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Everything you ever wanted to know about "Packaging" but were afraid who to ask? This presentation is a collection of information from various. Packaging Technology By Walter Soroka [PDF] [EPUB] A vertical form fill 1 Perfect English GrammarMagic In Your Mind Bob Proctor Pdf. Packaging - a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing & use. Soroka, W. Fundamentals of Packaging Technology.
Technical Functions Marketing Functions contain measure communicate promote protect dispense display sell preserve store inform motivate Figure 1. Until the s, motor oil was delivered in bulk to service stations, which in turn measured it into 1-quart glass jars; premeasured oil in metal cans; - Now, milk delivery from glass bottles to a variety of plain and aseptic paper cartons, plastic bottles and flexible bags; - Tomorrow, how oil or milk will be delivered?
Primitive Packaging 1. Social groupings restricted to family units. Primitive Packaging 2. How packaging changed as social structures changed - B. Primitive Packaging 3. Early packaging materials - fabricated sacks, baskets, and bags, made from materials of plant or animal origin; wood boxes replaced hollow logs; a clay bowl, the fire-dried clay pots the pottery and ceramic trade. The discovery of glass - By B. Primitive Packaging - Glass containers, the ancient packaging materials, core- formed ancient Egyptian glass containers Figure 1.
From Rome To The Renaissance 1. How packaging changed as social structures changed - Many societal changes leading to the corresponding changes in packaging: The invention of the glass blowpipe, wood barrels - The Romans in about 50 B. From Rome To The Renaissance 3. From Rome To The Renaissance 5. Ancient printing - In , the oldest existing printed objects Japanese Buddhist charms ; in , the oldest existing book the Diamond Sutra printed, found in Turkistan.
The Renaissance - In about , the European awoken, neglected crafts revitalized, the arts revived and trade increased, by the s, the art of printing born. From Rome To The Renaissance - ate what they raised, found or caught - consumer needs: The Industrial Revolution 1. The I. The Industrial Revolution 2. The Industrial Revolution 3. The dramatic changes in how we lived - The changes increased the demand for barrels, boxes, kegs, baskets, and bags to transport the new consumer commodities and to bring great quantities of food into the cities.
The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 1. How the Industrial Revolution affected packaging The evolution of selling and informing as vital packaging roles - Bulk packaging was the rule, with the barrel being the workhorse of the packaging industry. The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 3. The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 4. The new packaging material-plastics - The first plastic based on cellulose , made in The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 6.
Changes in the way we traveled and shopped, changes in the retail store - The small community general store was no longer enough. Packaging In The Late 20th Century 1.
Changes in demographics - Demographics, the study of population structure and trends, universally realized to be an important factor in designing products and packages. Fast food and other institutional markets - Fast-food appeared and created a demand for disposable single-service packaging. Packaging In The Late 20th Century 3. Legislated changes - In the s and early s, many aspects in packaging legislated: Packaging In The Late 20th Century 5. The advent of microwave ovens, the vanishing domestic housewife - Devising products and packaging specifically for the microwave.
Modern Packaging 1. The trend toward more intensive marketing - marketers aimed at lifestyles, emotional values, subliminal images, features, and advantages beyond the basic product itself; - the package has become the product, and occasionally packaging has become entertainment. Why packaging is important to our food supply - Food is organic in nature an animal or plant source ; - One characteristic of such organic matter is that it has a limited natural biological life. Freedom from geographical and seasonal food production - Most food is geographically and seasonally specific.
Modern Packaging - In a world without packaging, we would need to live at the point of harvest to enjoy these products, and our enjoyment of them would be restricted to the natural biological life span of each. Modern Packaging 3. Advantages of central processing and prepackaged food - Central processing allows value recovery from what would normally be wasted.
Packaging in developed countries - To agonize over choice of package type, hire expensive marketing groups to develop images to entice the targeted downloader and spend lavishly on graphics. Modern Packaging 2. Packaging in less-developed countries - At the extreme, consumers will bring their own packages or will consume food on the spot, just as they did 2, years ago; - Packagers from the more-developed countries sometimes have difficulty working with less- developed nations;.
The United Nations and packaging. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 1. The sources of waste material - A discussion of packaging today means eventually turning to environmental issues. Hence, packaging is garbage. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 2.
The percentage of waste that is packaging - The University of Tennessee provides the following breakdown of total landfill waste Residential waste: The materials in the waste stream Waste Management and Environmental Issues 4. Consumer perceptions of packaging - North American consumers have a basic distrust of manufacturers; to them, manufacture is a dirty business. Jurisdictions - Most waste-management issues: Waste Management and Environmental Issues 6.
Waste Management and Environmental Issues 7. The four Rs hierarchy and what it means - Reduce: Waste Management and Environmental Issues Table 1. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 8. Recycling realities - The public myths: Placing material in a blue box constitutes recycling. Recycling does not occur until someone uses the material collected. Recycled material should be economical. In many instances, recycled material is more costly, and its use needs to be supported in some way.
Waste Management and Environmental Issues d Environmentalists maintain that recycling is an issue of the environment, not of economics. Money expended to recycle a material represents an investment in fuel, water and other resources. When the resource investment to recover a material exceeds the value of the material recovered, then the harm to the environment is greater, not less. Waste Management and Environmental Issues - significant investment in sophisticated equipment. Waste Management and Environmental Issues www.
Waste Management and Environmental Issues 3. One or another of the many materials used for packaging is more environmentally friendly. There is no magic material. Laminate constructions are, in fact, environmentally friendly.
The Modern Packaging Industry 1. To this point, packaging becomes a materials application science. The company forming the physical package will also print or decorate the package. Professional packaging associations IoPP: World Packaging Organization www. The Modern Packaging Industry 3.
Other organizations having a major impact on packaging activities ISO: International Safe Transit Association www. The Modern Packaging Industry www. Lesson 2 Packaging Functions www.
Introduction 1. Introduction 2. The first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale. A wrap or containment of the primary package.
A wrap or containment whose prime purpose is to protect the product during distribution and to provide for efficient handling. A number of distribution packages bound together and unitized into a single entity for purposes of mechanical handling, storage, and shipping.
Introduction Figure 2. Introduction 3. A package that will ultimately reach the consumer as a unit of sale from a merchandising outlet. A package for delivering goods from manufacturer to manufacturer. Industrial packaging usually, but not always, contains goods or materials for further processing.
Specifics on what will cause loss of value damage must be known. Examples of protective packaging problems Table 2. Examples of preservation packaging problems Table 2. Its organic nature makes it an unstable commodity in its natural form. Food Preservation 2. Volatiles can permeate packaging materials and making the problem of contamination or isolation even more difficult. In addition to biological action, fatty tissue is susceptible to oxidation, and the entire mass can lose water.
Moisture loss is more rapid with lettuce than with a turnip because of the large available surface area.
Few fruits will ripen below 50C. Trade-offs for many produce items: Fresh produce, for example, continues to respire after harvesting and would shortly consume all the oxygen in an oxygen-barrier package. This would lead to reduced shelf life. Plastic bags for produce commonly have vent holes punched in them to allow for a free exchange of atmospheric gases.
Food Preservation 3. The propagation and spread of molds and yeasts is typically slower than for bacteria because of the reproduction method. Prefer ambient conditions, C Psychrophilic: Prefer cool conditions, C Thermophilic: Food Preservation 4.
Six basic methods, which are used alone or in combination, can extend the normal biological shelf life of food: Ice crystals can pierce cell walls, destroying the texture of many fruits and vegetables. Rapid freezing reduces this damage.
Snug, good moisture-barrier packaging with a minimum of free air space will reduce freezer dehydration. Complete filling of the package is desirable. Prepared birds, placed into bags, pass through a vacuum machine that draws the bag around the bird like a second skin.
The tight barrier prevents water loss and freezer burn for extended periods, as well as preventing passage of oxygen that would oxidize fats and oils. The degree of treatment depends on the: The high temperature is enough to kill most pathogens.
In the s, aseptic packaging was adapted to institutional bag-in-box systems. Foods with acidities high enough to prevent harmful pathogens from propagating can be heat-processed by immersion in boiling water. Its largest customer is the military. Jams and marmalades having high sugar contents do not require refrigeration for this reason.
H is the atmospheric humidity condition under which a food will neither gain nor lose moisture to the air. Table 2. H for some common foods.
Food Preservation Table 2. These foods require a barrier package that will not permit the entry of atmospheric moisture. Dried foods such as potato chips and instant coffee require packaging materials with high moisture-barrier properties. In-package desiccants and oxygen scavengers are sometimes used to increase the shelf life of very sensitive products.
Dried foods with E. Depending on the food, oxygen or other barriers may still be needed. Foods with an E. If the food has a high oil content, oxygen barriers may be needed. Bacteriological activity is rarely a problem with low- or reduced-moisture foods since one of the essentials of bacterial growth has been removed. High E. A cake with an E. The packaging challenge is to control moisture loss, retarding it as much as possible, but not to the extent that a high humidity is established within the package.
Some, such as lactic, acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic acids, produce acid environments. Others, such as alcohol, are specific bacteriostats. Carbon dioxide, found in beers and carbonated beverages creates an acid environment and is also a bacteriostat.
Smoking and curing of meat and fish is partly a drying process and partly chemical preservation. Aliphatic and aromatic wood distillation products many related to creosote are acidic and have variable bacteriostatic effects. Varying amounts of salt pretreatment accompanies most smoking. Antioxidants and oxygen absorbers can reduce oxidation. It has the effect of eliminating some or all oxygen that might contribute to degradation.
Food Preservation Disadvantages: The integrity of all seals is of paramount importance. Ventilated or low-barrier packaging is needed to ensure a supply of oxygen and to rid the package of excess moisture.
With more energy still, they will interact with the molecules of the penetrated substance. Cobalt 60, a radioactive isotope, is the principal source of ionizing radiation gamma rays. It should be noted that while the energy source is radioactive, gamma rays cannot make other substances radioactive. However, the use of irradiation to achieve sterility for medical devices, packaging materials and personal care products does not present a problem and is a useful technology. Food Preservation The international food irradiation symbol www.
The Transport Function Table 2. Good package design take into account the implications of transport and warehousing, not just for the distribution package and unitized load, but for every level of packaging. The Transport Function 2. If the designer has done an effective job, that persona will appeal to the targeted audience. This is the realm of demographics and psychographics. Examples of such message are: Lesson 3 Paper and Paperboard www.
Introduction Definition of paper: Paper has been commercially made from such fiber sources as rags linen , bagasse sugar cane , cotton, and straw. Modern paper is made almost exclusively from cellulose fiber derived from wood. These machines were first installed in the United States around Fourdrinier machines may have a second headbox Figure 3.
Representative Papermaking Machines Figure 3. The fibers remain trapped on the screen www.
The paper is sometimes called vat paper. As the water pours through the screen, fiber accumulates on the outside of the screen. This thin layer of matted fiber is transferred onto a moving felt belt that passes sequentially over further rotating cylinders, each of which deposits another fiber layer. Representative Papermaking Machines Cylinder machines dewater furnish at the cylinder and paste a thin layer of fiber against the felt.
Figure 3. Representative Papermaking Machines The fibers of subsequent layers do not intermingle, and therefore the bond between the layers is weak. The dry end is similar to that of the fourdrinier machine. Cylinder machines do not have the fourdrinier machine's limitation on the number of stations, and six-or seven-station machines are common. Higher-caliper boards for folding and setup cartons are usually cylinder boards. Generally, papers are made on fourdrinier or twin-wire formers, whereas heavier paperboard products are made on cylinder-type machines.
Extremely heavy boards are made by laminating several thinner sheets. A typical cylinder board construction Figure 3. An advantage is that the plies can all be different www. The advantage is that dewatering takes place on both sides of the paper and is therefore fast. These machines can produce single and multi-ply sheets with identical formation at both faces.
Machine Direction and Cross Direction Depositing a fiber-and-water slurry onto a moving wire belt tends to align fibers in the direction of travel, known as the machine direction MD. The direction across the apermaking machine and across the fiber alignment is the cross direction CD Figure 3.
Because of this fiber alignment, paper is an anisotropic material; measured properties differ depending on the direction in which the property is measured. Paper specification sheets normally show physical values measured in both directions. Package designers need to be aware of paper's directionality. Cylinder machines tend to align fibers more than fourdrinier machines. Tensile strength ratios in MD and CD for a typical fourdrinier board are about 2: The greater the degree of fiber alignment, the greater the difference in a given property when measured in MD and CD.
The ratio of a property in the two directions is often used as a gauge of fiber alignment. Representative Papermaking Machines Cylinder machines tend to align fibers more than fourdrinier machines.
The ratio of a property in the two directions is often used as a gauge of fiber alignment www. Representative Papermaking Machines Surface or Dry-End, Treatments and Coatings After the paper is formed and dried, it is usually passed between multiple sets of heavy rolls Figure 3. This "calendering" operation has many variations, but the prime objective is to iron and smooth out the surface of the paper stock to make it more suitable for printing.
Calendering also compresses the paper sheet, giving a denser product and a glossier surface. Starch is a typical surface sizing used to fill surface voids and reduce liquid penetration rate. The paper surface may be dampened to help in smoothing it www. Representative Papermaking Machines To meet the highest opacity, gloss, brightness, and printing- detail requirements, papers are coated with pigments such as clay, calcium carbonate, and titanium dioxide.
Coated papers are usually called "clay-coated" regardless of the actual formulation. Coated papers are calendered to maintain a high-quality, smooth surface. In addition, highly sized and clay-coated boards can be difficult to bond with water-based adhesive because of poor liquid penetration and the inability of the adhesive to bond to the underlying fibers.
Where necessary, coated boards should have perforations in the adhesive-bond areas so that adhesive can penetrate to the body of the paper. For example, a 0. A ream is sheets, but the actual sheet size can vary depending on the product. In most instances a ream is taken to be 3, sq. Representative Papermaking Machines In metric units: The metric conversion factors are lbs.
Representative Papermaking Machines Paper and Moisture Content Paper is hygroscopic and absorbs and loses moisture according to the ambient relative humidity R.
The physical properties of paper vary dramatically with moisture content, and in some applications the moisture content of the paper during processing must be controlled. In addition to the type of paper or paperboard, the material is also characterised by its weight per unit area and thickness.
The papermaking industry has many specific terms and a good example is the terminology used to describe weight per unit area and thickness. Alternative units of measurement used in some parts of the industry would be pounds per square feet or pounds per square feet.
Appearance is characterised by the colour and surface characteristics, such as whether it has a high gloss, satin or matte finish. Paperboard is thicker than paper and has a higher weight per unit area. Paper and paperboard, in many packaging forms, meet these needs because they have appearance and performance properties which enable them to be made into a wide range of packaging structures cost-effectively.
They have physical properties which enable them to be made into flexible, semi-rigid and rigid packages by cutting, creasing, folding, forming, winding, gluing, etc.
Paper and paperboard packaging is used over a wide temperature range, from frozen-food storage to the temperatures of boiling water and heating in microwave and conventional ovens. Whilst it is approved for direct contact with many food products, packaging made solely from paper and paperboard is permeable to water, water vapour, aqueous solutions and emulsions, organic solvents, fatty substances except grease-resistant papers , gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, aggressive chemicals and volatile vapours and aromas.
Whilst paper and paperboard can be sealed with several types of adhesive, it is not itself heat sealable. Paper and paperboard can acquire barrier properties and extended functional performance, such as heat sealability, heat resistance, grease resistance, product release, etc.
Papers can be impregnated with a vapour-phase metal-corrosion inhibitor, mould inhibitor or coated with an insect repellent. Packaging made solely from paperboard can also provide a wide range of barrier properties by being overwrapped with a heat-sealable plastic film, such as polyvinylidene chloride PVdC coated oriented polypropylene OPP or as it is sometimes referred to BOPP.
Several types of paper and paperboard-based packaging may incorporate metal or plastic components, examples being as closures in liquid-packaging cartons and as lids, dispensers and bases in composite cans. They can also be incinerated with energy recovery and if none of these options is possible, they are biodegradable in landfill.
We have defined paper and paperboard and summarised the reasons why this type of packaging is used. We now need to discuss the underlying reasons why paper and paperboard packaging is able to meet these needs. Cotton, wool and flax are examples of fibres and we know that they can be spun into a thread and that thread can be woven into a sheet of cloth material.
Papers and paperboards are also based on fibre, but the sheet is a three-dimensional structure formed by a random intertwining of fibres.
The fibres are prepared by mixing them with water to form a very dilute suspension, which is poured on to a moving wire mesh. The paper structure is formed as an even layer on the wire mesh, which acts as a sieve. Most of the water is then removed successively by drainage, pressure and heat.
So why does this structure have the strength and toughness which makes it suitable for printing and conversion for use in many applications, including packaging? To answer this question we need to examine the choices which are available in the raw materials used and how they are processed. According to tradition, paper was first made in China around the year AD using fibres such as cotton and flax. Such fibres are of vegetable origin, based on cellulose, which is a natural polymer, formed in green plants from carbon dioxide and water by the action of sunlight.
The process initially results in natural sugars based on a multiple-glucose-type structure comprising carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in long chains of hexagonally linked carbon atoms, to which hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl OH groups are attached. This process is known as photosynthesis, oxygen is the by-product and the result is that carbon is removed fixed from the atmosphere.
Large numbers of cellulose molecules form fibres — the length, shape and thickness of which vary depending on the plant species concerned. Pure cellulose is non-toxic, tasteless and odourless. The fibres can bond at points of interfibre contact as the fibre structure dries during water removal. It is thought that bonds are formed between hydrogen H and hydroxyl OH units in adjacent cellulose molecules causing a consolidation of the three-dimensional sheet structure.
The degree of bonding, which prevents the sheet from fragmenting, depends on a number of factors which can be controlled by the choice and treatment of the fibre prior to forming the sheet.
The resulting non-woven structure which we know as paper ultimately depends on a three-dimensional intertwined fibre network and the degree of interfibre bonding. It is flat, printable, creasable, foldable, gluable and can be made into many two and three dimensional shapes. These features make paper and paperboard ideal wrapping and packaging materials.
Over the centuries, different cellulose-based raw materials, particularly rags incorporating cotton, flax and hemp, were used to make paper, providing good examples of recycling. During the nineteenth century the demand for paper and paperboard increased, as wider education for the increasing population created a rising demand for written material.
This in turn led to the search for alternative sources of fibre. Esparto grass was widely used but eventually processes for the separation of the fibres from wood became technically and commercially successful and from that time onwards wood has become the main source of fibre.
The process of fibre separation is known as pulping. Sources of fibre Basically, the choice is between virgin, or primary, fibre derived from logs of wood and recovered, or secondary, fibre derived from waste paper and paperboard. The properties of virgin fibre depend on the species of tree from which the fibre is derived. The flexibility, shape and dimensional features of the fibres influence their ability to form a uniform interlaced network.
Some specialised paper products incorporate other cellulose fibres such as cotton and hemp and there is some use of synthetic fibre. The longer, wood-derived, fibres used by the paper and paperboard industry are around 3—4 mm in length and the short fibres are 1—1. The fibre tends to be ribbon shaped, about 30 microns across and therefore visible to the naked eye. The separation of fibre from wood is known as pulping. The process may be based on either mechanical or chemical methods. Mechanical pulping applies mechanical force to wood in a crushing or grinding action which generates heat and softens the lignin thereby separating the individual fibres.
As it does not remove lignin, the yield of pulp from wood is very high. The presence of lignin on the surface and within the fibres makes them hard and stiff. They are also described as being dimensionally more stable. This is related to the fact that cellulose fibre absorbs moisture from the atmosphere when the relative humidity is high and loses moisture when the relative humidity is low.
This is accompanied by dimensional changes and these are reduced if the fibre is coated with a material such as lignin. The degree of interfibre bonding is not high. This, as will be discussed later, has technical and commercial implications. Figure 1. Wood in chip form may be heated prior to pulping in which case the pulp is known as thermomechanical pulp TMP and when this is accompanied by a limited chemical treatment to remove some of the lignin, it is called chemi-thermomechanical Refiner Washed wood chips Figure 1.
Mechanical pulp retains the colour of the original wood and CTMP is lighter in colour. Chemical pulping uses chemicals to separate the fibre by dissolving the non-cellulose and non-fibrous components of the wood Fig. There are two main processes characterised by the names of the types of chemicals used.
The Sulphate process, also known as the Kraft process, is most widely used today because it can process all the main types of wood, and the chemicals can be recovered and re-used. The other process is known as the sulphite process.
It has a lower yield than the mechanically separated pulp due to the fact that the noncellulose constituents of the wood have been removed. This results in a higher degree of interfibre bonding. Furthermore, the average fibre length of wood from the same species is longer than for mechanically separated fibre. It is also more flexible.