C. George Boeree: Personality Theories Gordon Allport. Index. Index. 2. Biography. 3. Theory. 4. The proprium. 4. Traits or dispositions. 5. Psychological. Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, – October 9, ) was an American Biography 1; Visit with Freud 2; Allport's trait theory 3; Genotypes and. Gordon Allport (–) was widely recognized as a major contributor to the Download entry PDF . Indeed, Allport can be seen as both the father and critic of modern trait theories such as the five factor model (John and Robins ).
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Concepts of Trait and Personality - Kindle edition by Gordon W. Allport. Download it once and read it A Theory of Human Motivation. A. H. Maslow. out of 5. interpretation. [Gordon W Allport] Edition/Format: eBook: Document: English View all editions and formats. Rating: The theory of traits -- The nature of. The Trait Perspective -- Ch. Trait Theory / Gordon W. Allport -- Ch. Factor- Analytic Trait Theory / Raymond B. Cattell -- pt. IV. The Behaviorist Perspective.
When Gordon was 6 years old, the family had moved many times and finally settling in Ohio. His early education was in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio, where his family moved when he was six years old. His father was a country doctor with his clinic and hospital in the family home. Because of inadequate hospital facilities at the time, Allport's father actually turned their home into a makeshift hospital, with patients as well as nurses residing there. Gordon Allport and his brothers grew up surrounded by their father's patients, nurses, and medical equipment, and he and his brothers often assisted their father in the clinic. Allport reported that "Tending office, washing bottles, and dealing with patients were important aspects of my early training" p.
There are no "moral traits" until trends in personality are evaluated. Tests which deal with morality admit an extra and uncertain variable.
For example, in obtaining an estimate of a child's "knowledge of right and wrong," results must vary according to the environment taken as a standard. By which code shall the personality of the child be judged?
There is also confusion between personality and the factors underlying personality. Tests for physique, for intelligence, or for temperament are not tests of personality. It is not physique which acts, nor intelligence which acts, nor temperament; it is the person who acts. If, then, personality is the object of inquiry, traits of personality should not be confused with qualities or quantities of intelligence, physique, or temperament.
These latter factors are merely convenient abstractions by way of which psychology has arrived at the problem of human personality. Inventories of "traits" at present include a reckless array of non-comparable factors.
Kantor, e. This practice would suggest the view that traits have merely a nominal existence. Such indeed is the attitude of Symonds, who regards them as dangerous fictions like the faculties of old. If "traits" are merely nominal entities, there is still the problem as to what constitutes the existential unit of personality. In the section which follows contributions are reviewed which bear upon the problem of the nature of this unit.
For convenience it is proposed to rescue the term "trait" from the confusion in which it is embedded and to apply it consistently to designate the unit sought. As An Independent Statistical Variable. Studies using the quantitative approach tend to derive the definition approximately as follows: A trait is a tendency to reaction which when measured with reliability demonstrates an independence of other variables.
Cady objects to the use of the term "trait" in any other sense, and thinks by such delimitation a schedule may eventually be prepared of basic or generic elements in personality. Thorndike says, "Let a 'single trait' be defined as one whose varying condition in men can be measured on one scale. A combination of traits requires two or more scales.
Thus, Trow from experimental results concludes: "It would seem that little is to be gained from talking about speed of decision as a trait, if we mean by that that it is possessed in a constant amount by any one person, and used in that same quantity with slight variation on all occasions. He professes an open mind, however, as regards certain traits, such as neatness and a sense of humor.
Working with sixth grade children, Dowd made an investigation, bearing upon the common contention that there is a quick type of person and a slow type. Utilizing very simple tests, she found that "rate is not to any appreciable extent an individual characteristic consistent for different performances.
The range of coefficients was from. Dowd's findings are typical of the studies which are offered as evidence for a lack of correlation between mental abilities and as support of the nonfocal theory of intelligence. The dispute concerning levels of organization in intelligence may be expected to have its counterpart in the problem of levels in personality.
A few recent studies vide infra presage theories of multifocal organization in personality.
For a unifocal theory it is still necessary to refer to Webb's hypothesis of a "g" factor of a characterial nature. The view that traits are specific, nonfocal reactions has, of course, long been maintained. Thorndike stresses the "singularity and relative independence of every mental process, the thoroughgoing specialization of mind," and to explain the apparent inclusiveness of traits he leans upon the Law of Partial Activity. Symonds proposes the term "confact" to designate this constant conduct response to the common element of different situations.
Perrin and Klein, from the approach of theory rather than experiment, claim likewise that "traits are responses conditioned upon specific stimuli," and "must be defined in terms of a particular stimulus and a particular response. In this as in everything they behave like habits simply because they are habits possessed of social significance. Traits become predictable to the extent that identities in stimulus situations are predictable.
Not all of the statistical studies can be interpreted to favor this view of specific, nonfocal response. Kelley maintains that since "cleverness" Garnett and "social interest" Wyman are demonstrably related they are "probably just different aspects of a single underlying trait. The characteristics of type-trait are: 1 that a direct or indirect quantitative measure of it exists, 2 that in a given age group it exists in amounts which correlate to the extent zero with other measured traits, 3 that this zero correlation stamps the type-trait with a peculiar value in interpreting mental life.
It is interesting to note that the result of this approach is the discovery of three outstanding type-traits which parallel closely, so far as they go, Spranger's Lebensformen, viz. Other constellations, of not quite so high an order, are reported.
Freyd finds co-variation in respect to talkativeness, flexibility, present-mindedness, good-nature, and quickness in work. Theories of perception and the concept of structure.
New York: Wiley. A theory of enestruence event-structure. American Psychologist, 22, In taking an eclectic and humanistic approach to the study of personality, Gordon Willard Allport drew on a wide variety of sources, from William McDougall's theory of motives to the experimental-social psychological analysis of behavior. Whereas Allport also drew some of his ideas from the psychodynamic theories of personality, he was opposed strongly to the Freudian views of the unconscious, and he rejected any reductionist theory i.
In examining the other sciences and scientific methods, Allport opposed extensive borrowing from the natural sciences and asserted that the methods and theoretical models that have been useful in the physical sciences may only mislead one when attempting to study complex human behavior. Allport conceived of personality as an organized entity that is future-oriented and not merely a bundle of habits and fixations.
He argued that one's self or proprium is able to make choices where it can influence the development of its own personality along with adjusting to the emergence of new motivational systems "functional autonomy of motives".
Allport emphasized a multifaceted methodological approach toward personality study that combined the idiographic study and analysis of single cases and the nomothetic discovery of general or universal laws that apply to all humans viewpoints.
Even though Allport developed various tests of personality traits, values, and attitudes, he saw little merit in conducting factorial-type studies of personality. Allport's theory of personality is often called a trait theory where traits i. Murray's need; S. Freud's instinct; and W. McDougall's sentiment theories. One of All-port's early studies found almost 18, words in the dictionary that could be used as trait names to describe personality.
Using an idio-graphic approach of analysis where an individual's unique personality traits are arranged into a hierarchy from "most important" at the top to "least important" at the bottom, Allport then divided the hierarchy into three separate groups of traits: cardinal the uncommon, but pervasive and all-encompassing characteristics that influence most areas of only a few people's lives, such as humanitarianism and honesty , central specific behavioral tendencies that are highly characteristic of an individual, such as outgoing and ambitious , and secondary the less-enduring and transitory characteristics such as liking to cycle or hike.
Allport emphasized that no two people have exactly the same traits, and his trait theory of personality stressed the uniqueness of the individual. Although few psychologists have embraced All-port's personality theory in its total form, it has nevertheless been influential and useful, especially in its restoration and purification of the ego concept, and Allport himself was one of the few theorists who provided an effective bridge between academic psychology and clinical-personality psychology.
Whereas All-port's main work was on the development of a comprehensive personality theory, his interests were wide-ranging, including studies on rumor, social attitudes, religion, graphology, eidetic imagery , radio voices, and prejudice.
Critics of Allport's theoretical orientation and work cf. Bertocci, J. Seward, and N. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of Allport's work has been its ability to exert a broad influence and sense of novelty in psychology in spite of its pluralism and eclecticism. Personality traits: Their classification and measurement.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, Allport, G. Noting that each outside judge seemed to have a preferred column, the authors decided to present the classifications performed by Odbert.
Rather than try to rationalize this decision, Allport and Odbert presented the results of their study as somewhat arbitrary and unfinished.
Rather than rely on the factors obtained by these researchers,  Warren Norman conducted an independent analysis of Allport and Odbert's terms in This resulted in a source list of approximately 40, potential trait-descriptive terms.
Using this list, Norman then removed terms that were deemed archaic or obsolete, solely evaluative, overly obscure, dialect-specific, loosely related to personality, and purely physical. By doing so, Norman reduced his original list to 2, unique trait-descriptive terms. Also the concept is called the naive picture of the world in order to stress the non-scientific view of the world which is imprinted in natural language. Apresjan puts forward the idea of building dictionaries on the basis of "reconstructing the so-called naive picture of the world, or the "world-view", underlying the partly universal and partly language specific pattern of conceptualizations inherent in any natural language".
In particular, one chapter of the book Apresjan allots to the description of lexicographic reconstruction of the language picture of the human being in the Russian language.
In his essay "A Plea for Excuses," J. Austin cited three main justifications for this approach: words are tools, words are not only facts or things, and commonly used words "embod[y] all the distinctions men have found worth drawing The following list describes some of the major critiques levelled against the lexical hypothesis and personality models founded on psycholexical studies.