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Bookplateleaf: Boxid: IA External-identifier: urn:acs6: automaticprocess00eckm:pdf:cbca2e0dca3-a7ace96f4da. echecs16.info: Donald P. Eckman echecs16.infoioned: echecs16.info: Principles Of Industrial Process Control DOWNLOAD OPTIONS. Automatic process control by Donald P. Eckman, , Wiley edition, in English.
Oscillations of error about zero is called cycling. Write Ziegler- Nicolas turning formulae. Define controller turning. Deciding what values to be used for the adjusted parameters of the controller is called controller turning. What is reaction curve. In process controller, the reaction curve is obtained by applying a step change either in load or in set point and plotting the response of the controlled variable with respect to time. What performance criterion should be used for the selection and turning of controller?
Valve sizing, inherent and installed valve characteristics. Cavitation and flashing in control valves.
Valve actuators and positioners. Selection of control valves. Module 5 12 hours Advanced control schemes: Cascade control, ratio control, feed forward control, Adaptive and Inferential control, split range and averaging control.
Multivariable process control, interaction of control loops. Why are fuel and air sent at a specified ratio into a combustion chamber? To obtain the most efficient combustion.
What are decouplers? The special element introduced in a system with two strongly interacting loops to cancel the interaction effect between the two loops and thus render two non-interacting control loops is called decoupler.
When is inferential control used? It is used in some cases where the output of the process and the influence of the disturbance cannot be measured.
What are the advantages of feedforward controller.
Acts before the disturbance is felt by the process. It is good for slow systems. What are the disadvantages of feedforward controller. Requires identification of all possible disturbances and their direct impact.
Cannot cope with unmeasured disturbances. What are the advantages of feedback controller.
It does not require identification and measurement of disturbance. It is unsatisfactory for slow processes with significant dead time. UNIT — V What is flashing in control valve? When a liquids enters a valve and the static pressure at the vena contracta less than the fluid vapour pressure and the valve outlet pressure is also less the fluid vapour pressure the condition called flashing exists.
When do you use a valve positioner? If the diaphragm actuator does not supply sufficient force to position the valve accurately and overcome any opposition that flowing conditions create a positioner may be required. Give two examples for electric actuators. Motor, Solenoids. In some process loop the controller is electronic and the final control element is electronic one. To interconnect these two we need a device that should linearly converts electric current in to gas pressure mA psi.
Why installed characteristics of a control valve is different from inherent characteristics? Inherent characteristics is which the valve exhibits in the laboratory condition where the pressure drop is held constant.
Installed or resultant characteristics is the relationship between flow and stroke when the valve is subjected to pressure conditions of the process.
Explain the function of pneumatic transmission lines. Used to transmit the input signals into standard instrumentation pneumatic output signals 3 to 15 psi or 20 to KPa. What is the purpose of final control element.
Components of a control system such as valve is used to directly regulates the flow of energy or materials to the process. It directly determines the value of manipulated variable.
What is meant by cavitations in control valve? When a liquid enters a valve and the static pressure at the vena contracta drops to less than the fluid vapor pressure and the recovering to above fluid vapour pressure, this pressure recovery causes an implosion or collapse of the vapour bubbles formed at the vena contracta. This condition is called cavitation. For equal increment of stem travel at constant pressure drop an equal percentage change in existing flow occurs.
Mention the methods of tuning used in process control 7. Define Cv rating. What is P to I converter 9. What is cascaded control system What is meant by Transportation lag? List any two advantages of pneumatic controller. What is meant by tuning of controllers? List any two advantages of Hydraulic actuator