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To this end, descriptive statistical techniques were used, associated with GIS and content analysis of interviews. The perpetrators and victims of lethal crime are predominantly male adolescents and youths, as a result of conflicts arising from non-payment of debts related to the drug trade. To explore the theme, this study is structured in five parts: after this introduction, the second part deals with the characterization of the study area. The third discusses the methodology used in the research. Finally, the conclusions are presented. According to data released in the Demographic Census, the total population comprises , inhabitants, the population estimate for the year is around , inhabitants IBGE, a , The municipality currently has a total of 84 neighborhoods, of which 28 were created officially; most are subnormal clusters.
In this context, planned obsolescence is discussed in the light of aesthetic innovation, even if in the real estate sector this meets with certain difficulties due to the long durability of properties. With the emphasis on socio-spatial exclusiveness, this real estate complex is advertized as a new urban rarity, strategically located in one of the few unbuilt beachfront areas in the metropolitan space.
In the light of commodity aestheticism, marketing explores both the rational and the emotional sides through co-branded actions, materials and advertising in magazines aimed at the luxury consumer, with recurrent discursive constructions that appeal to the idea of sophistication and exclusivity.
This is equally related to the needs of our time, such as convenience, comfort, safety and environmental sustainability.
Just as in other branches of the economy, in this sector it is present throughout the cycle, that is, from market research in the pre-project design phase, until the delivery of the final product to the customer.
It is responsible for identifying needs and defining the concepts of the products to be launched. Through marketing, the social metabolism of capital reveals itself in all its splendor, in a process in which goods are meticulously designed and disseminated to awaken and sometimes fulfill wishes; at the same time inciting their transformation into new needs. Like so many other goods real estate is part of this game of seduction under the most diverse artifices and appeals.
In this context, marketing always works with the dimensions of the aestheticism of the commodity, that "[ Based on this, this article analyzes the real estate marketing of the Reserva do Paiva from the perspective of commodity aestheticism, alluding to the metaphor of the death logic that permeates the action of capital, which permanently seeks to age objects and things arguing that they should be replaced by novelties in the market.
It is an eminently exclusivist development in terms of its target clientele. The income levels of the envisioned clientele for the properties of the first Reserva do Paiva releases correspond to the AA and AAA segments, 1 which as reported by the project's developers correspond to the income levels of those who earn from 55 to minimum wages, respectively.
This very high level justifies speaking of socio-spatial exclusivism. The RRSC's first two projects were completed in - the Condominium Morada da Peninsula and Via Parque, 2 although the master schedule foresees the completion of the last phase only around In this frame of reference, the tone of exclusiveness prevails in the Reserva do Paiva which is positioned as a new rarity in the context of the MRR, strategically located in one of the few unbuilt areas on that metropolitan coast.
It is worth noting that the Reserva do Paiva is part of a new context of production of urban space, in which the action of capital no longer restricts itself to the production of individual enterprises, but also increasingly produces real estate complexes that comprise large fragments of the city, which have a plurifunctional land use and are very segmented in terms of the target customer.
Bold actions such as legal instruments like public-private partnerships also constitute new conditionings of this capitalist production of the metropolis, often mired in contradictions between the luxury RRSCs, designed for high solvency demands and the persistence of basic problems in the city as a whole.
In this framework, the discursive constructions designed or powered by marketing are misleading about urban reality in various ways. Based on this, below there follows an analysis that focuses on the insertion of marketing in the light of commodity aestheticism, as introduced above.
Thus, more and more the figure of the consumer overrides that of the citizen, because according to Milton Santos , nowadays we live in a festival of signs and images and all this confuses rather than helps explain reality. This logic of capital means the victory of exchange value over use value, with the possibility of using a bait for the viability of the exchange. Thus, when constructing signs, advertising plays a key role as a component of marketing that incorporates poetry, literature and other artistic and cultural expressions as ingredients of its rhetoric.
Advertising and moreover, marketing in its entirety : Becomes therefore the actual ideology of this society, each "object", each "good" unfolds in a reality and an image as an essential part of consumption. Both signs and objects are consumed: signs of happiness, satisfaction, power, wealth, science, technology etc.
Thus, to try and reduce urban reality to these signs, as do property developers and the relevant departments and marketing consultants who act for them, means seeing the city and its space as goods and not a human work in the broad sense. There comes a point where things and products become brands and they conceal reality, becoming a hyper-reality in the terms anticipated by Lipovetsky Nowadays, the spaces produced by commodity aestheticism, although multiple and geographically distant, carry with them many similarities regarding the processes and actions that concoct them.
Thus, also on the level of the space designed and produced, marketing is essential to awaken new meanings, images and representations, as the sign of well-being, beauty and happiness.
Within the real estate sector, this is confused with sophistication, differentiation and exclusivity. For this perspective, what Lipovetsky calls hypercapitalism is in force, where almost everything becomes "hyper", with frequent launches of products and brands, generally advertised as novelties, which also move to meet new desires and new needs.
In this framework: This is a new consumer economy that plays the role of "hyper" in all things: ever more gigantic hypermarkets and unusually large shopping centers ; always faster online shopping ; increasingly easier credit and household debt [ In the wake of this consumer society, commodity aestheticism is increasingly imbued with signs, patterns and the evocation of the lifestyles linked to behavior directed toward consumption as an individual achievement, prestige and social acceptance.
According to Santana , p. Thus it is as part of this daily game that the properties are offered to customers. In fact, when announced, real estate is not sold just as "real estate", but as a set of signs that consign status and a lifestyle that can be translated as a form of social inclusion. All this creates a commitment that appeals more to subjectivity than to business rationality.
In this intertwining of reason and emotion: [ New needs can be of various orders: physical, social, spatial, locational, a return to nature, security, leisure, services, costs, and forms of payments, among others SANTANA, , p 89, emphasis added. From this, real estate developments are marked by discourse and practices that seek at all costs to convince the potential buyers that these needs will be met through the purchase of the property in question.
So the main issue is the structural need of reproduction for capitalist accumulation, whose ethics are guided by the justification for expanded reproduction itself. From the point of view of commodity aestheticism, as proposed by Haug , the game of consumer seduction goes far beyond the tangible dimension and, therefore, market agents resort to symbolic and abstract elements, exploring the idea of happiness, merit, pleasure and individual rewards.
Through an amorous aesthetic courtship marketing affects the emotional side of customers much more, since in this context the act of purchase translates as the very threshold of the pursuit of happiness and self-fulfillment. Indeed, "the ideal of commodity aestheticism is to manifest what pleases us the most, what we say, what we seek, what we have not forgotten, what everyone wants, what we have always wanted" HAUG, , p.
It is in this sense that corporations develop images and slogans for their products that touch us less by reason and more by emotion. In this regard, according to Kotler , a rational appeal gives greater possibilities for the competition to quickly offer another product as good or even better.
However, sensitizing the emotional side and engaging through the sensory field, marketing suggests experiencing supposedly unique experiences that lead people to feel more beautiful, desirable, prestigious or even enviable. This emotional appeal is increasingly present in real estate, including through the symbolism of the house in Brazilian society, identified as part of personal fulfillment, conferring prestige and status. As stated by Caldeira , p.
Moreover, from the viewpoint of capital, the city is widely disseminated by marketing at the service of the interests of real estate developers through the cost-benefit ratio. Criticizing such a vision, Carlos points out: "Thus the reductive reading of the city ends space in an Euclidean dimension, and from this perspective, space turns into distance, a passage, which would nullify itself by time imposed as speed also emptied of meaning.
Real estate marketing does this all the time because at the service of capital, space is reproduced as a commodity that is generalized, as it is through installments that marketing is able to generate accumulation and its motto proposes new layouts, new locations or any other novelties.
That is: Marketing strategies and the statements of advertisements aimed at commercialization and consumption will have a style befitting the public they are intended for. Meanings will be produced for the subjects, turning their dreams into plausible realities.
This creates a language of seduction, in which certain elements are selected according to the profile of the target segment. Keywords that are highlighted in statements and images that speak for themselves.
Thus, in Reserva do Paiva, as stated by one of the executives interviewed, 4 "the campaigns [ Before even seeing the property close up, the graphic and media material needs to make the best impression possible to encourage the creation of a very positive image and arouse the desire for the commodity, after all, to use a very common and sometimes trite jargon "first impressions last.
In this case, there is evidence of a certain visionary approach on the part of the developers in deciding to invest in a branch of business, which is advertised as an innovative investment in the context of Recife's real estate with an implicit appeal for people to follow this trend and not be left behind. In the case of Reserva do Paiva, the appeal is mainly to exclusivism, translated through high purchasing power and its common stereotypes.
Source: Odebrecht Real Estate Developments, In the sales prospecting, a second slogan is presented with a friendlier, more emotive tone "Living with the Reserva do Paiva standard.
You can. You deserve it". So when it refers to an alleged "Reserva do Paiva standard" it seeks to differentiate this product from others on the market, affirming its unique exclusive character, thus positioning itself as a spatial rarity. Then, the merchandise is presented to the client as possible and something they deserve. Incidentally, it is quite common to associate expensive products and services as a form of personal worth.
If a priori needs are seen as something collective, with the notion of entitlement, at least in the sense of this slogan, just the opposite seems to occur.
In turn, one advertisement for the Varanda do Parque Condominium shows a young white mother, with a middle-class profile, smiling together with an equally smiling son amid the following sentence: "If you could fulfill three wishes, what would be the other two be?
With a similar image, the billboard advertising Vila dos Corais states: "Vila Coral, a dream come true. Visit and marvel " Figure 2.
In all these slogans, dreams are translated into desires and can become a reality, provided that one buys this real estate product. Visit and marvel. Even though there is some difficulty in materializing this with real estate, because of the peculiarities of property, such as the long durability of the goods and their being fixed to the ground, they also fall within the planned obsolescence process HAUG, but the obsolescence does not occur through the physical deterioration of the building.
Instead new aesthetic models are proposed for houses and apartments and their layouts built in accordance with the so-called new lifestyles and services that translate into comfort and convenience.
In addition, advertising products in specialized segments of the media is the best way to reach the target audience. As an expression of this, in the magazine Revista Class Casa, a specialized publication in the architecture and interior design industry, aimed at the high income clientele, a report on the Village Coral Condominium points out that on Boa Viagem Avenue one can only have, at the most, a sea view, whereas in this enterprise, the apartments have two balconies, one facing the sea and one facing the forest VILA DOS CORAIS That is, advertising the products as well as having journalistic reports in specialized magazines is another very fruitful marketing strategy in the luxury segment.
It is also a way to reach a specific audience, which is a great disseminator of the typical socio-cultural values of the consumer society. It also evokes a new urbanity and in this case one of the strong selling points of the Reserva do Paiva's marketing is the promotion of the possibility of an urban life "in which people have the pleasure of living there, to live in the streets, to circulate, and think in fact of a different neighborhood", as stated by one of the executives responsible for this real estate complex.
Thus, the implementation of this RRSC is part of a dialectical movement in which, on one side, are the rich neighborhoods, quite vertical and having urban centrality, but saturated in the face of the negative externalities that such phenomena have, and on the other, the "solution" would be to escape to a space that is designed and sold as a "planned neighborhood" or "new city", or even a "new ideal city" materialized by this venture.
In this way, the discursive construction that touts the superior qualities of Reserva do Paiva is embedded with representations of space and involves symbolism and codes related to the "death" of Boa Viagem and other similar neighborhoods , which is most often the neighborhood negatively contrasted with the Reserva do Paiva in the real estate marketing, This is a contradiction, as currently Boa Viagem has the most expensive square meter in Recife.
It is necessary to "kill" the city to "give birth to the new" that is, the Reserva do Paiva that has much superior qualifying attributes. Based on this, it is argued that capital works on a logic of death in which "killing" or confronting the negative elements of the reality of the noble spaces, justifies the "birth" of a new space or "new neighborhood", as this real estate complex has been repeatedly considered by real estate developers, the media and even the State.
A contradictory element in all this is that in this dialectical movement the metropolis becomes a "necropolis" SANTOS, , to the extent that its space is produced and continuously reproduced from "successive murders.
As the focus of this analysis is based on the marketing sphere, it goes without saying that much of what is advertised as new has within itself the old, because, in a sense, the new is merely a discursive construction, that is, it is part of the dimension of commodity aestheticism.
This implies that the confrontation with the real city or some of its fragments would be the key to the success of a real estate development. It is exactly by confronting the neighborhood of Boa Viagem, for example, that the RRSC Reserva do Paiva affirms and justifies itself from a marketing perspective.
In the process of valuation based on space, marketing plays a crucial role in the signification and re-signification of metropolitan areas. The municipality currently has a total of 84 neighborhoods, of which 28 were created officially; most are subnormal clusters. In , the neighborhoods of Jardim Felicidade, Marabaixo I and Novo Buritizal stand out, with 11, 9 and 8 victims respectively. Regarding the years and , it is evident that the number of victims in the Novo Buritizal neighborhood more than doubles and triples in Marabaixo I.
In the Muca neighborhood there is an increase in the number of victims, from 5 in to 7 in , followed by a subtle decrease in These dialogues were recorded subject to prior authorization and then transcribed for analysis.
A thematic map with the delimitation of the territorial network of the neighborhoods was generated in order to test the hypotheses of the pattern of distribution of the criminal events investigated. The qualitative approach was carried out through content analysis, based on the words "violence" and "homicide", to compose the analytical categories.
The treatment was organized into three phases: 1 pre-analysis, through skimming the text of the interviews; 2 exploring the material, with subsequent classification and aggregation of the data into categories; and, 3 treatment of the results and interpretation of the data, based on the theoretical reference framework and the indications brought by the general reading BARDIN, Added to this, the lack of standardized and complete records of lethal violent crimes, 4 made it impossible to establish the exact location of all criminal events surveyed, leading to the creation of maps showing "hot spots".
From the spatial analysis in the neighborhoods of Jardim Felicidade Figure 3 and Cidade Nova Figure 4 , it was possible to verify that the phenomenon is not distributed in a concentrated way, suggesting a trend with a well-defined and uniform pattern, indicating that the crimes are distributed regularly in the territory of these two districts. Jardim Felicidade is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the north of the city, with a population of 16, inhabitants and 3, permanent private households, distributed over a total area of 2.
These spaces are fragmented expansions of the urban territory, neglected by the public authorities, with characteristics that exclude citizenship, which favored the weakening of the ties of social control mechanisms and the installation of violence and crime in these spaces GOMES, ; BEATO FILHO, The Cidade Nova neighborhood has a population that exceeds 15 thousand inhabitants, with 3, permanent private households, distributed in a total area of 0.
It is located in the eastern part of the capital, in the area of the city bordering the Amazon River, where there are numerous irregular dwellings in flooded areas, with irregular connections to the electricity grid, without water and sewage infrastructure, without road paving and regular garbage collection and whose characteristics coincide with those of the exclusion area. In addition, although the Cidade Nova neighborhood is a geographically small space, it has a high flow of people, due to its commercial importance and proximity to the city center.
The Cidade Nova neighborhood has a large number of plots of abandoned land and a considerable area of irregular occupations, with a high demographic density. There is a significant loss in the quality of life, essentially as regards to the loss to the right to the city, both at the level of dwelling that is not limited to the dwelling place, and at the urban level of the city, reflected in the framework of urban disorganization found.
It is noteworthy that both levels interpenetrate, adding the dynamic physical and social structure, which generates innumerable forms of production and reproduction of segregation LEFEBVRE, , It is in this environment that "territorial exclusion makes individuals, families and communities particularly vulnerable, making room for violence and conflict" ROLNIK, , p.
The Marabaixo I neighborhood has been extra-officially created since , and there are no official estimates of the population in the data source consulted. The neighborhood is served by the electric power system, however, it does not have a supply of treated water or basic sanitation.
The streets and avenues have no identification and there is no projected urban infrastructure; it lacks asphalt, curbs, drainage and rainwater channels and signage. As regards the distribution of lethal violent crimes in Marabaixo I Figure 5 , a certain regularity can be observed in the dispersion of events, especially along the Duca Serra Highway, the main link between the western area and the city center.
The urban occupation in the capital advances progressively towards the peripheral and terminal zones of the neighborhoods, which usually correspond to the ressaca areas, which lacking basic urban infrastructure have become areas of segregation and poverty, resulting in a series of social problems, including the increase in violence and crime.
From this perspective, Chagas states that areas of peripheralization are places that are conducive to the development of territories of crime, because they converge in environments with certain particularities, such as illegal occupation, fragile public security and institutions of public control, associated with scarce minimum public services.
These factors compete for zones of tension to be installed and fixed. In this way, crime, especially violent crime, becomes a coercive instrument to establish and control the territory by groups that articulate their actions in the urban space. It is within this context that the territorial dynamics not only of lethal crime, but also all sorts of crimes such as those against property and the person can be observed, acting as elements of transformation and reorganization of urban space.
It is also necessary to weigh the significance of the other processes that together can lead to crime, such as environmental, socioeconomic, political, and cultural ones, among others, in order to get closer to the perception of the areas of occurrence FELIX, When reflecting on violent crime from the perspective of the territory, it is evident that a theoretical and methodological effort is required that must consider the contexts and processes in which this territory is established.
In this way, it is important to note that territory is recognized as a category subsequent to space and developed from the notion of space. Space and territory are distinct concepts, where "space is the 'original prison', territory is the prison that men construct for themselves Territory relies on space, but it is not space.
Territory is made as a result of an action performed by a syntagmatic actor - who performs a program - on any level, which appropriates a space, concretely or abstractly, "territorializes" space RAFFESTIN, Different approaches coexist in the construction of the concept of territory. However, in any sense, the territory is linked to relationships or practices of power, which in this focus are based on the dynamics of violent lethality.
It is considered that the different social actors, especially local territorial agents, as representatives of social and economic power and the community in general, who are involved directly or indirectly or not yet related to the violent practices that can result in homicide, tend to "territorialize" themselves within their own intentions, transforming the territory into a stage centered on the conflict of interests and permeated by a web of relationships built by the different agents at the local level.
In this sense, the power relationships established between agents and between them and the territory are complex and occur in multiple dimensions, in which power manifests itself and operates.
Thus, one must first distinguish territories according to the subjects that construct them, be they individuals, social groups, the State, companies or institutions. In this way, the territory is a product of the appropriation of a given segment of space by a particular social group, establishing itself in the territory from political relationships of control or affective relationships of identity and belonging.
According to Foucault , power is not necessarily located in an institution, nor is it presented as something that is yielded by legal or political contracts. Power happens as a relationship of forces and, as a relationship, is everywhere. All are involved in power relationships and cannot be considered independent of them or outside them.
In this sense, Arendt , p. And the latter is never possible without instruments". The author emphasizes that violence is not a synonym of power. Power is in fact the essence of all government, not violence. Violence is by nature instrumental; with all means, it always depends on the orientation and justification for the end it seeks.
Thus "violent action is governed by the means-end category, whose main characteristic when applied to human affairs, was always that the end is in danger of being supplanted by the means it justifies and that are necessary to achieve it". Thus, "nothing is more common than the combination of violence and power, nothing less frequent than to find them in their pure and therefore extreme form" ARENDT, , p.
So, although distinct, power and violence are usually found together. Thus "power does not need justification, being inherent in the very existence of political communities; what it really needs is legitimacy When the object of this study is analyzed, it is necessary to understand the materialized form that violence presents itself in the urban space.
The peripheral areas, where there the effective presence of the State is fragile, from its multiple regulatory institutions and emitters of state power, are where the proliferation of violence occurs most clearly, since the diversity of territorial agents fighting for control of the territory allows areas of tension to emerge, which often permits the emergence of lethal violence, justified by the need to achieve the inherent milieu in that area of territorial dispute.
What are the profiles of the subjects involved in these violent practices? What criminal dynamics occurring in these neighborhoods result in death? What can be done in terms of public policies? Several authors, such as Tuan , Souza and Caldeira discuss how violence and insecurity have reached a critical level, capable of decisively influencing the populations' daily life and the patterns of circulation in space.
Both fear and violence are elements that redefine people's way of life, presenting themselves "as conditioning factors of social relationships and the modeling of space in cities" SOUZA, : p. I don't feel safe walking around during the day or night, it's very dangerous people are robbing and killing for free I know of a case now, more recent, two men, they were murdered, I think the carnival had already started Resident, Muca neighborhood.
Some of the responses highlight, among other aspects, the discomfort generated by fear and the feeling of insecurity in the subjects, especially when circulating in the streets and public spaces of the neighborhoods where they reside, not only at night time, but at all times of day and night. They also point to the injury or limitation of rights, especially with regard to freedom, which seems to feed a sense of loss of this guarantee, in addition to indicating a notion of enclosure associated with the idea of arrest, factors already recorded by Caldeira Another issue expressed was the low value attributed to life, indicating that the residents' existence is immersed in a daily life of trivialization of death and violent practices that do not seem to have limits, in view of the collapse of systems of social values and coercive parameters that either are not respected or have lost their meaning ADORNO, , as well as pointing to temporal traces of increasing records of crimes close to occasions and holidays.
As to the territory of the neighborhoods where the deaths are concentrated, it has been reported that one of the causes of fear of moving around at night is the structure of spaces integrated by "bridge areas", which facilitate the criminals' escape. Tuan points out that people residing in a particular space have specific experiences of it based on the knowledge and construction they make of the surrounding reality, since they are integrated with the place in which they live, which is therefore their center of significance.
There is a significant less widespread or implicit aspect of the meaning relating to the feelings engendered by the territory, " Therefore, territory is considered in its double connotation, material and symbolic, "because etymologically it appears as close to terra-territorium as to terreo-territor terror, terrifying " HAESBAERT, , p.
Here in the neighborhood, the victims are mostly men and adolescents, usually thirteen to seventeen Resident, Jardim Felicidade. To tell the truth, they are boys, sixteen, seventeen, living unregulated lives, without monitoring.
It's their lifestyle, it is all this bad situation, drunkenness, delinquency, drugs and even violence Businessperson Cidade Nova neighborhood. It's usually women and adults because of drugs. Concerning the question of how the relationships between authors and victims are processed, some interviewees report that they know or have heard of homicide cases in their neighborhoods.
However, for the most part they do not know if there was any affinity between author and victim. Look, you know, I lost a neighbor, my childhood friend, he was a good person. Except that the drug trade got him into drugs Last month here in Benedito do Carmo, on the corner of Twentieth avenue, very close to the police base, two bad guys arrived by bicycle and took the lives of two family men who had nothing to do with the problem. With the growth of the population and the rest, and the lack of structure, it's not just the school, it's families on a low income, who are unemployed, poor health care, all this impacts on the family structure, there are lots of things, problems, all of this Resident, Cidade Nova neighborhood.
I'll tell you here in Marabaixo it is very big, there are a lot of young people doing nothing, unoccupied, it's sad, we're forgotten here in the neighborhood