New Cambridge History of India series. JOHN F. RIDDICK. Central Michigan University. Fairbank, John King, and Merle Goldman. China: A New History. modern.] A HISTORY OF CHINA by. WOLFRAM EBERHARD. CONTENTS the new empire 3 Fusion of Chou and Shang 4 Limitation of the imperial power 5. China: A New History. The American Historical Review, Volume 98, Issue 5, December , This content is only available as a PDF.
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China: a new history / John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman.—2nd. enl. ed. Introduction: Approaches to Understanding China's History. 1. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, — p. John King Fairbank was the West’s doyen on China, and this book is the full and final expression of his lifelong engagement with this vast ancient civilization. The distinguished historian Merle Goldman brings the book up. China: a new history / John King Fairbank and Merle echecs16.info enl. ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk.
Feudal society bureaucratic — Tang to the First Opium War Feudal society semi-colonial — First Opium War to end of Qing dynasty Capitalist society — Republican era Socialist society — PRC to present Because of the strength of the Communist Party of China and the importance of the Marxist interpretation of history in legitimizing its rule, it was for many years difficult for historians within the PRC to actively argue in favor of non-Marxist and anti-Marxist interpretations of history. However, this political restriction is less confining than it may first appear in that the Marxist historical framework is surprisingly flexible, and it is a rather simple matter to modify an alternative historical theory to use language that at least does not challenge the Marxist interpretation of history. First, slavery existed throughout China's history but never as the primary form of labor. While the Zhou and earlier dynasties may be labeled as feudal , later dynasties were much more centralized than how Marx analyzed their European counterparts as being. To account for the discrepancy, Chinese Marxists invented the term "bureaucratic feudalism".
He also published an expanded revision of his doctoral dissertation as Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast in One of his students, Paul Cohen , noted that the approaches or stages in the development of China studies of the s are sometimes referred to as "the Harvard 'school' of China studies.
He was its director from to He welcomed and funded researchers from all over the world to spend time in Cambridge and hosted a series of conferences, which brought scholars together and yielded publications, many of which Fairbank edited himself.
He established the Harvard East Asian Series, which published monographs to enable students to publish dissertations, which was essential for achieving tenure.
Originally intended to cover the entire history of China in six volumes, the project grew until it reached a projected 15 volumes. Twitchett and Fairbank divided the history, with Fairbank editing volumes on modern post China, and Twitchett and others took responsibility for the period from the Qin to the early Qing dynasties. Fairbank edited and wrote parts of Volumes 10 to 15, the last of which appeared in the year after his death.
Hsu , Akira Iriye , Philip A.
Thomson, Jr. Wills, Jr. By his grounding the study of Asia in modernization theory , Fairbank and other liberal scholars presented China as an irrational country, which needed American tutelage.
Since Fairbank rejected revolution, he condoned imperialism. A later report said a "debacle unfolded as Harvard historian and AHA president in John Fairbank literally wrestled the microphone from Zinn's hands",  in what Fairbank called "our briefly-famous Struggle for the Mike. On September 14, he delivered the manuscript to Harvard University Press , then returned home and suffered a fatal heart attack. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
This is the second of two volumes of this authoritative history which review the Republican period. The titanic drama of the Chinese Revolution is one of the major world events of modern times. The fifteen authors of this volume are pioneers in its exploration and analysis, and their text is designed to meet the needs of non-specialist readers. After a preliminary overview A century of revolutionary upheaval in China reached a climax in with the creation of the People's Republic.
A central government had now gained full control of the Chinese mainland, thus achieving the national unity so long desired.
Moreover, this central government was committed for the first time to the overall modernization of the nation's polity, economy, and society With regard to China particularly, T.
Tsiang and John Fairbank used newly opened archives in the s to write modern history from a Chinese point of view. This approach was attacked for ascribing the change in China to outside forces. The Marxist view saw the events of as a Bourgeois Revolution.
Against this, Chen Shui-bian proposed his own four-stage theory. Postmodernism[ edit ] Postmodern interpretations of Chinese history tend to reject narrative history and instead focus on a small subset of Chinese history, particularly the daily lives of ordinary people in particular locations or settings.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message From the beginning of Communist rule in until the s, Chinese historical scholarship focused largely on peasant life interpreted via the officially sanctioned Marxist theory of class struggle.
A significant undertaking in the middle of the Cultural Revolution was a serial printing of the official dynastic histories by the China Bookstore. The mainland series was printed in simplified Chinese characters , with only brief, mainly textual notes at the end of chapters and the usual, complex scholarly commentaries omitted, so as to allow the histories to be more readable by ordinary people.
From the time of Deng Xiaoping on, there has been a drift towards a Marxist-inspired nationalist perspective, and consideration of China's contemporary international status has become of paramount importance in historical studies. The current focus tends to be on specifics of civilization in ancient China, and the general paradigm of how China has responded to the dual challenges of interactions with the outside world and modernization in the post era.
Long abandoned as a research focus among most Western scholars due to postmodernism's influence, this remains the primary interest for most historians inside China. The late 20th century and early 21st century have seen numerous studies of Chinese history that challenge traditional paradigms.
The field is rapidly evolving, with much new scholarship, often based on the realization that there is much about Chinese history that is unknown or controversial.
For example, an active topic concerns whether the typical Chinese peasant in was seeing his life improve. In addition to the realization that there are major gaps in our knowledge of Chinese history is the equal realization that there are tremendous quantities of primary source material that have not yet been analyzed. Recent Western scholarship of China has been heavily influenced by postmodernism , and has questioned modernist narratives of China's backwardness and lack of development.
The desire to challenge the preconception that 19th-century China was weak, for instance, has led to a scholarly interest in Qing expansion into Central Asia. In fact, postmodern scholarship largely rejects grand narratives altogether, preferring to publish empirical studies on the socioeconomics, and political or cultural dynamics, of smaller communities within China.
Scholars are attempting to assess source material more critically. For example, for a long time it was assumed that Imperial China had no system of civil law because its law codes did not explicitly provide for civil lawsuits.
However, more recent studies, using the records of civil magistrates, suggest that a well-developed system of Chinese civil law interpreted provisions of the criminal code to allow civil causes of action.