state of hydraulic conductivity (i.e. the criteria stipulated in ASTM D and D ) are However, the standard method (ASTM D) is performed with de-. The Swell Index or Free Swell test procedure is used to determine the general swelling characteristics of sodium bentonite clay. For Geosynthetic Clay Liners. Free swelling test (ASTM D ). Free swelling of Sodium Bentonite clay. ➢ The graduated cylinder is filled with ml de-ionized water. ➢ 2 gm sample of.
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D Standard Test Method for Swell Index of Clay Mineral Component of Geosynthetic Standard + Redline PDF Bundle, 14, $, ADD TO CART. D - 01 Standard Test Method for Swell Index of Clay Mineral There is no PDF download available at this time, however you may download a copy of this. d 1,5 nm. (Hydration shell of 6 water-molecules). = Na +-Ionen d 1,2 nm d 2,0 nm . ASTM D - 06 Standard Test Method for Swell Index of.
The results indicate that the MB methods yield accurate prediction of some Accepted 3 July soil index properties, and they are easy to apply with simple test equipment. The results also show that the Available online 15 July testing methods can be applied for soils that have widely different mineralogy. External and internal surface Keywords: areas of soils can be measured by the MB adsorption methods. Effect of particle size on the MB surface area Cation exchange capacity measurement accuracy was also studied using samples passing 0. The test results also indicate that the MB-CEC values Spot test are generally lower than those obtained by the ammonium acetate method. The results also show that swell index and swell potential of the soils can be estimated with MB methods accurately, economically and readily. All rights reserved.
Yukselen, A. They observed that N2 adsorption method renders low 2. Materials and methods values of SSA in swelling clays since N2 molecules cannot penetrate into inner layers. All samples were obtained from different soils. X-Ray geotechnical applications. However, standard methods of CEC deter- powder diffraction patterns were obtained using a Philips diffract- mination are time consuming and involve several steps e.
Dominant mineral of the soils and the clay ment of the saturating cation requires several washings with alcohol. Realizing that dye adsorption onto gravity, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content OM of clay surfaces occurs by two mechanisms: i cation exchange in the the samples were determined according to ASTM D , alumino-silicate lattice, and ii attraction of van der Waals forces or ASTM D , and Na method Chapman, , ASTM D- chemisorption hydrogen bonding with the surface SiOH and AlOH of , respectively.
The results of adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions onto clay surfaces. Several these tests are given in Table 1. All tests were run Wang et al.
Based on the literature Zohar Expansive soils may result in considerable distress when subjected et al. Conse- were applied to the soils. N2 adsorption method and Ulusay, b. Before expansive clays from geotechnical index properties Sivapullaiah et al. However, the mantle of the device. The theoretical basis upon which the Monosorb developed predictive equations are mostly regional dependent and operates is the BET equation Brunauer et al.
The device was cannot be generalized. Thus, researchers sought alternative methods calibrated by injection of 1 cm3 nitrogen gas. The measured area was to estimate the swelling potential of soils. For example, Erguler and 2. Further, Fityus et al.
Methylene blue — spot test method technique, MBVs can be obtained quickly and reliably with the pre- paration time for the MB test being similar to the shrink—swell test. The spot test procedure for determining the SSA of soils is Unlike the shrink—swell test, however, it has the major advantage of described as follows Santamarina et al.
Then, the MB solution was added into this soil cation exchange capacity, and swell potential of the soils having suspension with 0.
After each 0. Hereby, the rela- soil suspension was mixed by magnetic stirrer for 1 min; then, a small tionship between the soil index properties and the MB values were drop was removed from the solution and placed onto Fisher brand also studied.
For S-6 S-8 5. Methylene blue — titration method S Spectrophotometer S The test S In the concentration is the same as that was used in the spot test. At this point, CEC is determined by particle settlement.
Swell index cation replacement, and ms is the mass of the soil specimen. The swell index of the samples was determined using oedometer test 3. Each stress exchange sites on the mineral surface by replacing the exchangeable cations. The determination of the point of complete replacement of cations from the titration curve Sample 9. Relationships between the MB methods. When the last stress increment was completed, the soil specimens were unloaded to Some specimens completed their swelling within 24 h; however, some specimens swelling process continued up to 28 days.
The washing process was as follows: As-received soil was prepared by Burland, ; Cerato and Lutenegger, In this adapted swell index method, settle, and the supernatant was discarded. The electrical conductivity oven-dried and passed through No. The electrical non-swelling soils and oven-dried and 2 g swelling soils were used.
Approximately 0. Soil hydration and settlement were allowed for a 5. Results and discussions minimum period of 5 min. After 2 h, the hydrating clay column was inspected for trapped air. After 24 h hydration period, the volume in The obtained SSAs of soils using two MB titration and spot and N2 milliliters was recorded at the top of the settled soil. Swell index was adsorption methods are given in Table 2. Further, such a conclusion is realized in Table 2. However, the SSAs determined under dry conditions are lower than wet conditions for minerals such as zeolite, chlorite, mixed layer, and illite.
Note that generally spot test yields higher SSA estimates than the titration method. This should be expected as these methods use the same cationic compound. In the titration method, the accuracy of the test is improved by using a spectrophotometer, which determines the remnant concentration of the MB more accurately.
On the other hand, spot test contains operator- related errors such as judging the end-point. The results of titration methods are smaller than those of the spot test Table 2.
Thus, the differences between the results of two similar methods can be attributed to operator-induced errors in the spot test results. In order to determine the effect of particle size on the MB surface area measurements, surface area of the soils passing 0. However, Hills and Pettifer Fig.
Thus, we suggest soils passing No. This difference in the measured surface areas is most results, even though no particle size effect is determined in this study. Chen et al. Therefore, water and Thus, it was necessary to determine the effect of the Na-solution on the exchangeable ions can easily enter and separate these layers.
For this reason, one set of soils passing No. Thus, the molecules of ference between the measured MB SSA of the natural and Na-exchanged selected gas in the present study N2 gas cannot cover the interlayer soils Table 3.
Based on the obtained results, it is concluded that there is surface in expansive layer-silicates such as montmorillonite. The methylene blue methods are applied under wet conditions in which ions or water intercalate into 6. Cation exchange capacity CEC inner montmorillonite layers, thus MB methods measure external and internal surface area Santamarina et al.
Theng et al. The results show that the MB values are generally lower compounds intercalate into expanding layer silicates. Swell index and swell potential Swell index of the soils was determined by two different methods. Swell index determination of the samples.
Table 5 shows the swell index of the samples that was determined from the oedometer test. Swell index of the soil is calculated from the Table 4. Similarly, Taylor , Soon , and Wang et al. Similarly, stress. Regression analyses were developed between the titration method. These results indicate that there are not much adsorbed MB at the completion point, and swell index Cs Fig. As difference in the CEC values used two methods. However, note that the seen from Fig.
For the oedometer tests, the samples were estimates with MB methods is inconvenient for zeolitic soils. Kahr and adsorbed MB value. Madsen observed that the CEC of clays can be determined by According to other swell index method, swelling potential of the MB methods when soils are in the sodium exchange form and the pH samples is determined in a mL graduated cylinder as shown in is neutral.
The calculated swell indexes of the samples are shown in values of soils, the samples were saturated with 2 M NaCl and the CEC Table 5. The swell volume of the samples is different from each other.
Swell index and adsorbed MB relationship a titration b spot test method. Methylene blue value is one of these promising techniques.
To evaluate the validity of this approach, we plotted the data of this study and those of previous researchers all together Fig. The swelling potential of the present study samples was determined by Fig.
Swelling potential and methylene blue value MBV relationship. As seen from Fig. Thus, the obtained results suggest that swelling potential rest. We used the for titration and spot test, respectively Fig. As seen from liquid limit Table 7, the swelling potential prediction methods are remarkably Researchers have attempted to predict the swell potential of soils close. However, Table 7 reveals that clay content, in general, cannot using soil index properties such as plasticity index PI , clay content, yield accurate estimate of swelling behavior of soils.
In other words, and activity Holtz, ; Seed et al. For example, Seed the type of clay minerals with respect to proportion of mineral to the et al. Thus, clay content alone cannot represent the swelling potential of soils. However, determining the surface area of a soil. The higher the surface area is the larger is the activity and clay content is time consuming.
Thus, researchers attraction for water molecules. Thus, the results suggest that MBV is proposed alternative swelling prediction techniques for quick; yet, enough for accurate swelling potential estimates Table 7. Engineering characteristics and environmental impacts of the expansive Ankara clay, and swelling maps for central and SW parts of the lower than those obtained using the NH4-Na method; but the two are Ankara Turkey metropolitan area.
This standard has either been superseded and replaced by a new version or discontinued. Such water is best prepared by distillation or the passage of tap water through an ion exchange resin. Hazards 7. Sampling and Selection 8. Procedure 9. Standard Sieve with a mortar and pestle or laboratory hammer mill as required. Do not use a funnel that may concentrate the clay mineral in a poorly hydrated agglomerate. Allow the clay mineral to wet, hydrate, and settle to the bottom of the graduated cylinder for a minimum period of 10 min.
Carefully immerse the thermometer into the water, without disturbing the settled clay mineral and record the temperature of the slurry to After 2 h, inspect the hydrating clay mineral column for trapped air or water separation in the column.
Observe the distinct change in appearance at the upper surface of the settled clay mineral. Record the observed volume of hydrated clay mineral. Record the temperature of the hydrated clay mineral to Report Precision and Bias The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.
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