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ART 5: ART HISTORY of the WESTERN WORLD Art 5 is a one-semester survey of Western art and architecture from the . known as PDF. Get Free Read & Download Files Art Of The Western World From Ancient Greece To Post Modernism PDF. ART OF THE WESTERN WORLD FROM ANCIENT. Art of the Western World. The Classical Ideal · A White Garment of Churches — Romanesque and Gothic · The Early Renaissance · The High Renaissance.
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To these figures, Northern Europe, especially Britain, contributed a lower proportion than today, and Southern Europe, including France, a higher one. Until about the 11th century most of Europe was short of agricultural labour, with large amounts of unused land, and the Medieval Warm Period benefited agriculture until about Paris, — The medieval period eventually saw the falling away of the invasions and incursions from outside the area that characterized the first millennium.
The Islamic conquests of the 6th and 7th century suddenly and permanently removed all of North Africa from the Western world, and over the rest of the period Islamic peoples gradually took over the Byzantine Empire , until the end of the Middle Ages when Catholic Europe, having regained the Iberian peninsula in the southwest, was once again under Muslim threat from the southeast.
At the start of the medieval period most significant works of art were very rare and costly objects associated with secular elites, monasteries or major churches and, if religious, largely produced by monks.
By the end of the Middle Ages works of considerable artistic interest could be found in small villages and significant numbers of bourgeois homes in towns, and their production was in many places an important local industry, with artists from the clergy now the exception. However the Rule of St Benedict permitted the sale of works of art by monasteries, and it is clear that throughout the period monks might produce art, including secular works, commercially for a lay market, and monasteries would equally hire lay specialists where necessary.
This is far from the case; though the church became very wealthy over the Middle Ages and was prepared at times to spend lavishly on art, there was also much secular art of equivalent quality which has suffered from a far higher rate of wear and tear, loss and destruction.
The Middle Ages generally lacked the concept of preserving older works for their artistic merit, as opposed to their association with a saint or founder figure, and the following periods of the Renaissance and Baroque tended to disparage medieval art. Most luxury illuminated manuscripts of the Early Middle Ages had lavish treasure binding book-covers in precious metal, ivory and jewels; the re-bound pages and ivory reliefs for the covers have survived in far greater numbers than complete covers, which have mostly been stripped off for their valuable materials at some point.
The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram , c. Most churches have been rebuilt, often several times, but medieval palaces and large houses have been lost at a far greater rate, which is also true of their fittings and decoration.
In England, churches survive largely intact from every century since the 7th, and in considerable numbers for the later ones—the city of Norwich alone has 40 medieval churches—but of the dozens of royal palaces none survive from earlier than the 11th century, and only a handful of remnants from the rest of the period.
Many of the longest running scholarly disputes over the date and origin of individual works relate to secular pieces, because they are so much rarer - the Anglo-Saxon Fuller Brooch was refused by the British Museum as an implausible fake, and small free-standing secular bronze sculptures are so rare that the date, origin and even authenticity of both of the two best examples has been argued over for decades.
Gold was used for objects for churches and palaces, personal jewellery and the fittings of clothes, and—fixed to the back of glass tesserae —as a solid background for mosaics , or applied as gold leaf to miniatures in manuscripts and panel paintings. Many objects using precious metals were made in the knowledge that their bullion value might be realized at a future point—only near the end of the period could money be invested other than in real estate , except at great risk or by committing usury.
The even more expensive pigment ultramarine , made from ground lapis lazuli obtainable only from Afghanistan , was used lavishly in the Gothic period, more often for the traditional blue outer mantle of the Virgin Mary than for skies. Ivory , often painted, was an important material until the very end of the period, well illustrating the shift in luxury art to secular works; at the beginning of the period most uses were shifting from consular diptychs to religious objects such as book-covers, reliquaries and croziers , but in the Gothic period secular mirror-cases, caskets and decorated combs become common among the well-off.
As thin ivory panels carved in relief could rarely be recycled for another work, the number of survivals is relatively high—the same is true of manuscript pages, although these were often re-cycled by scraping, whereupon they become palimpsests. Even these basic materials were costly: when the Anglo-Saxon Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey planned to create three copies of the bible in —of which one survives as the Codex Amiatinus —the first step necessary was to plan to breed the cattle to supply the 1, calves to give the skin for the vellum required.
Modern dendrochronology has revealed that most of the oak for panels used in Early Netherlandish painting of the 15th century was felled in the Vistula basin in Poland, from where it was shipped down the river and across the Baltic and North Seas to Flemish ports, before being seasoned for several years.
The period of the Middle Ages neither begins nor ends neatly at any particular date, nor at the same time in all regions, and the same is true for the major phases of art within the period. Diego Velasquez may well have studied under Herrera the Elder before he went to Pacheco. Museo del Prado Diego to draw and paint from life models for five years. He was appointed a court painter and met Rubens. Whereas Murillo may put us in mind of Raphael with paintings like Eliezir and Rebecca or the larger Immaculate Conception.
He ignored the chiaroscuro ot Caravaggio. He painted in the chiaroscuro style but used quick. The mainstream of Spanish painting was in the hands of Herrera the Elder c. The rise ot Murillo' s popular style eclipsed the mystical realism of Francisco de Zurbaran Jesus in the Temple.
The painting has a posed and static a quality and a flatness of perspective. Murillo began his career painting at fairgrounds but moved to a more acceptable style after seeing the work of Titian. Pacheco was only an indifferent painter of the Mannerist school but he produced important biographical material on his illustrious son-in-law as well as books on the theory of painting. There remained in his work the tlaw of excessive sentimentality. The most Baroque of painters was Juan Valdes Leal l Rubens and Velasquez.
Pacheco's Villanueva y Geltru. About this time he modified his chiaroscuro and produced lighter backgrounds for his figures. El Greco had few imitators and was overshadowed by the genius of Velasquez.
He often used kitchen scenes. Herrera The Annunciation. His charming beggar-children found great favour with the Spanish public but continue to offend the art historian. A visit to Italy seemed to have impressed him for he is known to have admired Titian's work and copied Tintoretto's paintings in Venice. Museo Balaguer pupil. Perhaps it is a declaration of love.
It has a gloomy and ritualistic Baroque style. He was Frenchman who exploited the possi- The enigmatic brothers. Poussin has come comings. Musee des Beaux-Arts Landesgalerie 4. Cicorges de La Tour was a scaped mythologies. Most of his work shows candle. They Venetian colouring and borrows like dolls. Georges de La Tour TIm pott's inspiration. In his search for simplicity the so it is scarcely possible to differen- the influence of Raphael. Nicolas Poussin 2. Niedersachsische Rennes.
It has figures lost all personality and became tiate their individual work. Despite these short- usually worked in the Dutch tradi- from Veronese. Wallraf-richartz-Museum Poussin. Antoine Le Nain attributed rjmil rattiinti. Musee National du Louvre The gentlemen of Antoinc's family group. There is something of Hals in the portraits.
He was became a friend of Poussin. Moise Valentin Valentin de 7. Scenes of public and domestic It all suggests that this fame rests life are known genre paintings. His style hugely popular in his day for portraits is after Caravaggio and Manfredi. A and altarpieces. Simon Vouet Boulogne Ps cheand Amor. This classically Catholic town of Utrecht.
Musee des Beaux-Arts Paris. Hyacinth Rigaud The artisl's mother in tuo poses. Rigaud is among the official portrait painters whose duties were like that of an official photographer.
His formal portraits are c. We may appreciate that artists in this time and beyond had little choice in their subject matter and in the use of free. Rigaud was the official court p. Gilles was landscape. Musee National du Louvre which was subjugating French art. NX atteau act. Schloss Charlottcnburg 9. The scene is inspired by believed to be a sensitive and melan- outdoor pageants conducted by the choly clown.
He was influenced by theatre so that his The Italian theatre tradition of the figures disport against a backdrop Commedia del' Arte with its stereoty- which lorms a magical balance pical characters enabled painters to between painted scenery and awesome attempt interpretations.
Antoine Watteau Gilles. He neglects to participate in the humour ot his triends. VC'atteau makes him a French courtiers who would take guarded. His posture summarizes the uni- created beautiful images ot a delicate versal characters of all clowns.
There is a sad contrast between the faintly ridiculous costume and the sombre expression. Largillifere was trained in Antwerp and brought Flemish character to his work.
He served under Peter Lely in England before going to Paris where he pain- ted the families of the wealthy middle- classes. It is a consi- dered painting and rewarded by a little time and attention despite the look of fixed distrust by the King. Wallace Collection A portrait painter who did not aspire to the heights of Rigaud. The eye is carried from figure to figure by way of stray gestures or glances.
This group portrait of the King's family has a structured dispo- sition ot figures which looks back to Renaissance techniques.
To support the King's political programme. We may sense the prevailing mood of hierarchy and authority in this painting. Charles Lc Brun Chancellor Segu'wr. Even the sensitive horse seems nervous of the illustrious rider whose black looks of smug disdain areechoed by the dark clouds behind him.
French art became uniform and propagandist. We are acquainted with illu- sions that mislead powerful people. The young man of this portrait has been caught at an inti- mate moment. Was this the French conceit which gave rise to Napoleon?
A bow. His paintings of bread and wine are rich evocations of substance and flavour. It was Nattier's position to flatter the ladies by portraying them as favoured goddesses. Joshua Reynolds. There are depths to this painting that are conspicuously absent in similar portraits by the Englishman.
His hands rest natu- rally on the desk and he watches his spinning top with a look of child-like absorption. It is instructive to compare Chardin's sense of integrity with portraits by Maurice de La Tour. It is typical of Chardin's work that we sense an intelligent and generous mind behind the painting. He achie- ved a restrained kind of naturalism. The relaxed concentration ot the couple here. Jean Baptiste Chardin Lady.
Chardin was in the tradition of the Dutch masters. Schloss Charlottenburg A French painter of still-life and domestic scenes. Francois Boucher painter explained that he found it form made popular and acceptable the Miss Louise O'Murphy. She was Louise assault of Rubens' fleshy nudes. But this girl still recovering from the Baroque Paris. When the English painter. To an age Canvas. The pin-up poses such a this. Musee National du Louvre was an exception.
A great that Boucher painted from favourite of the court. Sir Joshua O'Murphy. Like the pavement portraitists of the tourist towns.? His portraits are lively but somewhat disingenuous. Maurice was something of a society painter who was moved to capture sweet carica- tures. Musee de Picardie Painting with pastels achieved great respectability in France.
His self-portrait reveals humour and affability in suspiciously large quan- tities! Maurice Quentin de La Tour Self-portrait. He tends to flatter his sitters with an excess of charm.
Jean Honore Fragonard The black technique which was one of rapid abyss. Like mind and he toyed with the melan- Boucher he was obligated to a mis. The puny figures contending more dynamic than Boucher's. Powerful classical of his work was set around amorous inspiration was never far from his intrigues and decorations.
His figures are in Paris. The subject are the stuff of the later. Musee National du Louvre Fragonard is remembered as the Fragonard spent five years in Rome painter of romantic confections.
Much viewing the ruins. Hubert Robert Denis Diderot. His portrait ot this influential himself This painting is permeated man of French literature has imi. Musee National du Louvre Versailles. A garden must be a balance of bridled When the portrait painter aims for foliage set in geometric arrangements.
Louis painters of ruins. Louis-Michel van Loo Pannini and Michel. He had brother Charles-Amedee represented an interest in formal parks and gar- the family in Prussia. The excess of drapery carries unnecessary over- tones of religious passion. He lightened the colours and softened the gestures of the figures. National Gallery of Art Gentileschi was a friend of Caravaggio and developed a style that was a deci- ded improvement upon that ot his friend.. He is said to have brought a Tuscan poeticism to the Caravaggio style of cold realism.
He travelled to Paris and to London. For all his skills this painting has an awkward and unbalanced feel about it. It led to a was considered a scandal at the time fashion for painted ceilings all over and led to the rejection of several Europe. He was a to the scene. Annibale Carracci Dutch painting in general. Palazzo Farnese Piazzetta moved from Bologna to This is one of three paintings com.
Assisted by his brothers. The techniaue of contrasts ceilingof the palace. The painter's use of ordinary and decorated ceiling helped to launch the sympathetic figures to represent saints style called Baroque. Annibale Venice where he introduced a sponta- missioned to illustrate the life of St. Luigi dei Frances!. Carracci decorated the barrel-vaulted neous lighter and more decorative feel Matthew. Clearly he was between light and dark called chiaro.
Cappella Fresco Milan. This he left a large number of drawings. Pinacoteca di Brera Contrarelli Rome. Rebecca at the well. Caravaggio Though Judith uith the head ofHolofemes. Palazzo Barberini Along with Bernini. He gave six years to painting the ceiling of the Barberini Palace in a light vigo- rous style which has earned him the Galleria foreshortened figures float up into an Palatina imaginary sky. We can only guess at the fine paintings he would have given the world if he had not died in his early forties.
Cristofano Allori name of the Italian Rubens. Pietro was one of the founders of the High Baroque. Allori was from Florence. It is an irony that it should have been a Florentine who painted this masterpiece in the Baroque style which may well be the best Italian painting of the century.
Palazzo Pitti. Pietro da Cortona Allegory of Peace. The artist has drawn our attention to it but otters no explanations. It is a hornless baby. Ca'Rezzonico Longhi was a popular and much reproduced painter in his day but his work seems to us a little obvious and lacks the imagination ot Tiepolo.
Jusepe married the rather brutal Spanish realism to the graceful inven- tiveness of the Carracci to produce his own style. Pietro Longlii The rhinoceros. One would not expect a crippled boy to be so cheerful. And yet we cannot escape the looming and ambi- guous symbolism ot the rhinoceros itself. The group ot masked figures do not sit well together and seem like a collec- tion of children's dolls. This little paradox gives some psychologi- cal depth to the painting.
Jusepe de Ribera Boy uith a club-foot. Museo del Prado Goya began his career in the shadow of the great Italian. Diego Velasquez of impressionistic early in his use Classical style.
He was herself in the glass. National Gallery Madrid. His famous portrait of the Duchess of Alba from around this time is typical of the stiff and formal sense of ele- gance in the Spanish court. This early tapestry design with its bright colours and studied elegance was done at a time in Goya's life when he was moving towards a Neo. Goya BlinJman's buff.
His early years as a designer of tapestries and as a court painter were not distinguished. Art historians have searched for the little So often in Spain a painter comes for. This century has seen a developing interest in the works of Velasquez. Velasquez synthesized many Velasquez painted from a model. The flesh colouring and draped fabrics are influences and produced a style of His work court particularly convincing.
Museo del Prado her ridiculous gowns ot state. Mariage a la Mode Born in Germany. The subject matter was taken up Holland. The most famous series London. They all demon. Lely went to work in England where strate.
Lely was appointed princi- we are invited to laugh at a particular pal painter and turned his hand to individual whose weaknesses or mis.
SirPeter Lely canvasses of moral subjects.
National Gallery Hogarth's reputation rests upon his Hogarth In the more hedonistic court of falls short of generalising his theme. Charles II. Tate Gallery were the Harlot's Progress.
The Rake's Progress. Sir Joshua Reynolds Age of Innocence. He mixes freely with the great writers and statemen ot his time and enjoyed great acclaim for his portraits. His paintings are technically im- pressive but tend to leave an impres- sion of emotional sterility.
Can we doubt the sincerity of an artist who painted the wealthy classes as deser- ving and inoffensive beneficiaries of a nation's heritage? Tate Gallery One of the first to elevate painting to a respectable profession in England. Reynolds produced justifications for his ideas in the form ot lectures on aesthetic theory. He met the great names of his time. Alte Pinakothek This painting commemorates Rubens' marriage to a woman about whom he wrote was.
This painting demonstrates Gainsborough's technique ot tluidly merging brushstrokes. National Gallery Gainsborough was renowned tor his stylish character-revealing portraits in which he chronicled the many faces of 18th century England.
He painted over in his lifetime. Of all the portraits done by Rubens this self- portrait is among the most arresting and psychologically profound. His best portraits are ot women. His wife has doubts. The soft hair. Rubens travelled extensively on diplomatic missions during which he painted the ceilings of palaces. This elegant.
Squire VC'illiam Hallett and his bride. We become voyeurs to a performance. He stimulated a market for tlcshy nudes. Kunsthistorisches Museum Rubens married his second wife. His portraits are sombre and guarded. Peter Paul Rubens The little fur. NX'hile not denying that he was a great painter. Helene Fourment.
He travelled widely. It is thought that she tried to have this painting destroyed after his death. His group portraits ot muske- teers prep. Rijksmuseum Steen was an exceptional painter of "genre" scenes. Are we to believe that the morality of the alehouse is in accord with the religious beliefs of the times?
Scoundrels make entertaining subjects for paintings. He was a brewer and innkeeper himself at times and seemed to have delighted in the weak- nesses of his fellow men for drink. Steen proposed a merry world of jus- tifiable corruption. Hals excelled at portraits of obvious expression which makes him some- thing of a sentimentalist. He did Biblical and domestic groups and is best known for his tavern scenes.
Jan Steen Prince's Day. Staatliche Museen. He ran a largeworkshop and produced many copies of the same work. Here the portraitist Frans Hals saw these new styles. Frans Hals Portrait ofCatharina Hotft and her nurse. His happy peasants dis- porting in an antique gloom are like wax dolls.
His brother Isack. Mauritshuis Ostade was a Dutch painter and print maicer who excelled at small scenes of domestic life. His e.
This painting has an overdesigned quality and looks back to Mannerism. Some early paintings exploit the atmospheric use of shadowy light in scenes of scholars in cavernous cellars or studies. The Hermitage The Dutchman. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn Danae. Rembrandt was taught by a belated Mannerist painter. The movement of the girl. Pieter Lastman. A decade before. For all his world- liness his paintings have a private. Rijksmuscum There was a story that Rembrandt's decline and bankruptcy was on account of this painting.
Tht Aikitomy Lesson. Jan Vermeer The glass of u ine. Even its popular name is an mis- leading addition. He painted a view of Delft. The dog asleep on the little stool is a piece of charming invention. When the painting came to be cleaned it was found to be daylight. Gerard Ter Borch The letter. Rembrandt The Night Wcikh.
They hold wineglasses. In his teens he was visiting England. The Royal Collection Ter Borch's drawing dates from first his eighth year. He had great skill in rendering fabrics. GemaidegaJerie Vermeer stands apart in his age as a great master whose innovations left scarcely a mark on the following gene- rations. It is an example of the move to photographic realism in painting. It remains a work of great technical mastery full of unusual light and sporadic action.
As with the famous painting. Franz Anton Maulpertsch religious decoration. One senses the routine repetition of. Kunsthistorisches Museum nation. The true spirit of the Prussian Canvas. Art becomes The Hoi Family. Maulpertsch was the leading Viennese painter of church frescoes. His inacces- sible ceiling paintings are a complex arrangement of figures.
It is said that his style is a fusion of Rembrandt and the Venetian school. His subjects are the overpainted religious themes for which he showed little originality. There are several slightly different versions of this same painting. It is difficult to under- stand the high reputation of the Asam brothers. Jean-Etienne Liotard Portrait of a woman in Turkhh costume. It is s. Maria de Victoria The Asam brothers were a German team ot architects and trescoists who learned their art in Rome.
It has an easy drawing-room charm. Cosmas Damian Asam Glorifiuitioti nf Miiry. Rijksmuseum Liotard was a celebrated pastel artist from Switzerland who became ena- moured of everything Turkish after a lengthy stay in Constantinople. Their style was brittle and ten- ded toward caricature. La of a lady Belle Chocolatiere. Velasquez has been called the greatest painter of all time.
The King of Spain sent him to Italy once more to download paintings and to secure the of Italian fresco painters for the King's services palace. The colour of the original has such a creamy. Museo del Prado It was while in Rome that he painted the celebrated portrait of the Pope Innocent X.
With his last paintings. The only known Spanish nude painted until the 19th century. It is a triumph of observation over convention. It is said to be not a flattering painting: Whereas the Giorgione Venm or Titian Venus each have a familiar reclining posture which may owe as much to the imagination of the painter as to the artist's model. In this heady atmosphere of rediscovery.
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