THE subject of Industrial Organic Chemistry covers such a wide range our manufacturers as a class: "The author Búpes that the book may con- tinue to serve. Recommended textbooks and reference materials to base the study of industrial chemistry on an understanding of the structure of the. PDF | On Oct 15, , Wanasolo William and others published Industrial Chemistry. Industrial Chemistry. Book · October with 3, Reads. Publisher.
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echecs16.info free study books free study books inorganic and applied chemistry peter dybdahl Inorganic Applied Chemistry Chemistry Laboratory. reflected in the literature: comprehensive works were replaced by a long series of specialist monographs and a rash of new journals. This page wor. Industrial Chemistry. 1. 11 TUM Asia's Master of Science in Industrial Chemistry . student learns not only from the textbook but also through.
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Other chapters review and discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of fusion, together with pre-freezing and pre-melting effects which can throw considerable light on the mechanismsoffusion. The author lucidly surveys this fascinating area of modern molecular physics, bringing together a very wide range of theories and data in a form that provides a most valuable source of information.
Hatt Photometric Determination of Metals. General Aspects of Tracea by E. Sandell and H. John Wiley, Chichester.
This is an excellent revision of a volume which has become a standard reference book in its area. Thr general format is unchanged but the content relates progress sincethe last edition as well as noting gaps that need to be filled by future work. The initial chapters discuss the role of photometric methods in trace analysis; contamination and losses; sampling and solution of samples.
Absorptiometry and fluorimetry are consideredin terms of precision and accuracy of measurements, sensitivity, and the general desiderata of chromogenic reactions for trace analysis.
The main portion, slightly over half, is concerned with photometric reagents treated systematically as follows: inorganic reagents and determination forms; organic chelating reagents classified by bonding type, 0, N, N-O, N-NS, S-G, S-N, or by generic reagent types such as dithizone and oxine and their homologues or analogues; ion association reagentsincluding onium salts and basic dyes.
Analytical separations are frequently essential in order to achieve satisfactory photometric determinations and included herein are precipitation and coprecipitation; chromatography with emphasis on ion exchange; liquid-liquid extraction of elements, oxides, oxygen acids, halides nitrates etc. This is a delightful book to read. The depth and coverage are well balanced, while further valuable and particular features of the book are the scholarly notes and many papers cited in references.
Highly recommended for general reading, it is an essential and value-for-money purchase for all workers in the field and for all tertiary educational level libraries where two copies are suggested,one of which should be for referenceuse.
Clausen Ill and Guy Mattson.
The authors have set out to provide an introduction to the chemical industry for the student or recent graduate in chemistry. They have covered a very wide range of topics, necessarily superficially, and have, at times, attempted to produce an. They start by looking at the background of how the chemical industry operates, of how one selects a chemical route for a process and then carries out the necessary calculations of material and energy balances.
An introductory chapter will introduce and homogenise the different parts, and provides a long-term perspective. Solar-driven energy and chemical production a. Production of solar fuels using CO2 b. Electro-catalytic activation of N2 c. Visible-light driven catalysts for water oxidation: towards solar fuel biorefineries d.
Development of advanced catalysts to store renewable energy by converting CO2 e. Catalytic Synthesis of Carboxylic acids using CO2 as a building block via formal hydrocarboxylation processes f. Unit Operations In Unit 1. Principles of size reduction Most size reduction machines are based on mechanical compression or impact. To meet standard specifications on size and shape.
To increase the reactivity of materials by increasing the surface area.
The objective is to produce small particles from big ones for any of the following reasons: Jaw Crusher Fig. It is crushed several times between the jaws before it is discharged at the bottom opening. In the diagram above. African Virtual University 40 2. Ball Mill A ball mill is a tumbling mill generally used for previously crushed materials. Feed is admitted between the jaws. The two jaws make o angle between them. Fig 2.
It is generally used to grind material 6mm and finer. A jaw crusher produces a coarse product. The larger the diameter. A ball mill is suitable for dry. African Virtual University 41 Fig.
The point where the mill becomes a centrifuge is called the critical speed. When the cylinder is rotated. The rotation is usually between 4 to 20 revolutions per minute. The mill consists of a cylinder containing a mixture of large and small steel grinding balls and the feed. If the speed of the mill is too great. Improve appearance of products Size Enlargement Agglomeration Size enlargement. Prevent caking and lump formation 6. Densify materials.
Create uniform blends of solids which do not segregate 9. Produce useful structural forms 8. Permit control over properties of finely divided solids e. Reduce dusting losses 2. There are two basic types of agglomerators. Render particles free flowing. African Virtual University 42 2. Pellet mills Moist feed in plastic state is passed through a die containing holes.
The products of size enlargement are either regular shapes e. Bonding agents such as glue or starch may be mixed with the feed. Separate multicomponent particle size mixtures by selective wetting and agglomeration Remove particles from liquids In size enlargement.
A knife cuts the exudates into pellets. Provide definite quantity of units suitable for metering. Purposes of size enlargement The following are some of the purposes of size enlargement in various industries: The friction of material in the die holes supplies resistance necessary for compaction.
Reduce handling hazards particularly with respect to irritating and obnoxious powders. This is shown in Fig. The die is supplied with power to rotate around a freely rotating roller. For these. For example in metal extraction. Agglomerators are used to increase the particle size of powders. Pellet mills are compaction agglomerators. Pellets gain their firmness solely from the pressing process without addition of any chemical or synthetic adhesive agent.
These raw materials are compressed under high pressure into small. African Virtual University 43 Pellet quality and capacity depends on: This requires high recycle ratio whose increase leads to larger and denser agglomerates of high wet strength. Fine materials silts down through the large balls and remain in the pan. The formed agglomerates are subject to the following forces: Motion is caused by centrifugal forces. It is fed with the powdery raw material.
Tumbling agglomerators The common action of most non-compaction agglomerators is to keep the powders in motion by tumbling. Two types of tumbling agglomerators are used: Enlarged balls roll off the pan. The layering process is shown in Fig.
African Virtual University 44 2. Material layers over a nucleus particle to form balls. It consists of pan rotating at an incline. After the particles stick together to form a nucleus or germ. The binder is specially selected to hold the smaller particles together.
It also requires low moisture content in spite of the fact that increase in liquid content leads to increase in agglomerate size. The devices may be operated at an angle. African Virtual University 45 Fig 2. Drum agglomerator Fig 2. Because particles of various sizes are produced.
This technology is applied in mineral ore processing. Magnetic Separation If a mixture containing magnetic materials and non-magnetic materials is subjected to a magnetic field.
Three products can be obtained during magnetic separation. The method used for dry particles is illustrated schematically in Fig 2. A drum agglomerator has the following advantages over a pan agglomerator: Separation Of Materials In this section. African Virtual University 46 As the drum rotates clockwise. As the strength of the electromagnet weakens towards the right. Although these materials are generally hydrophilic. Strongly and weakly magnetic materials are attracted and picked by the magnet.
The non-magnetic materials continue to be conveyed by the bottom conveyor and drop in the first bin. The strongly magnetic materials drop off at the end of the electromagnet into the third bin. Above this conveyor is another conveyor with an electromagnet inside. Such hydrophobic particles in a water suspension are floated by attaching them to air bubbles. Froth Flotation This is a process in solids-liquids separation technology that uses differences in wettability of various materials such as mineral ores.
These small differences can be amplified by selective adsorption that makes some of the particles hydrophobic. The electromagnetic field decreases towards the right. African Virtual University 47 Fig 2. Making particles hydrophobic and floatable A special surface-active agent surfactant called collector or promoter is added to the suspension.
Collectors are usually C2 to C6 compounds containing polar groups. They include fatty acids, fatty acid amines and sulphonates among others. Collector selection depends on the material being separated.
The collector molecule adsorbs on to the solid surface via the polar charged group. This reaction is known as chemisorption. The hydrocarbon chain is facing the aqueous phase. A layer probably, a monolayer of the collector molecules become attached to the surface of the particle. Because the hydrocarbon chain and the water do not mix, the coated particle surface becomes hydrophobic.
By being hydrophobic, a particle repels water. This results in the weakening of the forces acting between the particle surface and water and hence the diminishing of surface-water interactions at solidsurface interface.
This causes the displacement of water film from the wetted solid surface by air. In addition to the use of collectors to change the surface property of the particles, other chemicals may be added to further modify either the particles to be floated, or the particles that are to remain in the suspension. Such chemical substances are called modifiers. It is introduced into the flotation cell. A frothing agent is added to create a generous supply of fine bubbles when air is sparged.
Examples of frothers include pine oil and methyl amyl alcohol.
The collector and other additives are added. The bubbles with attached mineral particles rise to the surface where the material is removed. Particles that are readily wetted by water hydrophilic tend to remain in the water suspension.
Distillation is used to separate a mixture of miscible liquids which have different volatilities. Suppose a mixture with low concentration of the more volatile component is distilled and the vapour condensed. The condensate which we refer to as distillate will be more concentrated with this component than the feed. If we return the distillate to the distillation apparatus and distill it to a second distillate, this distillate will be more richer in the more volatile component than the first distillate.
If we continue this process, we will approach a pure distillate of the more volatile component. The greater the relative volatility between the two components, the fewer the needed distillation stages.
This is the concept of fractional distillation. It is used when: Industrially, fractional distillation is carried out in distillation columns also known as distillation towers.
They are like many distillation stills stack together vertically. The fractionation columns can be batch or continuous and they can be many in series. For distillation to take place in a distillation column, both vapour and liquid flowing up and down respectively must be brought into intimate contact. This is done by packing the column with inert solids, or installing plates at regular intervals throughout the column height.
Small distillation columns are normally packed while large distillation columns are plated. In plated columns, we need to provide for both vapour path and liquid paths at each plate. The plates are perforated and the vapour passes through the perforations.
The liquid flows through pipes known as downcomers next to the colum wall. In Fig 2. Some of the vapour condenses and the resulting condensate has more of the less volatile component B. It is impossible to cover all of them in this unit. The returned liquid is called reflux. The boiling point of A. Vapour is generated at the reboiler and it rises up from the bottom of the column.
At each distillation stage or plate. African Virtual University 51 Fig 2. The vapourized portion contain more of the more volatile component A and therefore. This process is repeated up the column.
TA is low compared to TB. Enriching the vapour with the more volatile component above the feed location is known as rectification. The removal or depletion of this component from the liquid below the feed location is known as stripping.
We can therefore conclude that the inside of the column becomes colder upwards. Component A leaves at the top.
Rectification and stripping in a distillation column Let us look at what happens inside a distillation column when it is running. At each distillation plate. Other Unit Operations There are many unit operations that are employed in the chemical industry. Suppose there are two components A and B being separated with A being more volatile than B. In Table 2. After the topmost vapour is condensed at the condenser. African Virtual University 52 Table 2. This involves condensation reaction between two polyfunctional molecules.
Addition or chain polymerization involving successive stages of reaction initiation. African Virtual University 53 2. Unit processes are the core of industrial synthetic chemistry and are dominant in organic processes. Polymerization reactions For polymerisation to yield polymers with long chain high polymers.
Examples of addition polymers include polyethylene. Polymerisation The term polymer comes from two Greek words: Nylon is a condensation polymer of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid as shown in the equation below: Polymerization reactions fall into two general classes: Unit Processes In Unit 1. Polymers made by free radical polymerization include polystyrene. Condensation or step-reaction polymerization. It is used to make polymers from vinyl monomers.
We will look at some of the unit processes that we are likely to encounter in subsequent learning activities. This is called coupling. The adding of more and more monomer molecules to the growing chain is called propagation. Another way in which the unpaired electrons can shut down polymerization is called disproportionation.
Polymerisation products are numerous with many uses and include phenolic resins. African Virtual University 54 Initiation: The whole process starts off with a molecule called an initiator. Free radicals are unstable.
When this happens. When they split. It is especially a problem with polyethylene. This happens in several ways. The simplest way is for two growing chain ends to find each other. Termination is the third and final step of a chain-growth polymerization. In disproportionation. Then the chain reaction will grind to a halt. The special characteristic of these molecules is that they have an ability to split in unusual way.
The two unpaired electrons then join to form a pair. This whole process. This new radical reacts with another ethylene molecule in the exact same way as the initiator fragment did. Self-perpetuating reactions like this are called chain reactions. Coupling is one of two main types of termination reaction.
Molecules like this. This electron. This starts a new chain growing out of the middle of the main chain. A free radical is formed when this reaction takes place over and over again and the chain grows.
Because we keep remaking the radical. This is a molecule like benzoyl peroxide or 2. This is called chain transfer to polymer. This can result in significant chain transfer to polymer The Smith-Ewart-Harkins theory for the mechanism of free-radical emulsion polymerization is summarized by the following steps: Because they are not solvent-based. This is considered Smith-Ewart Interval 1. African Virtual University 55 2.
Small amounts of monomer diffuse through the water to the micelle. Emulsion polymerization is used to manufacture several commercially important polymers. Many of these polymers are used as solid materials and must be isolated from the aqueous dispersion after polymerization.
The total surface area of the micelles is much greater than the total surface. Excess surfactant creates micelles in the water. Disadvantages of emulsion polymerization include: The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion. These emulsions find applications in adhesives.
Emulsion polymerization Emulsion polymerization is a type of free radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion consisting of water. A water-soluble initiator is introduced into the water phase where it reacts with monomer in the micelles. Advantages of emulsion polymerization include: In other cases. Water-soluble polymers. It can also be known as a polymer colloid. Alkylation reactions include the binding of an alkyl group to: African Virtual University 56 area of the fewer.
When both monomer droplets and polymer particles are present in the system. Alkylation Alkylation is the introduction of an alkyl radical by substitution or addition into an organic compound.
Another example is the formation of 2. The processes are usually exothermic and similar to polymerisation. At this point the monomer-swollen micelle has turned into a polymer particle. Emulsion polymerizations have been used in batch. This is considered Smith-Ewart Interval 3. The choice depends on the properties desired in the final polymer or dispersion and on the economics of the product. In the presence of an acid catalyst such as hydrogen fluoride or sulphuric acid.
Hydrolysis In the hydrolysis of either organic or inorganic compounds. The hydrogen from the water goes to one product while the hydroxyl goes to the other product as illustrated in the following equation: Alkylates of active methylenes are easily prepared using a base such as ethoxide. Methyl and primary halides are most suitable for alkylation reactions.
Apart from gasoline. African Virtual University 57 In 6. But in organic chemistry. In principle both of the hydrogens can be replaced with alkyl groups: This can be utilized to form a cyclic system by using a dihalide as shown below: Hydrolysis of esters This hydrolysis is referred to as saponification.
Other unit processes with their industrial applications. Addition of acid speeds up reaction without shifting the equilibrium significantly. These include: Table 2.
A chemical process in which an ester and water are formed when an organic radical is substituted for in a molecule by an ionisable hydrogen of an acid. Industrial applications Intermediates in manufacture of phenol. That is. Production of synthetic fibres like polyethylene terephthalate.
In Unit 6. On the other hand. Other Unit Processes In table 2. A good example is the saponification of fats and oils to glycerol and either soap or fatty acids. Halogenation chlorination. List down the various types of alkylation reactions Write short notes including industrial applications of the following i alkylation ii hydrolysis iii sulphonation iv nitration.
Industrial solvents. Chlorinated compounds are used in the chlorohydrocarbons such as chloroform. List down the various purposes for size reduction.
Briefly discuss the Smith-Ewart-Harkins theory for free radical emulsion polymerization. Explain how a ball mill works. African Virtual University 59 Hydrogenation A chemical reaction of molecular hydrogen with another substance in the presence of a catalyst.
What are the factors that determine the quality of pellets? Describe how agglomerates are made by the layering process Describe how a magnetic separator works How does a flotation cell operate? How is a vapour enriched with the more volatile component as it moves up a distillation column? Monovalent atoms or groups of atoms are replaced by the nitro group Manufacture ammonia see details in learning activity two.
Activity 3 Inorganic Chemical Industries Part 1: Extractive Metallurgy Unit Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to: Describe the various stages mineral ores go through in a typical ore dressing process. Describe the extractive metallurgy of copper f. Describe the extractive metallurgy of aluminium.
Summary of Unit In this unit, we shall study how metals are extracted from mineral ores in which they exist with other materials of less value.
Generally, ores are first taken through size reduction, sorting and agglomeration to transform them into a form that can be taken through extraction processes including calcining, roasting, smelting and refining.
Extractive metallurgy of iron, aluminium and copper respectively are then presented. List of relevant readings Das R. Metallurgy, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. List of relevant useful links http: The second site has information on aluminium production. Mineral ores An ore is a mineral deposit which can be profitably exploited. It may contain three groups of minerals namely: Almost all metals are derived from mineral ores. There are also ores that contain non-metals such as sulphur.
Generally, the valuable mineral in an ore may be found in the form of native metal, oxides, oxy-salts, sulphides or arsenides. During mining, large open pits are excavated by breaking the ore using explosives. Ores as mined may be in large lumps and therefore, some size reduction is done at the mine.
The ore is shoveled into trucks and transported to the factory. If the mineral ore is found in waterbeds, mining is carried out by dredging. For example, sand is dredged from river beds. Ore dressing Before the ores are subjected to the main chemical treatment steps, they are pre-treated by a series of relatively cheap processes, mainly physical rather than chemical in nature. These processes constitute what is known as ore dressing.
They are meant to effect the concentration of the valuable minerals and to render the enriched material into the most suitable physical condition for subsequent operations. Ore dressing may include: Size Reduction to such a size as will release or expose all valuable minerals Sorting to separate particles of ore minerals from gangue non-valuable minerals or different ores from one another Agglomeration may be carried out sometimes before a roasting operation.
If the ores are rich in the valuable mineral, above processes may not add value. Such ores can be ground, sized and blended with other ores in order to provide a homogeneous feed to say, a blast furnace or reaction bed. Size reduction may be carried out by first crushing the ore down to 7mm maximum followed by grinding to smaller sizes. Jaw crushers can be used deep in the mine to prepare the ore for transportation to the surface e.
Screens are used to separate particles according to size and may not affect the concentrations of the ore minerals. Particles are separated into oversize and undersize. Sorting The particles may be sorted by classification, flotation or magnetic methods.
Classifiers These are devices that separate particles according to their different rates of travel under gravity through a fluid medium such as water. Particles of different densities, sizes and shapes have different falling velocities. Classifiers include rake classifiers and jigs. Flotation Flotation uses difference in surface properties of the individual minerals.
It is readily applied to very fine concentrates and can distinguish ore mineral from gangue, and also, one ore mineral from another. Magnetic Separation Ferromagnetic magnetite or iron minerals which can be chemically altered to produce magnetite may be sorted out using a magnetic separator as described in Unit 2. Electrostatic Separation Minerals have a wide range of electrical conductivity and can be distinguished by this property.
If several kinds of particles are given an electrostatic charge and are then brought into contact with an electrical conductor at earth potential, the charge will leak away from good conductors much more rapidly than from poor conductors.
While the charge remains, the particle will cling to the conductor by electrostatic attraction. The weakly conducting minerals will therefore remain attached to the conductor longer than the good conductors, so affording a means of separating minerals whose conductivities differ appreciably.
Electrostatic separators operate on thin layers of material.
The principle is illustrated in Fig. This is done by any of the following methods: Agglomeration When a particle size of an ore or concentrate is too small for use in a later stage of treatment e.
If the valuable ore is in the filtrate. The moisture content may be reduced further by filtration and drying. Dewatering and filtration After sorting and leaching. Slurries with particles which can settle may be separated from the bulk of the liquid by settling and subsequent decantation.
Coarse solids may be freed from most of their moisture by draining. African Virtual University 63 Fig 3. The process can be envisaged as a net migration of vacancies into the solid at the highly curved energy surfaces near points of contact and again at low energy areas away from contact points Sintering may be accompanied by a chemical reaction.
Now we want to look at extraction and refining of the metal. These blocks are then dried and hardened by heating. Roasting Roasting involves chemical changes other than decomposition. Calcination This is the thermal treatment of an ore to effect its decomposition and the elimination of a volatile product. Briqueting is not popular in mineral ore agglomeration. Use of hydraulic cement allows hardening to be carried out cold. African Virtual University 64 Briqueting This is a mechanical process of agglomeration in which the materials.
A roast may effect calcinations and drying as shown below. Extraction Processes So far we have been dealing with unit operations that prepare the ore for chemical reactions used to extract the valuable metal from the ore. It is applied to the consolidation of metallic and ceramic powder compacts which are heated to temperatures approaching their melting points to allow diffusion to take place at the points of contact of particles so that they grow together to form a rigid entity.
Sintering Sintering involves diffusion of material between particles. The metal melts and the slag forms gangue and flux. In the blast furnace. In some case. Grey pig iron which contain very small amounts of carbon and other impurities but 1.
Steel which contain from 0. Where fusion or reduction temperature is above C. Uses of iron Iron is used in the forms shown below as material of construction for machines. All these forms are obtained from pig iron which is first obtained from the iron ore.
Extractive Metallurgy Of Iron 3. This then is a process of drying followed by calcination and roasting. Distillation may also be applied in metal purification. Smelting This is essentially a smelting process in which the components of the charge in the molten state separate into two or more layers which may be slag.