concepts with the creative director. The creative director, designer, and copywriter execute the concepts, although the number of people involved and the exact tasks performed vary from agency to agency.

Projects cover all forms of print and multimedia advertising, from film and video work to packaging, display, print ads, billboards, and Web sites. A good creative director is versatile. He or 15 Chapter 1 Applying the Art of Design she is skilled at conceptualizing and presenting ideas verbally and visually as well as directing others and organizing assignments.

More money is spent on advertising than on any other area of graphic design, which is reflected in the salary a designer can expect to earn in this field.

Freelance Working as a freelance artist allows a maximum amount of freedom, but it calls for certain business-related skills. Personal promotion, networking, and a constant vigilance to find new customers will help establish a freelance career. Good organizational skills in billing and record keeping, along with talent and hard work, keep a freelance business going. Computers, modems, and fax machines make it possible to live outside a metropolitan area and still maintain client contact, once it is established.

One of the drawbacks to a freelance career is the lack of company benefits. Health insurance and retirement benefits are not part of the package.

It can also be comparatively lonely though creatively fulfilling work. New Media Web-site creation calls for design skills with page layout, logo design, scripting, Digital Focus Graphic designers work at an array of jobs, using a variety of software to prepare their files.

Opinions differ on how best to prepare a student for this field. Some academic programs separate their software instruction from their classes in graphic design concepts but teach them concurrently.

Other programs begin the first classes with nondigital techniques, intending to build strong design skills through concentrating on principles before spending time on software rendering skills. Some programs integrate the two from the beginning, in all classes, believing they are best and most efficiently learned together.

Many companies now use the Internet to communicate with prospective clients, and designers play an important part in facilitating this informational and persuasive communication. Motion graphics and interactive and multimedia design are also exciting and rewarding new career directions. Every situation is unique, and this chapter provides only a generalized description of the types of situations in which a designer can find employment.

Many, many variations occur within the categories described. It involves visualizing the completed job, although the actual finished product will not be done by hand. Or it may be shown on a Web site or via another electronic mode of presentation. It involves meeting personal design standards as well as the needs of the client and the audience.

It calls for organization and self-discipline to meet the constant deadline pressure. In the classroom, students generally get one project at a time and a generous length of time to complete it. The emphasis in school is on learning.

Design theory pdf graphic

On the job, however, designers work on several projects at once and must uphold design standards while concentrating on time and money issues. A good education in design fundamentals that stresses theory and creative development as well as production techniques is important in this environment.

Designers must constantly update their education and stay current with new technologies. Technology has made major changes in the design field in recent years, and greater changes are on the way see Chapter 2. Your final challenge is to take a responsible stance in the world. Traditionally, it has been the fine artist who has set new visual trends and opened fresh creative ways to see ourselves.

The designer now also plays this role see Figure by wellestablished designer McRay Magleby. One of the issues facing contemporary design is the impact of our printed product on the environment.

Recycled paper products are part of an attempt to lessen the negative impact of printed materials on the environment. Online graphics are also helping. The aesthetic qualities of design affect our lives in many ways, but the total effect of a design solution has numerous varied and important impacts on our lives.

As designers, we are continually in the process of redefining our field. We need to examine how our culture and others function, and how our perceptions and our values shape, and are shaped by, the world around us. Figure , by freelance illustrator Diane Fenster, examines our various perceptions.

Wave of Peace poster design. Fenster was the first artist to be inducted into the Adobe Photoshop Hall of Fame, in September Exercise Research the types of employment opportunities in your geographic area. Find samples of a design firm, an in-house facility, and an advertising agency. Arrange a field trip to one of each.

If no such opportunities exist in your area, do the research on the Internet.

Graphic Design Theory ( Pages )

Write a brief report, sharing the information with your classmates. In fact, they are closely related. Design is affected by the fine arts as well as by scientists, psychologists, and the development of new technologies.

The study of design history is a relatively new discipline, but it can provide inspiration and insight into the future of design. The history of art and design provides a great deal of inspiration to contemporary designers.

Whatever the origin, the explosive development during the last decade of the 19th century is a good beginning point for study. Fine art and design often inspire one another. The Industrial Revolution brought about new attitudes and inventions, both of which contributed to the sudden growth of graphic design. It was a period of rapid industrial growth, when machines and large-scale production replaced hand tools. It began in the mid- to late s in England and spread to other countries in the s.

During this period, lasting in the United States and Europe through most of the s, nations shifted from an agricultural to a manufacturing base. A spirit of innovation and progress gave rise to a new interest in providing information to an entire culture rather than only to an affluent elite. The growth of population centers, industry, and a money-based economy all increased the need for the dissemination of information. Advertising flourished during this exciting time, and great strides were made in printing.

The first photographic metal engraving was invented in ; the first halftone screen was made in Pastilles Poncelet. Color lithograph, Milwaukee Art Museum Collection, gift of Mr. Richard E.

Color process work was first successfully printed in The first automated steam press for lithography was designed around , and the first offset press in Advancement in stone lithography color prints in the s encouraged artists to work directly on the stone for multiple reproductions of large-scale posters.

They were freed from the stiff, geometric confines of the letterpress. Stone lithography involves drawing the image on a stone by using a greasy black lithographic pencil. Plates are made for each color. The resulting burst of sensual and decorative images in the advertising posters of the time is classified as art nouveau. Toulouse-Lautrec was primarily a painter and printmaker who produced only about 32 posters as well as music and book jacket designs.

Mucha designed furniture, carpets, jewelry, and posters for the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt. He produced over a thousand posters, some of them close to seven feet Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Divan Japonais Japanese Settee. Lithograph, printed in color, composition: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Fund. This size was achieved by joining sections mounted on walls. Posters brought art out of the galleries and into the streets and homes of the working class.

Art nouveau became an international style that spanned the period from to Its organic, decorative quality stressed the invention of original forms that were often inspired by nature. These forms and shapes were applied not only to graphic design but also to product design and crafts. Its influence has lasted much longer than the official dates for the period. All of the functional arts grew during this time. In the United States, Louis Tiffany created stained glass windows, lamps, and glassware.

The illustrations in Figures and show early advertising design in the United States flourishing in the form of trade cards. Scottish archi Trade card. Nineteenth century.

Wisconsin Historical Society Iconographic Collection. An English artist whose work is an important example of art nouveau style is Aubrey Beardsley. A prolific artist with an enduring reputation, Beardsley died at age Parrish worked as an illustrator for the first three decades of the 20th century, creating book, magazine, and advertising illustrations inspired by art nouveau.

The legacy of art nouveau is not only its stylistic surface treatments Figure but also its concern with the interrelationship of materials, processes, and philosophy. Not all reactions to the Industrial Revolution embraced progress. William Morris founded the Kelmscott Press in against what he regarded as the massproduced, inferior, inhuman product of the machine. Styles of past eras were being copied in art schools and factories with an emphasis on quantity over quality.

He and the writer-philosopher John Ruskin wished to renew an appreciation for handcrafted, Image not available due to copyright restrictions Aubrey Beardsley.

Pen-and-ink drawing for an illustration in Salome. The British Museum. Morris worked in many different media, including fabric, rugs, wallpaper, furniture, and typography. His highly stylized hand-printed books and hand-woven tapestries are wonderful examples of English art nouveau. Morris was a key figure in the English arts and crafts movement. This movement originated in England around the middle of the 19th century and its influence spread to continental Europe and the United States.

It rejected the heavy ornamentation of the Victorian style in favor of good craftsmanship and clean design. An intensely romantic idealist, Morris was deeply concerned with the ethics of art. He equated bad design with a faulty ethical system.

He is credited, along with the Bauhaus, with bringing about a renewal of Image not available due to copyright restrictions the standards of craftsmanship Figure His work was an inspiration to European modernists who, in turn, greatly influenced American art of the 20th century. In Albert Einstein made public his theory of relativity and altered our ideas of space and time. They became interrelated variables instead of isolated absolutes. Confection Kehl, Marque: PKZ, Winterthur Untertor 2.

Lithograph, printed in color, Gift of Peter Muller-Munk. H Sexuality also was no longer safely reserved for the bedroom but appeared in various symbols in everyday life. The accepted boundaries of reality began to shift. See the accompanying Web site for links that explore these ideas.

The philosophy of existentialism further undermined faith in absolutes by suggesting that there is no single correct answer or moral action. Instead we are individually responsible for shaping meaning. This philosophy argues that humans define themselves by the choices and actions they freely and consciously make. Subjectivity rules over absolutes. Meanwhile, travel and the growth of a communications network made it possible for us to hear of cultures with different 24 Graphic Design Basics lifestyles, beliefs, and perceptions.

This communications explosion continues to be one of the most important influences on society today. As designers we play an important part in its development. Art and design reflect society and help shape it.

Exploring Information and Communication Theory in Graphic Design Education with Activity Theory

Pointing the way to cubism, it emphasized the flat surface of the canvas and resembled the symbolic, patterned figures of African art.

The relationship between the figures and the picture plane itself was ambiguous. As cubism developed, shapes became increasingly abstracted, showing objects from multiple points of view, with transparent overlapping. Such shapes denied an absolute, inviolate place in space for any single object. In these respects, cubism influenced the subsequent development of 20th-century design.

Nature was no longer the only form of reality to depict. The human mind itself played a part in structuring reality, and subjectivity ruled over absolutes. The cubist practice of integrating letterforms into paintings influenced the typography of subsequent art and design movements.

In Germany, Friedrich Nietzsche and the nihilist rebellion contributed to the expressionist movement, which appeared around The nihilists championed the independence of the individual, questioning the validity of all forms of preconceived ideas and social norms. The expressionist movement aspired to show subjective emotions and responses rather than objective reality. The idea that art is primarily self-expression led to a dramatic non-naturalistic art, typified by Oskar Kokoschka and Ernst Kirchner Figure Led by Henri Matisse and similar in look to expressionism, with its open disregard of the forms of nature, fauvism favored wildly expressive, subjective, and non-local colors.

Fauvism ended around , while expressionism ended around Neoexpressionism, influenced by the expressionists and the fauves, shows up today in contemporary illustration. The concept of local color versus arbitrary color continues to contribute to contemporary art and design.

Ehrenfels suggested that the parts interact to form a new whole. Our perception of an object is influenced by the arrangement of objects around it. This work pointed the way to another new idea.

Reality could be seen as dependent on context rather than as absolute. This is an important part of our contemporary understanding of design and visual perception. In at the Frankfurt Institute of Psychology, Max Wertheimer, an admirer of Ehrenfels, began research on apparent movement, which is the basis for the motion picture.

Pdf graphic design theory

He asked why we perceive some images as belonging together and others as not. He arrived at the Gestalt principle of unit forming, which describes how we organize and interpret patterns from our environment. Simply put, things that are similar will be perceptually grouped together. For a more detailed description of unit-forming factors, see Chapter 5. See the accompanying Web site for links to investigate these ideas.

Germany also gave birth to Peter Behrens, a pictorial and graphic artist who moved into architecture. He was an artist of the Deutsche Werkbund, founded in Inspired by William Morris and the English arts and crafts movement, the Werkbund artists believed in examining the moral questions inherent in art and Pablo Picasso.

June— July Oil on canvas. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. Behrens received the first corporate identity job in the history of design. AEG, a large German corporation, asked him to design everything from its architecture to its advertising and products Figure Behrens taught Walter Gropius, who would later become famous as a leader of the Bauhaus, which we will discuss soon. Poster for AEG lightbulbs. Modernism encompassed fine art, graphic design, and architecture through various movements, including cubism, futurism, Plakatstil, suprematism, Dada, de Stijl, the Bauhaus, and constructivism.

Many artists and designers fit into multiple categories. The years before World War I brought new movements that continued to expand our notion of reality.

Design theory pdf graphic

Futurism showed time itself on canvas by capturing motion through multiple images. The movement was established around by the Italian poet Emilio Marinetti and developed by artists such as Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, and artist-designer E. McKnight Kauffer, who spent much of his career as an illustrator. The futurist artists were so named for their optimistic belief that the machines of the Industrial Age would lead to a better future. Ironically and sadly, many artists of the movement were killed in World War I Figure Motion pictures were popular by They widened our visual reality, creating images that moved Gino Severini.

Armored Train in Action. Gift of Richard S. Plakatstil, a flat-color pictorial design style that maintained a balance between 2-D design structure and imagery, emerged in Germany early in the 20th century. Lucian Bernhard created a compelling series of advertising posters using imagery made from flat colors with an emphasis on shape, combined with the product name Figure Around this same time, another movement surfaced that would strongly influence graphic design.

Dada was founded in by a group of poets, chief of whom was the Romanian-born Tristan Tzara. Its name, like the movement itself, had no meaning, according to the Dadaists. The following poem is by Tzara: You owe me: No more drunkards! No more aeroplanes! No more vigor! No more urinary passages!

No more enigmas! The Dadaists were extremely important in 20th-century art and philosophy because they questioned meaning itself with an assault on all accepted values and conventional behavior.

Marcel Duchamp exhibited such things as bicycle wheels, urinals, and bottle racks, challenging the criteria by which we define something as art. I wanted to put painting again at the service of the mind. One of the many Dada publications, Der Dada, introduced photomontage. It was characterized by an intentional disorder. Letters of all types and sizes, various languages, and dictionary illustrations mingled Figures and Figurative photographic images were treated with the same freedom from conventions.

Osram AZO. download Fund. Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago. Mary Reynolds Collection. In the Russian Kazimir Malevich began painting abstract geometric compositions.

Malevich formulated a theoretical basis for his paintings, which he called suprematism. He viewed them as the last chapter in easel painting that would point to a universal system of art headed by architecture. This architectonic approach led the way to constructivism, a movement that saw painting as a structurally driven construction, like architecture.

Constructivism began as a Soviet youth movement. The Russian Revolution of Kurt Schwitters. Merz Drawing Drawing F. Merzzeichnung Zeichnung F. Collage of cut-and-pasted paper wrappers, announcements, tickets, Katherine S. Dreier Bequest. A Belgian art nouveau artist, he moved to Germany in to teach and became interested in architecture and a more structural approach to art.

An architect, designer, educator, and painter, his ideas contributed to the later development of the Bauhaus movement. His only poster was for Tropon, a concentrated food product. In his writing he called for a new art that would integrate the best of the decorative and the applied arts of the past.

The first abstract painting is attributed to Wassily Kandinsky. He and others were working in an abstract fashion by 28 Graphic Design Basics Henry van de Velde. Poster, Bridgeman Art Library. Light Picture. December Oil on canvas, Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Photo by Robert E. Civicminded artists designed posters and packaging intended to attract downloaders to state products.

Advertising became a means for artists, poets, and others to advance the goals of Soviet society. The state enterprises flourished with the support of painters turned graphic designers Figure Rodchenko worked in a variety of media, including filmmaking and set and costume design for film and theater.

Graphic Design Theory: Readings From The Field [2009] – Helen Armstrong

He designed posters for several films by using photo collage. El Lissitzky was a Russian constructivist and designer who devoted a great deal of effort to propaganda work. He also Aleksandr Rodchenko. Kino Glaz Film Eye.

Gift of Jay Leyda.

Pdf graphic design theory

Lissitzky experimented with the photogram and foresaw the importance photography would come to have in graphic design. This innovative thinking and design work spread its vision to other countries.

In Germany, Lissitzky and the Bauhaus influenced advertising and packaging design.

Closely related to constructivism, de Stijl developed in Holland, where artists El Lissitzky. Two-page layout from Great Beginnings. It flourished during the s in Europe and strongly influenced the later Bauhaus work. De Stijl was antiemotion and based on a utopian concept of style. At first glance, it may look similar to the Bauhaus movement described later, but de Stijl was more concerned with formal aesthetic problems than with function. The most widely known painters of the period are Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg.

Their style is the epitome of de Stijl, with straight black lines set at right angles to one another and a careful asymmetrical balancing of primary colors. Figure shows an armchair by Gerrit Rietveld, a leader of the movement. His design is reduced to its basic components of line, planes, and color. These de Stijl artists strongly influenced graphic design.

Wood, painted, height, Their exchange of ideas formed a core for the Bauhaus after This German design school shaped 20th-century graphic design, product design, furniture, and architecture. Expressionism, Dada, constructivism, and de Stijl influenced the Bauhaus in its early years. By the late s, the Bauhaus was emphasizing functional graphic design.

The Bauhaus trained artists in all areas. It attempted to bridge the gap between pure and applied art, to place equal importance on all areas of arts and crafts. It stressed clean, functional forms. Its weavers, metalsmiths, and carpenters did not attempt to produce works of art, but rather, good and useful designs in which form was tied to function. The industrial designer was born from this movement. Bauhaus publications featured asymmetry, a rectangular grid structure, and sans-serif type.

The contributions by artists of the Bauhaus have been vastly important and continue to exert a strong influence in contemporary design. See the accompanying Web site for links to investigate. Here are a few Bauhaus artists who were influential in the development of graphic design. Josef Albers is known for his research into color and structural relationships Figure His wife, Anni Albers, was a gifted fiber artist Figure He saw the camera as a design tool that could be integrated with typography to create a new and better communication.

Herbert Bayer created several typeface designs, including Universal Figure In keeping with the Bauhaus philosophy, he believed in removing personal values from the printed page, leaving it purely logical and functional in design Figure Bayer typically avoided using capital Image not available due to copyright restrictions 32 Graphic Design Basics Herbert Bayer. Studie zum Universalalphabet. Design for wall hanging.

Gift of the designer. Image not available due to copyright restrictions 33 Image not available due to copyright restrictions metrical layout. An underlying horizontal and vertical structure unified the page. The Swiss also continued to develop the ideas of the Bauhaus in typography and layout design from the s onward.

Their emphasis on visual unity and formal grid elements contributed greatly toward shaping the design field. Personal expression was rejected in favor of order and clarity.

The predominant graphic design style in the world by the s, it featured a strong reliance on typographic elements, usually sans serif typefaces in a flush left and ragged right format. A looser design by Lyonel Feininger forms the title page for a portfolio featuring the work of many famous Bauhaus artists Figure After the Nazis forced the closing of the Bauhaus in , many of its artists immigrated to the United States.

There they greatly influenced American architecture and graphic design. New typography is a term that came to identify new, Bauhaus-inspired approaches to graphic design. Its chief German proponent, Jan Tschichold, created typography that emphasized clarity. White space was used to create visual intervals in an asym- 34 Graphic Design Basics Art deco appeared as a definite style in Paris around It was especially influenced by art nouveau and also by African sculpture and cubism.

Although it developed at the same time as the Bauhaus, art deco emphasized the figurative image with decorative appeal.

It was applied to architecture, clothing, graphic design, advertising, packaging, crafts, and furniture. Perhaps the best-known and most respected art deco artist, who continues to have a strong influence today, is A. His posters and advertisements show the influence of cubism, but the forms retain a recognizable physical identity balanced with an intricate Gestalt unity Figure It is a very recognizable style.

For a time, art deco was out of favor in the eyes of architects and designers because it did not follow the Bauhaus tenets of functional, non-ornamental design. Surrealism also surfaced in the s. Now the style is often incorporated into the eclectic mix of contemporary design. Image not available due to copyright restrictions tated today, and in fact he created quite a lot of advertising illustration Figure Other surrealists, like Max Ernst and Man Ray, show the influence of Dada in their unorthodox and compelling arrangement of elements.

In the s many surrealist artists were putting found objects in strange combinations that evoked poetic and unconscious associations. Figure is an advertising photo created by a team of women designer-photographers in that shows Owing a philosophical debt to Dada for its questioning attitude, it was joined by several Dada artists. This literary and artistic movement was based upon revealing the unconscious mind in dream images, the irrational, and the fantastic by juxtaposing incongruous subject matter.

Like the author James Joyce, who used streamof-consciousness techniques rather than rational, linear development of characters, surrealists sought to reveal the subconscious.

Surrealism has exerted a strong influence on illustration. Nord Express. Gift of French National Railways. Upon close examination, we realize that what appears to be an attractive woman is actually a mannequin, although her hand is real. This forces the potential downloader to look again, a major aim of an advertisement. Gelatin silver print. Modernists believed that each new generation must build on past styles in new ways or break with the past in order to make the next major historical contribution.

Modernism is associated with innovation and progress. Its demise is often dated to , although some argue that it continues as a strong influence today, concurrent with postmodernism, especially in the design field.

It closed after one year, and Moholy-Nagy operated his own Institute of Design from to This school offered the first complete mod- ern design curriculum in America. Many samples of modernist American graphics are shown throughout this text. Lester Beall, an American-born Chicago artist, embraced modern design and European influences from cubism, constructivism, and Dada. Working in New York in thes, he combined drawing, symbols, photography, and mixed typefaces into a coherent, eclectic design.

Many young American designers of the time drew inspiration from European modern art and design, including Paul Rand. Rand realized that his role as a designer involved reinventing the problem presented by the client Figures , , , a, , and Through the s and early s, Cipe Pineles learned editorial art direction from one of the masters of the era, Dr. She became at Glamour magazine the first autonomous woman art director of a massmarket American publication.

She was the first art director to hire fine artists to illustrate mass-market publications. She was one of the few women designers to gain recognition during this period. Designers from this period synthesized the influences of European avant-garde and design movements to create new designs for magazines, posters, advertisements, and corporate communications.

Figure shows Cipe Pineles at work. Copyright AIGA. Advertising designers dealt with the proliferation of national television and radio networks, the emergence of large chain stores, and the importance of public perception and corporate identity. The International Design Conference in Aspen was founded in to assess and discuss the role of design in the commercial environment. This conference continues to meet in Aspen every summer. The s saw the emergence of design curricula in universities and art schools and the articulation of an important concept.

See the accompanying Web site for more information related to individuals in this section. Push Pin Studios was founded in in opposition to the spirit of Swiss Design. This studio revived art nouveau, art deco, and narrative illustration, turning to visual history for inspiration.

This attitude, with its historical references, heralded postmodernism. Logo for Eros magazine. A magazine with a graphically beautiful approach to love and sex; only four issues were published. McLuhan saw print media as an isolationist influence, giving rise to categorization, linear sequencing, and dogmatism. Television, according to McLuhan, has the potential to reunite society into a new global village. It certainly exerts a major influence on advertising and communication and, thus, on society.

Magazine design was a creative area in the s. Herb Lubalin, a major figure in the field, was art director for the countercultural magazines Avant Garde and Eros Figures , , , and Alternative publications with political and cultural commentary flourished during the s. Postmodernism In the s the term postmodernism was first applied to architecture, and a questioning of rational Swiss Design led to New Wave, or postmodern, graphic design. This period has questioned the modernist concept of constant innovation and progress.

Contradictory and coexistent trends from a variety of historical periods provide rich concepts for study. The remainder of the 20th century saw history as a shopping mall of styles. Art deco and art nouveau were among the styles that were revived and revised, as decorative and figurative work regained respect.

Women had an important impact on design during this time and afterward. Designer and educator Katherine McCoy joined in questioning the modernist ideal of a permanent, universally valid aesthetic. She encouraged the production of visually rich and complex designs, believing that there is more to design than the clear, impartial transmission of information.

McCoy believes designers interpret and communicate cultural values through the forms they create. See Figure Cranbrook recruiting poster. Images of student projects are layered with typography and a diagram related to design theory. Courtesy, Katherine McCoy. Art director—designer. Design Quarterly Does It Make Sense? Publication insert, Walker Art Center, MIT Press Publisher. Electronic media have been used to explore and invent eclectic, personal art and design work.

During the s the question of style over substance became an important issue. Theorists such as Stuart Ewen questioned the role and impact of advertising design on society. Her mock ads and billboards used typographical devices and images to expose the persuasion-consumption cycle of commercial advertising Figure Figure Barbara Kruger.

Technology has become an increasingly important issue during the postmodern period. Murial Cooper and others at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT developed the Visible Language Workshop—a multidisciplinary, multimedia Digital Focus The computer made possible the visual and conceptual layering that is the hallmark of postmodernism in graphic design.

By the late s, as you can see in Figure by Katherine McCoy, type could be overlapped to create a rich visual texture and be intertwined with the photographic image. It is much easier to accomplish such an effect totally on the computer today. By the last decade of the 20th century, postmodern typography could be used to explore multiple meanings rather than strictly to clarify a fixed message. The Internet is a very postmodern medium, with its interactive, non-linear flow.

The impact of ever-developing computer technology influences our style and our content. Ideas change technology, and technology influences ideas. Gift of the artist. This is a comprehensive and thoughtful text that provides a foundation for many contemporary design history classes.

Later chapters discuss this development in greater detail. In the opening years of the 21st century, the use of electronic technology in the United States and internationally has revolutionized design. Style and content are affected by the technology used in their creation. The Development of Computer Graphics Computer graphics, the use of computers to draw images, dates back to , when a simple visual display of a bouncing ball was used to calculate and show military targets.

Funding for the development of computers and computer graphics in the United States originally came from the Defense Department. A light pen touched to the video screen could draw a line stretched from the previous point. Although its early development was tied to defense and aerospace, computer graphics now has a wide variety of applications, from engineering, medicine, and geology to graphic design, animation, the film industry, and the Internet.

Figure shows an excellent Internet site hosted by the National Design Museum, presenting topics on design. Designated Drive. Web site to visit this location. Figure shows stills using a 3-D animation program, created by Seth VandeLeest for his student portfolio. Computer graphics today has many different stylistic approaches and methods of delivery.

This medium promises to transform the nature of communication as well as physical and political boundaries. Figure shows two stills from a multimedia installation that artisteducator Coleen Deck created in Adobe After Effects.

Unlike books, film, or video that present linear information, the new electronic media are truly interactive and present nonlinear, animated browsing opportunities. The Internet offers not only interactivity but also freedom from the physical constraints of traditional media. This diptych installation uses Adobe After Effects to integrate image and motion. Computer graphics has come a long way since the original moving-ball display in the s.

The digital desktop has come a long way since the Macintosh was introduced in the mids. The Internet has become a vehicle for marketing products and disseminating information of all kinds.

Web-site production is a growing market for graphic designers, and the complexity of these sites is increasing rapidly. Our ability to communicate with interactive visuals and to create desktop video and 3D animation is also developing a new market for graphic designers. Virtual reality is another developing technology. It extends the senses, allowing a person to move through and interact with a computer-simulated environment by wearing special glasses and clothing or other sensors.

These monitor physical movements and gestures in the alternate, virtual world. Psychologist R. It involves knowledge of objects from previous experience and not only sight but touch, taste, smell, hearing, and perhaps also temperature or pain.

As we continue into the 21st century, it is interesting to remember the important developments at the turn of the last century. The future will be exciting and challenging for designers intent on maintaining an emphasis on issues of values and content while learning and using a proliferation of new media.

Project In consultation with your instructor, research a contemporary designer mentioned in this chapter or elsewhere in the text. Behrens received the first corporate identity job in the history of design. AEG, a large German corporation, asked him to design everything from its architecture to its advertising and products Figure Behrens taught Walter Gropius, who would later become famous as a leader of the Bauhaus, which we will discuss soon.

Poster for AEG lightbulbs. Modernism encompassed fine art, graphic design, and architecture through various movements, including cubism, futurism, Plakatstil, suprematism, Dada, de Stijl, the Bauhaus, and constructivism. Many artists and designers fit into multiple categories. The years before World War I brought new movements that continued to expand our notion of reality.

Futurism showed time itself on canvas by capturing motion through multiple images. The movement was established around by the Italian poet Emilio Marinetti and developed by artists such as Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, and artist-designer E. McKnight Kauffer, who spent much of his career as an illustrator. The futurist artists were so named for their optimistic belief that the machines of the Industrial Age would lead to a better future. Ironically and sadly, many artists of the movement were killed in World War I Figure Motion pictures were popular by They widened our visual reality, creating images that moved Gino Severini.

Armored Train in Action. Gift of Richard S. Plakatstil, a flat-color pictorial design style that maintained a balance between 2-D design structure and imagery, emerged in Germany early in the 20th century. Lucian Bernhard created a compelling series of advertising posters using imagery made from flat colors with an emphasis on shape, combined with the product name Figure Around this same time, another movement surfaced that would strongly influence graphic design.

Dada was founded in by a group of poets, chief of whom was the Romanian-born Tristan Tzara. Its name, like the movement itself, had no meaning, according to the Dadaists. You owe me: No more drunkards! No more aeroplanes! No more vigor! No more urinary passages! No more enigmas! The Dadaists were extremely important in 20th-century art and philosophy because they questioned meaning itself with an assault on all accepted values and conventional behavior. Marcel Duchamp exhibited such things as bicycle wheels, urinals, and bottle racks, challenging the criteria by which we define something as art.

I wanted to put painting again at the service of the mind. One of the many Dada publications, Der Dada, introduced photomontage. It was characterized by an intentional disorder. Letters of all types and sizes, various languages, and dictionary illustrations mingled Figures and Figurative photographic images were treated with the same freedom from conventions. Osram AZO.

download Fund. Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago. Mary Reynolds Collection. In the Russian Kazimir Malevich began painting abstract geometric compositions. Malevich formulated a theoretical basis for his paintings, which he called suprematism. He viewed them as the last chapter in easel painting that would point to a universal system of art headed by architecture. This architectonic approach led the way to constructivism, a movement that saw painting as a structurally driven construction, like architecture.

Constructivism began as a Soviet youth movement. The Russian Revolution of Kurt Schwitters. Merz Drawing Drawing F. Merzzeichnung Zeichnung F. Collage of cut-and-pasted paper wrappers, announcements, tickets, Katherine S. Dreier Bequest. A Belgian art nouveau artist, he moved to Germany in to teach and became interested in architecture and a more structural approach to art. An architect, designer, educator, and painter, his ideas contributed to the later development of the Bauhaus movement.

His only poster was for Tropon, a concentrated food product. In his writing he called for a new art that would integrate the best of the decorative and the applied arts of the past. The first abstract painting is attributed to Wassily Kandinsky.

He and others were working in an abstract fashion by 28 Graphic Design Basics Henry van de Velde. Poster, Bridgeman Art Library.

Light Picture. December Oil on canvas, Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Photo by Robert E. Civicminded artists designed posters and packaging intended to attract downloaders to state products. Advertising became a means for artists, poets, and others to advance the goals of Soviet society. The state enterprises flourished with the support of painters turned graphic designers Figure Rodchenko worked in a variety of media, including filmmaking and set and costume design for film and theater.

He designed posters for several films by using photo collage. El Lissitzky was a Russian constructivist and designer who devoted a great deal of effort to propaganda work. He also Aleksandr Rodchenko. Kino Glaz Film Eye. Gift of Jay Leyda. Lissitzky experimented with the photogram and foresaw the importance photography would come to have in graphic design.

This innovative thinking and design work spread its vision to other countries. In Germany, Lissitzky and the Bauhaus influenced advertising and packaging design. Closely related to constructivism, de Stijl developed in Holland, where artists El Lissitzky. Two-page layout from Great Beginnings. Courtesy of the artist. It flourished during the s in Europe and strongly influenced the later Bauhaus work.

De Stijl was antiemotion and based on a utopian concept of style. At first glance, it may look similar to the Bauhaus movement described later, but de Stijl was more concerned with formal aesthetic problems than with function. The most widely known painters of the period are Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg. Their style is the epitome of de Stijl, with straight black lines set at right angles to one another and a careful asymmetrical balancing of primary colors.

Figure shows an armchair by Gerrit Rietveld, a leader of the movement. His design is reduced to its basic components of line, planes, and color. These de Stijl artists strongly influenced graphic design. Wood, painted, height, Their exchange of ideas formed a core for the Bauhaus after This German design school shaped 20th-century graphic design, product design, furniture, and architecture.

Graphic Design Theory

Expressionism, Dada, constructivism, and de Stijl influenced the Bauhaus in its early years. By the late s, the Bauhaus was emphasizing functional graphic design. The Bauhaus trained artists in all areas. It attempted to bridge the gap between pure and applied art, to place equal importance on all areas of arts and crafts.

It stressed clean, functional forms. Its weavers, metalsmiths, and carpenters did not attempt to produce works of art, but rather, good and useful designs in which form was tied to function. The industrial designer was born from this movement. Bauhaus publications featured asymmetry, a rectangular grid structure, and sans-serif type.

The contributions by artists of the Bauhaus have been vastly important and continue to exert a strong influence in contemporary design. See the accompanying Web site for links to investigate. Here are a few Bauhaus artists who were influential in the development of graphic design. Josef Albers is known for his research into color and structural relationships Figure His wife, Anni Albers, was a gifted fiber artist Figure He saw the camera as a design tool that could be integrated with typography to create a new and better communication.

Herbert Bayer created several typeface designs, including Universal Figure In keeping with the Bauhaus philosophy, he believed in removing personal values from the printed page, leaving it purely logical and functional in design Figure Bayer typically avoided using capital Image not available due to copyright restrictions 32 Graphic Design Basics Herbert Bayer.

Studie zum Universalalphabet. Design for wall hanging. Gift of the designer. Image not available due to copyright restrictions 33 Image not available due to copyright restrictions metrical layout.

An underlying horizontal and vertical structure unified the page. The Swiss also continued to develop the ideas of the Bauhaus in typography and layout design from the s onward. Their emphasis on visual unity and formal grid elements contributed greatly toward shaping the design field. Personal expression was rejected in favor of order and clarity. The predominant graphic design style in the world by the s, it featured a strong reliance on typographic elements, usually sans serif typefaces in a flush left and ragged right format.

A looser design by Lyonel Feininger forms the title page for a portfolio featuring the work of many famous Bauhaus artists Figure After the Nazis forced the closing of the Bauhaus in , many of its artists immigrated to the United States. There they greatly influenced American architecture and graphic design. New typography is a term that came to identify new, Bauhaus-inspired approaches to graphic design.

Its chief German proponent, Jan Tschichold, created typography that emphasized clarity. White space was used to create visual intervals in an asym- 34 Graphic Design Basics Art deco appeared as a definite style in Paris around It was especially influenced by art nouveau and also by African sculpture and cubism.

Although it developed at the same time as the Bauhaus, art deco emphasized the figurative image with decorative appeal. It was applied to architecture, clothing, graphic design, advertising, packaging, crafts, and furniture. Perhaps the best-known and most respected art deco artist, who continues to have a strong influence today, is A.

His posters and advertisements show the influence of cubism, but the forms retain a recognizable physical identity balanced with an intricate Gestalt unity Figure It is a very recognizable style. For a time, art deco was out of favor in the eyes of architects and designers because it did not follow the Bauhaus tenets of functional, non-ornamental design.

Surrealism also surfaced in the s. Now the style is often incorporated into the eclectic mix of contemporary design. Image not available due to copyright restrictions tated today, and in fact he created quite a lot of advertising illustration Figure Other surrealists, like Max Ernst and Man Ray, show the influence of Dada in their unorthodox and compelling arrangement of elements.

In the s many surrealist artists were putting found objects in strange combinations that evoked poetic and unconscious associations. Figure is an advertising photo created by a team of women designer-photographers in that shows Owing a philosophical debt to Dada for its questioning attitude, it was joined by several Dada artists. This literary and artistic movement was based upon revealing the unconscious mind in dream images, the irrational, and the fantastic by juxtaposing incongruous subject matter.

Like the author James Joyce, who used streamof-consciousness techniques rather than rational, linear development of characters, surrealists sought to reveal the subconscious.

Surrealism has exerted a strong influence on illustration. Nord Express. Gift of French National Railways. Upon close examination, we realize that what appears to be an attractive woman is actually a mannequin, although her hand is real. This forces the potential downloader to look again, a major aim of an advertisement.

Gelatin silver print. Modernists believed that each new generation must build on past styles in new ways or break with the past in order to make the next major historical contribution. Modernism is associated with innovation and progress.

Its demise is often dated to , although some argue that it continues as a strong influence today, concurrent with postmodernism, especially in the design field. It closed after one year, and Moholy-Nagy operated his own Institute of Design from to This school offered the first complete mod- ern design curriculum in America. Many samples of modernist American graphics are shown throughout this text.

Lester Beall, an American-born Chicago artist, embraced modern design and European influences from cubism, constructivism, and Dada. Working in New York in thes, he combined drawing, symbols, photography, and mixed typefaces into a coherent, eclectic design. Many young American designers of the time drew inspiration from European modern art and design, including Paul Rand.