The O'Reilly logo is a registered trademark of O'Reilly Media, Inc. Hackers and related trade dress are trademarks of O'Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. *PDF created by echecs16.info 1 The ultimate hacker computer, invented mosly by Greenblatt and subject of who set the computer revolution into motion .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|ePub File Size:||21.68 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.58 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
HACKERS. Heroes of the Computer Revolution. STEVEN LEVY. To Teresa. A Delta Book. Published by. Dell Publishing a division of. Bantam Doubleday Dell. This repository contains reference material & links for people willing to learn Ethical Hacking - Github-Classroom-Cybros/Ethical-Hacking. zero- days–but he/she Just Google the term. “hacker jailed” where legal hacking is allowed The Hacker Gray hat Python: Python programming for hackers.
Full time New Media student, part time geek. The book tells the history of a subculture that arose in the late fifties. The book starts in Building 26 with a boy wandering down the corridors in the middle of the night. Peter Samson is one of the many hackers mentioned in the book; the most important of them the so-called Wizards along with several machines are described in the preface of the book. Small, sometimes funny, descriptions accompany the names. Levy talks about young hackers and their obsessive passion for the machine, about long nights spent trying to tame their mechanical beasts. In his attempts to explore what hackers actually are, Levy defines the so-called Hacker Ethic, which reads as follows: All information should be free Mistrust Authority — promote Decentralization Hackers should be judged by their hacking a meritocratic society You can create art and beauty on a computer Computers can change your life for the better As amazing as this ethic sounds, the remainder of the book describes how much of its power has unfortunately eroded over time.
Because computeres were so expensive that it would be a waste to not use them 24 hours a day, the TMRC boys would hang around wating for an opening to occur. These boys would become the first generation of hackers. They would hack as long as they could and create new tools for the computer.
The market for the computers they used was extremely small so it was easy and quite natural to share your code and smart inventions. When the computer market opened up in the seventies, it became hard to uphold the Hacker Ethic. Stevy Levy focuses in this case especially on Bill Gates. Gates had created a program for the Altair, one of the first microcomputers, and was outraged when people started copying his program.
In this letter he argues for proprietary software, how else could a programmer live? And so starts the decline of the Hacker Ethic. Hackers started companies and free information became encrypted. Capitalism overrules Freedom. Stallman is devoted to Hacker Ethic and he sabotaged the commercially evil Symbolics to stay true to his belief.
Even now, he is still one of most important advocate of the Hacker Ethic. In the second afterword the one from Levy revisits some hackers including Stallman. Woz or Steve Wozniak was a hardware hacker since high school. Along with another friend he went to the first Homebrew meeting and was happy to have found people with similar interests in hardware and computers.
He was working for Hewlett-Packard at the time he built his own computer based on the MOS Technology microprocessor. He was able to build a machine with fewer chips by thinking about problems in clever and different ways. Wozniak was friends with Steve Jobs , who worked for Atari at the time. Jobs was interested in the computer Wozniak had built and thought they should make more of these machines and sell them.
Wozniak had to ask HP for permission because he worked for them, but they did so because they did not believe that it was marketable. Their software and diagrams were available to others for free or for a minimal cost. They soon followed their first computer with the Apple II that would spark a revolution in the computer industry.
They built their company out of their garages with Steve Jobs taking care of managing the company, while Steve Wozniak hacked at the hardware. The West Coast Computer Faire , organized by Jim Warren and Bob Reiling in , was amongst the first signs that a new industry was about to take off and that it would take computers into the houses of ordinary people. The Hacker Ethic fell to the wayside as companies started to keep their hardware and software specifications secret because of the competition.
The Homebrew members started to dwindle as many hackers had either formed their own companies or had become employed and could not divulge what they knew anymore.
Others were too busy to even attend the meetings. It signaled a shift in the hacker culture.
The Wizard and the Princess: Ken and Roberta Williams were the founders of Sierra On-Line , one of the first computer gaming companies, and among a new generation of hackers. Ken learned programming on his own while doing work for different companies on mainframes. Ken got Roberta hooked to computers when he showed her the Adventure game written by Don Woods.
Ken was not as interested in the game as Roberta who immersed herself in it. The couple were parents of two small children at the time.
Ken's younger brother had bought an Apple II, and soon afterwards Ken bought one as well. Meanwhile Roberta devised a game of her own based on Adventure which they called Mystery House. Ken scrapped the compiler project and instead wrote the code for the game. Instead they decided they wanted all the profits and sold the game independently. Ken quit his job and they moved to the woods in Oakhurst, California to live out their dream life.
Their second game, Wizard and the Princess made them even more money and that was only the beginning of a new genre of commercial software, games. Computers began to be bought by people who had no wish to program them, but rather bought their software at computer stores. Games were the hot item when it came to software. Some of these companies formed a sort of brotherhood of their own by communicating and cooperating with each other. The Third Generation consisted of hackers who had much more access to computers than the former hardware hackers.
Personal computers were becoming popular to the point where high school kids could afford them. Among this new generation was John Harris , an Atari assembly hacker, who later produced games for On-Line.
Summer Camp was the nickname for On-Line's headquarters. The staff partied and had fun whenever they were not working. The atmosphere was very casual and free-spirited, but it could not last as the company was growing. John Harris decided to port the arcade classic to the Atari computer for On-Line systems.
He spent a lot of time and energy perfecting the game, but his disks were stolen before he even finished the game at a trade show.
He was devastated as he had also lost his entire software library. His relationship with Ken Williams suffered as John was unable to return to programming for two months. He eventually remade Frogger and the game was a big success for On-Line, but the atmosphere had changed. Ken no longer believed that business could go along with hackers and their ethic, instead it had to become more professional.
He realized that he needed some professional management to handle On-Line which had grown beyond his control. However, Ken could not remove himself from the company matters. Although he knew that he had to let a non-hacker run the company, he could not get away from the fun and excitement.
The Third Generation was not as interested in the Hacker Ethic, instead sales figures started to matter a lot more, and many software companies started using copy protection mechanisms to prevent their software from being used without permission.
Hackers saw these mechanisms as just another form of locks to be picked in order to liberate the software see also Software cracking. Mark Duchaineau was a hacker who came up with a protection scheme called " Spiradisk " [ sic ] for the Apple computer.
This scheme actually made the software loading process faster by loading data in spirals instead of in concentric circles. He started working for On-Line, which actually wanted him to use more conventional protection schemes. Mark basically held On-Line hostage by insisting on implementing copy protection on their big release, Ultima II , with his Spiradisk scheme rather than conventional ones.
The game could not be released without copy protection for fear of unauthorized copying. The , San Francisco Applefest was among the last important Applefests, and it signaled a shift in company attitudes. From the days of the Brotherhood, to the new, more business oriented, competitive atmosphere.
Wizard vs. Wizards was a televised contest devised by Tom Tatum and held in Las Vegas , where game authors would compete by playing each other's games. Richard Stallman , also known as RMS as per his initials, was called by Levy the "last of the true hackers". This did not mean "last real hacker", but rather the last faithful member of the class of hackers that Levy called the "true hackers". He was for people cooperating instead of competing, and he did not like computers that restricted user access to computers through passwords.
He advocated choosing the empty password so anyone could use the computers. RMS also wrote the text editor EMACS and shared it on the condition that those who modify its source code also share their modifications.
Greenblatt was unwilling to yield to business pressures and wanted to form a company that would maintain the Hacker Ethic. Many others disagreed and the result was two competing companies. Symbolics hired most of the lab hackers, and a schism was created between the two groups of hackers, to the point where some would not even talk to each other.
Stallman saw a whole hacker culture die as the existing hackers left for these companies and there were no new hackers to fill their shoes. PC Magazine stated that Levy "does capture the essential composite of the hacker personality but fails to accept that the true hacker, driven by machine lust, is equally content to hack in the corporate corridors. He is also naively optimistic about the collective spirit of computing, which he believes will ultimately prevail".
This criticism ignores passages early in the book where Levy says exactly this. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Stallman is very persistent in doing the Right Thing, though not even his standards are what they used to be. I have just given a short summary of the book and am painfully aware that it does not do justice to the book.
The paragraphs above are just a small part of the complete story.
The book is about the TX-0, computer languages, pranks, phone phreaking, games, artificial intelligence, logic, capitalism, bumming, 30 hour day cycles, intelligence, encryption, the rise of the personal computer, betrayal, political action, communities, success, failure, ethics and above all passion. The book celebrates the work of the hackers. Instead of describing them as smelly, autistic boys Levy transcends this stereotypical image. These hackers may be socially awkward there are almost no women mentioned in the book and no athletes, but they are ninjas in their own field.
It is clear that the early ideals of the hackers were unable to outmaneuver the outside world. In a way it has been a sad, yet also very inspiring story.. Code is not something that should be guarded, that should be hidden behind a flashy interface. When well executed, code is art all by itself. Code can be elegant, funny and sometimes obnoxious. The hackers made tools to make tools. The pioneering microcomputer Altair was a kit which hobbyists had to assemble themselves. We pay attention only to the surface and forget that what lies beneath it, is a deep, rich territory just asking to be explored.
It is like swimming in the sea and ignoring the fact that below your body is a breathtaking ecology. So, maybe it is time to get some goggles, or, if you feel like taking a risk, diving equipment. Because after reading this book you will know for certain that not only does culture change technology, but that technology also changes culture.