echecs16.info Theory DIGITAL SLR PHOTOGRAPHY PDF

DIGITAL SLR PHOTOGRAPHY PDF

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Mastering Composition in Digital Photography: Creative Techniques for Capturing DSLR Photography for Beginners: Best Way to Learn Digital Photography. selling authors of digital camera guides, digital photography, and imaging to see that a book about digital SLR cameras should cover both the cameras. Basic principles of photography Fast-forward years: the digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) Digital cameras employ an electronic sensor consisting.

Currently they are available for the D and D, additional models will be covered during Contents The first part covers all camera settings: Quick reference — all settings arranged into neat small groups and listed with short explanations Detailed explanations and tips for every single camera setting. The second part about practical usage navigates through all the camera settings: How-to-guides take you through all settings step by step; in three chapters for beginners, advanced users and experts. New for the D Basics of digital photography, consistently explaining for each general topic how it applies specifically to your camera. The guide to Nikon D has an additional chapter about basics of digital photography and how they apply specifically to this camera. Format The PDF documents are equally suitable for reading on a monitor or printed.

Therefore, to balance the exposure, you could do the following: Situation 1: Reduce the shutter speed by a factor of 4, i.

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Situation 2: Reduce the ISO by a factor of 4, i. Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all facotrs that influence your exposure, and are all linked.

They all have the net effect of reducing the amount of light by a factor of 4, countering the change in aperture. Further Reading: Read more about the Exposure Triangle. Master Metering Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates the exposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing? When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation e.

This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at a bright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph the resulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it.

Similarly, if you point your camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photograph the resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it. The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time that results in the image appearing to be correctly exposed. However, you can control what areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influence the way in which the exposure is metered.

Practically speaking: when starting out with your camera, either average or centre weighted metering are a good starting point. They will both provide a fairly consistent measure of the exposure required and, if you select one mode and stick with it, you will soon begin to understand when a scene will be under exposed i.

That is where exposure compensation comes in. It allows you to either increase or decrease the cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene. A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Left: Straight out of camera, with the snow caught as grey.

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The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera. Learn About Focussing Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus. If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted. This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc.

When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down.

25 Common Photography Terms All Beginners Need to Know

If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject. When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken. That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens.

If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF. When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red. That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on. If you are using a single shot mode, you have to depress your shutter three times.

Check out the DSLR camera manual for your camera to understand how it works. Canon photography tips In canon you will find the automatic exposure bracketing in the menu.

Use it to make variations between the shots. It is advisable to use the one stop variation. This is what you will use to vary the Automatic Exposure Bracketing setting. Use this setting in aperture priority mode or in the shutter priority mode.

White balance You have to set the correct white balance in the digital camera as a way of ensuring the white images are correctly displayed. Why do you need check white balance when taking your shots? One thing you need to know is images taken at different sources of light will show different colors. This should set an alarm that the image you shot at a cinema hall, the horizon or in areas covered with snow will require you to adjust your camera settings so that you produce perfect color mixture.

If you are taking shots in places with fluorescent lightings, you might find them with a bluish cast due to this light, incandescent bulbs add a yellowish tinge to the lining of the images. All this will be solved by adjusting the white balance. How do I adjust the white balance setting?

Some DSLR cameras have automated or semi automated ways of adjusting the white balance. Understand each component of the setting is the best way of adjusting your camera white balance. This is what I mean; I can explain by using the example of the auto and the shade setting.

This is the way to use them.

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The auto setting allows your DSLR camera to guess the lighting and make the best shot as per its decision. If you are in a tricky place that you do not understand the type of lighting this is the best setting. The shade setting recognizes the difference in lighting when in direct sunlight and when in a shade.

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When you set your camera in this mode, it will warm the images in the shade and this will help you have a perfect shot. This is the reason you have found most photographers criticizing the use of flash while taking photos. Some of the manufacturers have released cameras that now push the ISO higher rather than use the flash. If you use your camera flash appropriately, you will avoid blowing your photos with a lot of light.

Here is the tip Do not use your flash only when it is dark.

Even outdoors when the light is still there, a flash will increase the image quality of your photos. When you want to pick good photos with your DSLR camera here is the best way to use your flash; Ensure you are close to the subjects to make the flashlight have some impact on the subjects. If it is not possible to get close to them, it is better to use the ISO setting. It will produce a better image than the flash.

Use slow sync flash. This will ensure you do not interfere with the ambient light in the photography scene. A slow sync flash is only applied when the shutter speed is low while shooting with an open shutter. Diffuse your flash may be by use of a white card when you are using the fixed flash unit. Also, make sure to increase the exposure compensation to avoid interfering with the image lighting.

Dirty DSLR image sensor If your camera has a dirty image sensor, you will get photos that have dark spots. You will note that every photo has the spots in the same position. There is a high likelihood of dirtying your cameras image sensor even without your knowledge. This is what camera manufacturers fails to guide you: Anytime you are changing your camera lenses you should always turn it off to avoid attracting dust to the lens.

When changing lenses, your camera should be upside down. You should always have the new lens ready before opening your camera to change the old lens. Avoid overexposing your camera to dust.

Your image sensor is sensitive; clean it with care Changing your camera lenses in dusty places is dangerous. You will definitely pick some specks of dust. If you want to use it for long, you must ensure it is well maintained. A large component of the maintenance is cleaning the camera. For the lens, they should be regularly cleaned especially when they are dirty.

But some of us do not know the best way to clean their camera lenses. Alcohol lens cleaning fluids should be used every time you are cleaning your DSLR cameras. To the photographers who use their breath and a cloth, it is advisable also to wipe the lens with the cleaning fluids.

The lens tissue should be used to wipe the lens; this will help you avoid scratching them. If you do not have a lens cloth, use microfiber cleaning cloth. Here are more cleaning tips…… When you are using your blower to clean inside your camera, ensure you squeeze it out as a way of removing any dust from the blower.

Be careful while using the blower, you might damage the camera while cleaning it. If your camera has a lot of clouds of dust on the outside, use a brush with soft hair while cleaning it.

A lens cleaning pencil is one the best brushes to use on your camera. Throw some silica gel sachets in your camera bag to draw away moisture that might harm your DSLR camera lenses. Controlling your background It is a dream of each photographer to have a great background for his photos. The background tells us a lot about the quality of the images taken. It is highly advisable to check your background before you take the photo.

If you find that the background is not appealing, move your subject to the place you love. Another way to ensure you pick a good background is to change your shooting angle. To the experienced photographers, they know the best way to vary the shooting angle to avoid distractions and also to capture the best background. Here are some of the best ways to perfect your background; Use the aperture setting to blur the unwanted background.

It allows you to either increase or decrease the cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene. A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Straight out of camera, with the snow caught as grey.

The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera. Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus. If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted. AF-S — autofocus-single. This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc.

When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down. If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous.

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This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject. When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken. That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens. If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF.

Understanding Focus Modes. Focus Points Both of those focus modes rely on what are known as focus points. When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red.

That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on. A viewfinder with 9 focus points is shown below:. New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it on fully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be able to select the correct focus point.

However, only you know what you want to focus on, and there is no better way than ensuring the correct subject is in focus than by using one focus point, and placing that focus point over the subject. If you select a single focus point, you should be able to change which point is active fairly easily either by using directional buttons one of the dials. If you select a focus point that is on your desired subject, you will ensure that the camera focuses where you want it to.

After a small amount of practice, you will soon get into the habit of being able to change the focus point without taking the camera away form your eye. Initially, set your camera to use a single focus point your camera manual should tell you how to do this.

This way, you will be able to choose what you are focussing on, ensuring that the subject you want to capture is in focus.

Once you are familiar with the basic focussing modes and focus point selection, you can then explore the more advanced modes that your camera may offer. You will have the option to be able to change the size of the images that your camera records, and in which file type. A raw file is uncompressed, and so contains a lot of image data that allows for a lot of flexibility during post-processing i. A jpeg is a compressed file type, that is automatically processed by the camera.

When starting out with your camera, using jpeg is the most straight forward. It will enable you to get the best results whilst you learn the basics or your camera before complicating matters with post-processing of raw files. If shooting in jpeg, as recommended above, you will need to make sure you set your white balance before taking a picture.

The white balance can significantly impact colour tone of your photographs. You may have noticed that sometimes your images have a blueish tone to them or, in others, everything looks very orange. This is to do with the white balance and, whilst you can make some adjustments to the image on your computer, it is much simpler if you get it right up-front.

Different light sources such as the sun, light bulbs, fluorescent strips etc emit light of different wavelengths, and therefore colours, which can be described by what is known as colour temperature.