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Additionally, the paper discusses about low-income tourism and its consequences over sustainability issues. The literature review about sustainable tourism highlights the pressure and the impact that mass tourism represented to the environment. The results of empirical research show that between and , low-income population interest in tourism has increased since it was verified a larger number of travels, change on the duration of such travels, changes on the destination and sources of information. However, this population has a low level of awareness regarding the environment preservation, which may take this population to represent a risk to the sustainable tourism. E-mail address: mlbacha gmail. Moreover, it discusses some issues about the increase of mass tourism and its consequences over the sustainability.
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In this sense, this article aims to conduct a discussion about regional innovation on tourism with emphasis on synergy and shared knowledge among stakeholders involved with tourism activities. The methodology employed consists of literature review about innovation in tourism and regional innovation in tourism and it is also used the qualitative research approach at a case study which addresses the implementation of the Tourism Observatory of the Federal District Brazil , as practice-based governance in that region.
The results show that the participation of public sector and educational institutions, as well as the cooperation between stakeholders involved within this governance design, were key drivers for creating an innovative platform for the tourism management at the destination.
Product or service, process, managerial and market innovations constitute the main body of innovation categories Hjalager, Thus, innovation in tourism generates new tourism consumer profiles, new trends and designs on offer, new models of management and distribution of tourism products. Within the systemic approach tourism is considered a system formed by the set of i environmental relationships and their ecological, social, economic and cultural subsystems; ii structural organizations and the infrastructure and superstructure subsystems; iii operational actions, encompassing the market, supply, demand, production, distribution and consumption Beni, There is an increasing number of studies on the cooperative action in tourism drawing on the foundations, dimensions and concepts of regional innovation.
The formation, identification, construction and implementation of clusters or ecosystems entangled by the regional dimension of tourism comply, in most cases, to the public policies undertaken with such purposes. The public sector is often a key stakeholder and driver in tourism innovation systems, contributing, among others, for the development of strategic capacity, infrastructures, research-based knowledge, legal frameworks, and skill enhancement facilities Hjalager, This paper highlights a case study wherein we analyze the relevance of public authorities, educational institutions and research centres, as well as other agents related to tourism, in coordinating the dialogue and transfer of knowledge to increase the innovative capacity in its regional dimension.
Finally, we outline the major findings of this experience. The selection criteria was based on the content analysis of the abstracts or, if necessary, the full text. We also collected papers based on the significance of the records in citations by other authors. We added other works such as: i doctoral thesis, thus presenting the results of applied research and the state of the art on the topic; ii books; iii chapters of books containing articles from authors researching the relation between innovation and tou-rism; iv papers published in the annals of scientific events.
Table 1 presents an overview of the main topics discussed in this literature review. Hjalager argues that when tourism organizations engage in collaborative structures, their performance and capacity for innovation increase considerably. In tourism, the knowledge is transferred through four systemic levels: i trade, ii technological; iii infrastructural represented by public bodies ; iv regulatory.
The use of innovation in tourism Hjalager indicates that innovation in tourism can be placed in the following categories: product or service, refer to changes observed by the customer; process, which entails new flows of action aiming to promote efficiency and productivity, extensively using Information and Communication Technology ICT ; managerial innovation, within the scope of leadership and people management, improving the workplace, retaining talent, and encouraging the dissemination of knowledge; management innovation, concerning innovation in the relationship marketing between businesses and consumers.
Aldebert et al. Hjalager posits that smartphones and GPS have improved the tourists' mobility and that social media facilitate the exchange of information between tourists. Smart tourism destinations Wang et al. Minazzi underline the importance of the online ubiquitous connectivity of smart destinations since smartphones provide different types of services which can enrich the tourism experience, particularly in terms of location-based apps, guides, and leisure services sharing.
Regional innovation in tourism Cooke et al. Carson et al.
Source: The authors In order to complement the discussions referred to in the literature, the methodology adopted was the qualitative descriptive case study, addressing the implementation of participatory tourism management in the destination Federal District Brazil. The case study is characterized as a research strategy whose object is a specific unit or limited system that is analyzed in depth Hollinshead, The descriptions resulted from the authors' participation and direct observation of the implementation of the Tourism Observatory of the Federal District from to The novelty is a core concept for innovation, however, often, we sought to understand its nature, characteristics and sources in order to settle different interpretations, problems and ambiguities.
According to Williams and Shaw , in Schumpeter's perspective the novelty was conceived as an essential aspect of innovation, and it could take different forms, such as the creation of new products, development of new forms of production, opening of new markets, or new organizational structures.
However, since s, innovation in the service sector, including tourism, has drawn the attention of researchers Hjalager, Lemos describes two types of innovation : i the radical innovation, which leads to a structural change in the existing technology standards, impacting the organizational processes and the behavior of consumers, creating new industries, products, and markets; ii the incremental innovation, which is responsible for the improvement in the products or processes, without changes in the industrial structure.
Chang, Go and Pine identified also a third type, called distinctive innovation that requests adjustments in consumer behavior and organizational processes. In turn, Hjalager , for analytical purposes, indicates that innovations in tourism can be placed in the following categories: i products and services, which have an impact on observable changes by customers; ii processes, involving new flows of actions aiming to promote efficiency and productivity, making extensive use of information and communication technologies ICT ; iii managerial innovations, within the scope of leadership and people management, the improvement of workplaces, retaining talent and encouraging the dissemination of knowledge; iv management innovations, related to innovations in relationship marketing between companies and consumers; v institutional innovations, which correspond to organizational structures that efficiently redirect or enhance the tourism business within business and territorial networks and alliances.
Studies conducted by Aldebert et al.
The innovations related to the Internet reshaped the structure of the tourism industry, the nature of the tourism products and experiences, the competitiveness and the process of creating value in tourism Sigala, Advances in technology have enabled the diffusion of e-commerce and, thus, the online download of airline tickets and hotel reservations, in addition to the spread of social media and their impact on the co-creation of value and on electronic Word-of-Mouth e-WOM 4.
Buhalis and O'Connor pointed out the convenience to experienced and exigent costumers with the possibility to create their travels according to specific preferences consumers, the business integration with the credit card and financial networks and cost reduction policies on the part of suppliers of tourist services, as the reasons for online sales expansion of tourism services.
Innovations in tourism also enables: i the increase of productivity and efficiency of tourism companies; ii the improvement of tourists' mobility due to the use of smartphones and Global Position Systems GPS's in the destinations; iii the exchange of information between organizations; iv the formation of new destinations; v the supply of equipment that offer comfort to tourists Hjalager, There are, also, impacts on tourist consumer behavior, insofar as the Internet offers increased confidence in decision-making and post-consumption eva-luations, with important inputs to marketing.
We also point out the importance of social media, whose innovative aspects are reshaping the marketing practices of destinations Hjalager, The theories and examples mentioned highlights the potential of innovation in tourism to sell and generate business. In this context, technology is seen as a solution to create value and new services in tourism.
Technology brings closer the dissemination and sharing of knowledge, building the so called "information society" Castells,