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The design process for architectural interiors involves a series of phases, each of which may call for drawings. At the outset, these may include programming. Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors: Basic Skills, 2nd Edition [ Rosemary Kilmer, W. Otie Kilmer] on echecs16.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying. echecs16.info 1/14/03 PM Page iii. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND DETAILS FOR INTERIORS: BASIC SKILLS W. OTIE KILMER ROSEMARY KILMER.
Figure 8—1. Typical sheet of sections and details for a small building. Transverse section. Figure 8—3. Longitudinal section.
The pencil generally is made to hold 0. The size of the lead determines the line width. This type of Soft leads are used for sketching, rendering, and graphical accents. When in doubt, try a sample or test first.
Like the traditional leadholder, the mechanical pencil offers the convenience of a steady supply of lead, as the leads are inserted in the bottom of the holder and pushed out the tip by pressing a button on the end of the Metric widths range from.
Leads used on tracing paper and drafting paper are composed of graphite. Leads range in grades from 9H extremely hard to 6B extremely soft. See Table The softer the lead, the darker the image or line it will produce. For most drafting work, where clean, crisp lines are necessary, H and 2H leads are used. For sketching, softer leads are better, such as F and HB. Very soft leads, standard widths range from to 6.
For a starter pen set, a good range of point sizes would be 3x0. Technical pens that produce the same line widths are also available with felt tips. These are less costly, however their felt tips tend to wear out faster than the metal tips. For light, preliminary layout work, 3H and 4H leads are best.
Also, the harder the drawing surface, the softer the lead will feel. If you are in high humidity conditions, the and will produce excellent reproductions. When using technical pens, remember to keep points screwed in securely to prevent the ink from clogging. Always replace the cap firmly after each use to apparent hardness of the lead tends to increase. As noted before, there are also special plastic-leaded pencils available for drawing on plastic drafting film.
These plastic leads Figure Technical fountain pens and ink refill. They are water-resistant and bond well to the plastic film. A vinyl eraser is also available for use with these special leads. Pens Some designers prefer ink and use a technical fountain pen Figure , as it is capable of precise line width. It can be used for both freehand and drafted ink drawings. As with drafting pencils, pens are available in a variety of forms and price ranges.
However, most technical drawing pens consist of a tubular point, which has an ink-flow-regulating wire inside it. The size of the tubular point is what determines the finished width. Standard widths of ink lines are measured according to a line-width code, such as. Use a good waterproof black drawing ink. Good nonclogging ink that is specially made for use in fountain and technical pens is the best choice.
Parallel Bar, T-Square, and Drafting Machines It is extremely important to make sure lines on design drawings and construction drawings are exactly straight and, when required, parallel. To make sure lines are straight in a horizontal, vertical, and angular direction, there are several tools available. The most common of these instruments are the T-square and parallel bar Figure A device called a drafting machine Figure is also sometimes used.
T-Square A T-square consists of a straightedge with a head set at right angles that can be set flush against the edge of a drawing board or table. The head is generally very sturdy and immovable.
T-squares come in different lengths to coordinate with various drawing board sizes. The most common lengths are 36 and 42 inches. They are available with opaque or transparent edges, the latter making it easier to see through to existing lines when spacing by eye.
To use a T-square, one holds it with one hand usually the left at the head so it can be moved into position and held in place Figure An arm-track drafting machine can produce horizontal, vertical, and angular lines.
The T-square is inexpensive and portable, which makes it convenient for students. However, in modern practice the T-square has been replaced by the parallel bar and the drafting machine, as they do not require a constant hand to steady the head. The bar moves up and down on thin wire that Frequently used angles such as 30, 45, and 60 degrees have positive moves runs over pulleys inside the bar. When properly installed, set points.
Scales are available in several lengths, in either archi- the bar can be moved up and down the drawing board and always tectural or metric measurements. They are also available in either be parallel with the top of it. Parallel bars are available in a vari- plastic or aluminum finishes. The parallel bar is easy to use. It permits the drafter to draw long horizontal lines Triangles, Templates, and Compasses and serves as a base for the placement of triangles and other instru- A variety of other drawing tools are available for constructing ver- ments for precision drawing.
It is fixed to the drawing board and consists of vertical on fixed-radius circular forms, and other special shapes such as representations of furniture, plumbing fixtures, and other interior equipment and furnishings.
There is also a scale in angular degrees on parallel straightedge for drawing vertical and angular lines Figure the head that replaces the protractor. A range of sizes is available, and the track type.
The arm type has two arms that pivot in the cen- with a size of 8 or 10 inches x mm being in the middle of ter with a head at the end of the lower arm — which is clamped to the range. Their size is based on the length of the longest side of the the top edge of the drafting table.
The drafter moves the head up right angle. It is best to begin with these; then larger and smaller and down and right and left. The head and the scales on it remain sizes can be added as needed. For example, small triangles, such as parallel to their original setting. The track type has a horizontal 4 inches mm , are useful for hand-lettering and crosshatching track mounted to the top edge of the drafting table with a vertical small areas. The head with the Adjustable triangles can be set for any angle from 0 to 45 scales on it is fastened to the vertical track and slides up and down.
The adjustable triangle is convenient for situations requir- Drafting machines are available for right- or left-handed people. Right-handed people hold the head in place with the left hand. Some triangles are available with recessed edges for use when Left-handed people hold the head in their right hand with the inking. They are scratchresistant and generally have good edge retention. They should not be used as a cutting edge as they are easy to nick, and they must be used and stored carefully.
Figure Triangles are also used to create straight lines when drawing. When used with a parallel bar or T-square, angular and vertical lines can be drawn. Shown on the left is a fixed triangle; on the right is an adjustable triangle. Templates Templates are prepunched patterns representing various shapes commonly used in interior design and architectural plans Figure Templates help to speed up the drafting process and aid in the production of accurate drawings.
There are a variety of templates available, some of which are used regularly, while others are needed for special purposes only. There are templates that are used to draw circles, squares, windows, doors, electrical symbols, plumbing fixtures, furnishings, and hundreds of other features.
The circle template is a very basic and highly useful timesaving device for drawing accurate circles of various sizes as well as curves that are parts of circles. Ellipse templates come in similar sizes, but since ellipses vary from near flat to near circular, Figure Templates are used to speed up the drafting process by tracing the punched shapes directly onto a drawing.
Templates come in a variety of patterns and scales. However, a single guide with the most commonly used proportions is available. French curved templates are excellent tools for drawing irregular curved lines that are not part of a circle or ellipse. These guides consist of at least a dozen traditional forms that can help a designer draw almost any flowing curve needed.
There are also flexible drawing curves available that can be bent as needed to fit an irregular curved line. They can hold the shape as the line is drawn, then straightened out after use.
Other useful templates include forms for both residential and commercial furniture, as well as plumbing fixtures, retail fixtures, and lighting and electrical symbols. Lettering templates are best used for very large letters and numbers that may be difficult to form freehand.
Compass A compass is an inverted V-shaped instrument used for drawing circles and arcs Figure It has a pin at the end of one leg and a leadholder at the end of the other. A special device will allow Figure Compasses are used to technical pen points to be used with the compass.
The best way to draw circles and arcs; this illustra- use a compass is to mark a centerpoint and the radius desired on tion shows a compass with a lead a piece of paper and adjust the compass to that measurement by point, and the attachment used setting the pin on the center point and setting the pencil or pen when drawing with ink.
Hold the compass firmly at the top, leaning it a little in the direction the circle will be drawn, then rotate it. Generally, rotating it in a clockwise direction is easier. Press hard enough to get the desired line weight. Be careful to match line weights of circles and arcs to the rest of the drawing. Scales are special rulers that can be used for meas- part of their real full-size dimensions.
Architectural and interior uring in a variety of units and that enable the designer to draw an design line work generally represents objects that are much larger object larger than, smaller than, or the same size as the real full- than the drawing paper; therefore, a proportional measuring sys- size object.
Scales are calibrated in inches or millimeters much tem must be used. This scale of the drawing is always stated on the like a regular ruler. They are available in either a flat or a trian- drawing.
When a drawing is drawn to scale, this means that all gular shape Figure Triangular scales are very popular dimensions on the drawing are related to the real object, or space, because as many as four scales can be printed on each face.
The shape also makes them convenient to pick up and use. Flat a foot in the full-size object. The scaled inches are located on the other side of the 0 point.
These divisions are indicated as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, to be drawn at various sizes. As there are 40 subdivisions with- and metric units, and in various in an inch, each mark represents 1 foot.
This scale can also be shapes and sizes. A scale should used to represent larger units such as or 4, feet per inch. Metric scales are used when drawing architectural and interior depending on the number of scales they carry.
Good-quality scales must have sharply defined graduations that are close to the edge for accurate measurements. Scales are not meant to be a straightedge, and should never be used as a pencil or inking guide when drawing a straight line. The millimeter is the basic unit of the metric scale. Metric scales are based on ratios, such as 1: Typical ratios are 1: To enlarge a drawing, scales are available in 2: For example, a 1: It is used for laying out accurate design and con- mm.
Architectural scales generally contain 11 different divisions, where each major division repre- Erasers, Erasing Shields, and Brushes sents 1 foot.
Each one of these divisions represents one the interior designer. Erasability is one of the key advantages of foot on the scale. Erasers, erasing shields, and the scale represents 1 foot. A good eraser must be capable of completely removing pencil or ink lines without leaving smudge marks or roughing the surface of the paper. For vellum drafting paper, soft rubber erasers should generally be used. There are also special erasers designed to remove ink. However, be careful, as these erasers are too abrasive for some drawing surfaces.
Some ink erasers claim to have a solvent incorporated into them for better erasing of ink. Erasers are available in either block form or stick form inserted into a holder much like a leadholder Figure Vinyl and other plastic erasers are designed for use on plastic drafting film.
Electric erasers are extremely useful when a great amount of erasing is necessary. Electric erasers are small handheld tools that hold long round lengths of eraser that are rotated when turned on. Figure An electric eras- The cordless variety is the most convenient Figure Figure Erasers come in various shapes and sizes, and different kinds can erase pencil or ink.
Shown are a mechanical eraser-holder, a plastic block eraser in a sleeve, and a basic block eraser. The The prepunched holes come in a variety of sizes and shapes, allow- prepunched holes allow the ing the designer to erase small details and control the erasure up designer to erase only those to a particular point.
It is also helpful for protecting the drawing lines needing to be erased. Although the transparency of a plastic shield can be convenient, a metal shield generally lasts longer. Brushes A dusting brush is useful for keeping drafting surfaces clean and free of debris Figure Erasure crumbs are sometimes left on a Figure Dusting brushes can be used to clean an area in preparation for drawing, or to clean erasure crumbs drawing surface to help prevent smudges, but if they become too abundant they can cause lines to skip, so it is helpful to brush the drawing surface often.
Additional Equipment from a drawing in process. A number of additional tools may assist the designer. For example, full-circular degrees and half-circular degrees protractors aid in the layout and measuring of angles on a drawing.
They are manufactured in a variety of sizes in both metal and plastic Figure Figure Protractors aid designers in laying out and measuring angles. They come in a variety of sizes and materials. Like spoken language, written language, and body language, this visual language has its own unique applications. In the design field, drawing, also called sketching or idea generation, is used as a technique for developing and communicating ideas.
Preliminary sketches are used to initiate and explore basic concepts, as illustrated in Figure These can be presented to others as is, or refined into presentation drawings that are developed to scale and rendered in more detail.
Drawing is thus a means of communication used by designers to effectively convey ideas and converse with one another about how to turn them into reality. Drafting is usually a means to an end; that is, it serves as a guide on how to make something.
For these reasons, drafting is founded on a number of basic premises and rules. Construction drawings require a great deal of effort to draw, as they must be clear, concise, and accurate, with high-quality lines and legible dimensions and notes. Figure Sketching is a form of visual communication used to initiate and explore basic concepts. This illustration shows various sketches all relating to each other, helping to visualize a concept. This chapter will introduce the basics needed to produce quality and easily readable drawings and so effectively communicate with others.
Figure A precise drawing illustrating how stairs and landings should be constructed. Starting the Drawing Drawings are executed on a paper or plastic sheet that is placed on the drawing board or surface.
It is usually held in place on the drawing surface with drafting tape placed at the four corners, as illustrated in Figure The opposite corners are pulled and taped alternately to stretch and flatten the sheet. When one is finished with the drawing or needs to remove it for a short period of time, the tape is carefully removed and discarded. The sheet can then be stored flat or rolled for convenience. There is a tendency for beginners to roll original drawings and prints with the original line work or printed side on the inside, probably in an effort to protect the line work.
However, the preferred way to roll a drawing is to do it with the printed information on the outside. In this way, as the drawing is unrolled, it will tend to curl away from the viewer and toward the surface it is placed on Figure This keeps the drawing from constantly curling up toward the viewer. This technique is also effective for multiple copies stapled together in sets.
Drawings are produced on a variety of surfaces with varying types of media, as discussed in Chapter 2. One of the first steps in composing a properly scaled drawing is to select the best size and format for the surface. To do this effectively, a number of variables must be taken into account.
These include the complexity and scale of the drawing, the reproduction technique selected, and the viewing conditions the reader will be under. Rolling them with the Figure The drawing information on the outside paper is held in place on the allows the viewer to look at drawing surface with small the drawings without having pieces of drafting tape.
Drawing Page Layout In manual drawing, one should start with very light lines and Original drawings, particularly those done in pencil, need to be darken those as needed for the final drawing Figure On the kept clean to provide for the clearest reproduction.
There is no preliminary stage of drawing with light consuming to read. Graphite from pencils is the greatest threat to lines. In manual drawings, it is good practice to start drawing at drawing cleanliness.
Sliding hands, elbows, and equipment over the upper portion of the sheet and progress toward the bottom of pencil lines will blur them and produce an undesirable patina over the paper. In this way, most drawings will not be disturbed as you the entire drawing surface. The same is true with ink drawings, move the equipment and hands down the sheet. Of course, com- whether they are done by hand or computer.
Time must be allowed puter drawing allows one to begin almost anywhere on the sheet, for the ink to dry. Equipment should be lifted and placed over draw- compose the drawings, and print out the results in one clean plot. Final lines can then be darkened according to the desired line hierarchy. Line Types Lines are drawn to describe objects, hidden conditions, and important relationships between components and space.
A line drawn on a surface has both direction and weight. The weight of a line refers to its thickness and intensity; a line can also be continuous or dashed. The direction can be straight, curved, diagonal, or a combination of these. In drafting, continuous lines of various weights are used to represent objects and major elements such as structural walls and columns.
Dotted lines are usually used to denote objects hidden from view. The following are the most commonly used line types. Examples are shown in Figure They are also used to show objects above the cutting plane of a floor plan, such as wall cabinets, beams, arches, etc. Dimensions are placed directly line types used in drawings to above the dimension line or inserted within it.
Drawings for interior design projects generally use three line widths: In general, heavy dark lines are used to Medium lines fall between these two extremes. In pencil drawings, represent cutting planes and contours or outer boundaries of an each type can be further broken down, depending on the variety of object.
In a floor-plan view, it is often the walls that are drawn with lead and level of pressure. With the variety of mechanical pencils the darkest lines in order to define the spaces Figure These on the market today, it is easy to control line widths. As discussed in lines appear to be the closest to the viewer and are perceived as Chapter 2, fine-line mechanical pencils are available in a 0.
Medium and lighter lines appear to be farther 0. By switching to different pencils, the drafter away from the viewer and are used for secondary emphasis. A thick, intense line can rep- spaces. The viewer tends resent the walls on a floor plan or structural members, such as fire- to see these lines first, and places or stairways, the outline of a ceiling on a reflected ceiling thus they are perceived as plan, or the outline of a building on a site plan.
Thick, intense lines major elements. Medium Lines Medium-weight lines are used for hidden objects and are usually drawn dashed or dotted. They are also used for outlining the planes of objects and for centerlines, as well as for furniture and equipment. Thin, Light Lines Thin, light lines are generally used as guidelines, drawn to help line up certain details or to help with lettering height. These lines should be barely visible and should disappear when a print or copy Figure Dark, thick lines are commonly used is made.
Lines that are a little darker are used for dimension and extension lines, leaders, door swings, and break lines. To do this effectively, a number of drafting standards, abbreviations, and symbols have been developed over time that have become uniformly acceptable in the building industry.
Although an office may use variations of the standard conventions presented here, most follow some version of these conventions. Many construction terms are abbreviated to save drawing space and eliminate the need for detailed drawings or notes.
The most commonly used abbreviations are discussed in Chapter 5 and shown in the Appendix. Symbols are used to represent objects that cannot be depicted accurately or would take too much time to draw. For example, the details of a window in plan or a wall electrical outlet are impractical to draw with clarity at such a small scale.
These are represented in the plan by an acceptable symbol that is cross-referenced to a legend or note to more clearly define the object Figure Various components such as sinks, doors, windows, and electrical devices are drawn as symbols.
These will be discussed in more depth in later chapters. Sections cut through the building and materials are depicted using common symbols to represent their elements rather than drawing them as they might appear.
For example, a section through a piece of plywood is shown schematically instead of drawn realistically to show the intricate layers of cross-grained wood veneers and glue.
Symbols for materials are often drawn differently in a plan view and section view. In most cases, an attempt is made to portray as closely as possible what the actual cross-section would look like Figure Again, typical symbols for architectural materials are discussed more in Chapter 5 and shown in the Appendix.
Figure In this illustration, an electrical plan is Lettering shown with various electri- Lettering is used to communicate ideas and to describe elements cal symbols, and the leg- that cannot be effectively explained with just drawings.
In some end above describes what cases, words are actually a clearer and more economical way to each symbol represents. To ensure written words are quickly understood, a universal lettering style is commonly employed by designers and architects Figure This style, based on the Roman alphabet, generally consists of all capital letters for ease of reading.
Although most designers employ a universal-looking style, individual styles do develop and are often recognized and associated with the person who uses them. However, stylistic differences must not be so extreme that letters and words become difficult or time-consuming to read.
The intent of architectural lettering is to communicate quickly and clearly. Many firms attempt to unify lettering among their personnel by adopting an office standard.
Today, computer software quickly produces lettering in many styles that appear to be hand-lettered or typed Figure Some of these are so realistic it is difficult to tell whether they really are done by hand or by computer. However, this does not mean that there is not a need for a student or designer to learn and produce good hand-lettering.
The ability to hand-letter is still much alive and needed. We still need to have effective handwriting when communicating with clients, builders, and many others in the field. Basic Guidelines for Lettering Figure Materials that are cut through in sec- Good lettering is made by consistency. This includes height of let- tion are depicted graphically.
An attempt is made to ters, style, and spacing between letters. To maintain consistency in represent the material, but in general it is drawn height, hand-lettering is always done using two or more horizontal simplistically, since drawing all the intricate details guidelines.
To maintain consistency between lines of lettering, the would be too time-consuming. The two lines serve as the upper and lower limits of the letters. Figure Lettering on the computer can be done in many styles, even one that simulates hand-lettering.
The draftsperson must endeavor to keep the let- Most designers prefer vertical strokes in lettering, although ters within the top and bottom lines, and not let parts of the letters slanted characters are often faster to produce. Letters should be extend beyond these. In most cases, the guidelines are produced produced with bold strokes, not drawn with a series of sketched and with such a light line that they are left in and not erased. In pen- ragged lines. There should be a distinct start and stop to each line and-ink drawing, these lines might be laid out in nonreproducible stroke within a letter.
Shapes and proportions of lettering should be blue pencil lines. Two or three guidelines can be used, and these lines can remain on the drawing if produced should be given to the width of a letter, as well as the proportional spaces between letters. This spacing is very important, as it gives words good visual formation and clarifies their relationship to other words.
However, this rule can be modified as the designer gains confidence, as proportional spacing can vary a bit, depending on the shapes of the letters. One shortcut used for lettering by some designers is the aid of a small triangle carried along the parallel bar or other horizontal device and quickly brought into play for vertical strokes within a letter. This technique produces a very consistent vertical lettering Figure Lettering should be consistent throughout a drawing; the shapes and proportions should be similar.
If this technique is used, it should be discontinued once the draftsperson gains the ability and confidence to produce accurate vertical lines. To effectively learn proper lettering, one should produce words and numbers, not just individual letters.
Practice by copying phrases from articles and books, or writing a story. This will give you better skills in forming properly proportioned letters and spaces between them.
Then, detailed construction drawings are made to accurately describe what materials are to be used and how the object or space is to be constructed. The design drawing can be a threedimensional pictorial sketch that shows what the object looks like in reality Figure , or a series of related yet different views of the object, such as a plan or top view and an elevation, as illustrated in Figure The first approach, the single view, attempts to portray the object as the eye would see it.
The second approach, the multiview, relies on the eye to view a series of images and the mind to then put these views together into a whole. For example, a floor plan shows width and length of objects within a space.
An elevation view is then drawn to illustrate height, but no third dimension or true depth is visually indicated. Figure classifies the various drawing systems according to these two broad categories.
Many computer software programs now can produce some very convincing single-view drawings from multiviews, then allow designers to quickly flip back and forth between these two types of drawings. Multiview Drawings Multiview drawings can be visualized by what is commonly called Figure Design drawings Figure Different views of an the glass box theory. In this process, a three-dimensional object is may consist of pictorial sketches object help the eye understand imagined to be surrounded by a clear glass box Figure If the that show an object as the eye the object as a whole.
The object can be viewed 31 In turn, if these images are drawn separately, the viewer reverses the process and projects by imagining the multiviews onto a whole three-dimensional object. Orthographic Projections The word orthographic refers to the projection system that is used to derive multiview drawings based on the glass box model. In the orthographic system, the object is placed in a series of positions plan or elevation relative to the viewing plane. The most common types of orthographic drawings are the plan, elevation, and section Figure However, no single one of these drawings can communicate the actual configuration of a threedimensional object or space.
They must be used together to accurately depict spatial and solid elements. In fact, more complex objects and spaces will require several more of each of these drawings. Multiview drawings lack the pictorial effect of perspectives which are a type of single-view drawing , yet are more accurate for conveying correctly scaled objects, interiors, and buildings. Single-view Drawings Single-view drawings attempt to picture an object or space as we normally see it in reality with all three dimensions appearing simultaneously.
They present relationships of objects, space, and materials in a realistic or photographic-looking manner. Singleview drawings can be either paraline or perspective views. In paraline drawings, lines are drawn parallel to one another, and object features retain this relationship as they appear to recede in the dis- 32 PART I: This parallel phenomenon is what gives this drawing system the name paraline.
The perspective view produces a more realistic picture, as it attempts to duplicate the way our eyes actually see objects and space. In perspective drawing, parallel lines in space or on an Figure The plan, eleva- object appear to converge to a common distant vanishing point, as tion, and section are the illustrated in Figure Perspective drawings resemble a photo- most common multiview graph and are the most convincing of the drawing systems.
They drawings. Figure Lines are drawn Paraline Drawings parallel to one another in a Paralines are usually faster and easier to develop than perspec- paraline drawing, a form of tives, as receding horizontal lines can be drawn with instruments, single-view drawing.
However, when using computer-aided design CAD , the speed of the rendering programs will govern which of these is produced the quickest. Paraline drawings are categorized according to the projection method used to develop them, and can be subdivided into two distinct types, axonometric and oblique Figure Each line drawn parallel to these axes is drawn at an exact scale with the true length of the object depicted.
The axonometric projection system consists of three primary views: These views are distinguished by the degree of variation visible of the principal faces of the object. In the isometric view, all faces represent true scales. The latter two systems show one or more faces in a reduced scale. The planes of Some interior designers refer to all paralines as axonometrics; how- width and depth are drawn at 30 degrees and the height is held ever, axonometric drawings are technically just one form of para- vertical Figure Dimensions are scaled equally along all three line drawing.
Figure Isometric drawings present the three primary faces of an object equally and at the same angle with the viewing plane. Computer software now allows the designer to program in dimensions for width, height, and depth. Hidden or unwanted lines can also be easily turned off or removed from the image. In dimetric and trimetric drawings, all principal faces are not held at equal angles to the picture plane Figure The dimetric drawing makes two faces equally visible and shortens the third face.
The trimetric rotates an object so that all three faces are at different angles to the picture plane. In both dimetric and trimetric drawings, the scale along one or more of the principal faces is reduced proportionately to emphasize or deemphasize a feature of the object.
Although there are several types of oblique drawings, the plan oblique and elevation oblique are the most commonly used. In these drawings, the floor plan or elevation serves as the true face on the picture plane, and parallel lines are projected vertically or horizontally at an angle other than 90 degrees from this face.
Oblique drawings also have the feature that one face of an object is always parallel to the viewing plane and represented in true proportion, such as an elevation or plan view.
With the use of specialized computer software, these views can be generated or extruded from a plan or elevation view with the click of a mouse. By contrast, isometrics are more time-consuming because of the extra projections and dimensioning required. A floor plan or elevation cannot be used directly to produce an isometric drawing. Perspective Drawings A perspective drawings is a type of single-view drawing that is more realistic-looking than an oblique or axonometric drawing.
In a perspective drawing, objects appear to diminish in size as they recede into the distance, and lines that are parallel in the actual object appear to converge at some distant point on the horizon termed the vanishing point. Perspectives are used primarily as presentation drawings to portray a finished object, building, or interior space Figure Perspectives most closely duplicate what our eye or a camera sees.
Perspectives have characteristics that distinguish them from paraline and orthographic drawings. These characteristics are: To construct perspectives, an imaginary picture plane is placed between the observer and the object or interior to be drawn. If this plane can be placed parallel to one plane of an object, parallel lines will appear to converge to only one point, producing the one-point perspective, as shown in Figure If the picture plane is placed parallel to only one set of lines the vertical lines, for example , the results are termed a two-point perspective Figure The parallel lines then appear to converge to two vanishing points.
A three-point perspective is produced when all the lines or faces of an object are oblique not parallel to the picture plane.
This method is not often used for interior spaces, but rather for tall buildings. Each of these perspective types can be hand-drawn in a number of different ways. A projection system can be used to produce an individualistic drawing for a specific object or space Figure Or a preconstructed perspective grid can be made and overlay sheets placed over it to draw a perspective. One method for constructing a grid is shown in Figure Perspective grids can be drawn for each project, or preprinted grids can be made with the lines already drawn in true perspective.
These grids can be generated by hand or computer, or one can download preprinted grids. One-Point Perspectives Of the three types of perspective, the one-point is perhaps the easiest to understand and construct. In one-point perspectives, receding lines or sides of an object appear to vanish to a single point on Figure There are three the horizon. These types of perspectives are often used to produce basic categories of perspective room interiors, either from an elevation front view or plan top drawings, depending on the view , depending on where the observer is standing called the sta- number of vanishing points.
Figure In a two-point perspective, the picture plane is placed parallel to only one set of lines the vertical lines in this example , and the parallel lines appear to converge to two vanishing points. Figure In the hand-drawn method, a plan projection system is used to produce an individualistic drawing for a specific object or space. The station point can also be moved to the left or right to emphasize the particulars of the space. Two-Point Perspective The two-point perspective is one of the most widely used of the three types, as it portrays the most realistic view for the observer Figure In most interior views, the eye-level perspective is the preferred choice.
Two-point perspectives are more difficult to hand-draw than one-point perspectives, as planes must be projected to two vanishing points, as illustrated in Figure The three-point perspective is used mostly for very tall buildings and is rarely used in interior spaces, unless they are multistoried.
Three-point perspectives are more complicated Figure The two-point perspec- than the former two types, as a third vanishing point is introduced, tive is used more often than the which precludes all parallel lines.
These the complete set of contract documents. The construction drawings show the technical specifications. A project manual may include the the location, size, and particulars of a structure to be built. The specifications as well as other documentation for the total project, specifications set the standards of the workmanship and materials such as the contract s , bidding requirements if needed , and gen- in writing.
The drawings and specifications complement one eral and supplementary conditions of the contract. For example, the drawings show the color and location of paint to be applied to a wall surface, but do not tell how it is to be applied sprayed, rolled, or brushed and the resulting quality of workmanship required.
In this case, the subsurface must first be prepared to receive the paint, adjacent areas need to be protected from the painting, the minimum skills of the painter must be specified, and the cleanup needed must be called out. These particulars are all detailed in written specifications for the painting, and similar instructions are prepared for all the other work to be carried out on the project.
Specification Types Specifications should complement the construction drawings, not duplicate them. Their main purpose is to describe the type and quality of materials and finishes; quality and method of construction and installation; acceptable testing methods; alternate provisions; and warranties and their requirements.
Open specifications allow for the substitution of products specified, or for the contractor to suggest a number of prod- Specifications Specifications are written documents that clearly describe the required materials, requirements for the execution of the work, and ucts for the item that is specified or being bid on.
There are four main types of specifications: However, for most projects, the speci- finish, if applicable. These authorities provide minimum performance criteria for to be installed in a project. Sometimes the specifications include an various materials and products. Chances for error are minimal, as industry the contractor thinks they are equal to the one specified.
Proprietary standards and generally recognized methods of building are being specifications tend to be easier to write, as the designer needs to pro- used.
Sometimes the standard includes more provisions than are If more detail is needed, the manufacturer will supply the infor- 50 needed for a particular project. Performance specifications describe the expected performance of Descriptive the item s being specified. This type of specification is also consid- Descriptive specifications are open, and do not specify a manufac- ered open, as no trade names are included.
The means by project. Descriptive specifications call out in detail the materials, which the required results are met is not specified, but left up to the finishes, fabrication methods, acceptable workmanship, and contractor, subcontractor, or vendor.
Performance specifications installation methods. Descriptive specifications may be more diffi- are often used for custom components when the designer wants to cult to write, because all the pertinent information and require- achieve a particular result that is not already manufactured.
This ments for the construction and installation of a product must be type of specification can be more difficult to write, because the specified. However, when a tremendous number of similar products designer must know all the criteria expected as well as methods for are on the market, descriptive specifications allow the designer to testing if required. Also, there is a risk that the designer could lose prescribe the exact standards he or she wants for a project without his or her original design concept along with control over the prod- selecting a particular manufacturer.
Reference Organization of Specifications Reference specifications are similar to descriptive ones, insofar as The organization of written specifications has been standardized in they describe a material, finish, or other product based on the accordance with the building trades. The Masterformat model, as Division 3— Concrete Manufactured Casework shown in Table , contains 16 divisions that are based on major Division 4— Masonry Metal Casework categories of work. Each division, known as a broadscope, is then subdivided into narrowscope categories.
The first two digits represent the broadscope, the last three digits detail Fabrics the narrowscope subdivision. For example, under Painting, Division 10— Specialties is a broadscope category that includes several different types of Division 11— Equipment Furniture and Accessories painting.
Specifications within a job book or project manual could Division 12— Furnishings Furniture also incorporate narrowscope categories, such as Interior Division 13— Special Construction Rugs and Mats Painting. The level of information the designer uses depends on the complexity of the job and specifications.
The Masterformat system further establishes a way of organizing any broadscope or narrowscope category. Each division is broken down into three parts as listed in the Section Format outline.
General information about each division, such as its scope, required submittals, warranties, etc. Part 2 includes the specific materials, finishes, and products. Contracts Part 3 describes how the materials, finishes, and products are to be Various contractual agreements are needed between the parties installed or applied in the project.
This part also covers any prepa- involved in a building project. However, installation as well as how quality control will be maintained on it is preferable to put down in writing the responsibilities of each the job. Any requirements for adjusting, cleaning, and protecting party and what is expected. This can prevent future disagreements the finished work are also covered in Part 3.
See Appendix for the and serves as a legal contract binding the various parties. Masterformat Section Format Outline. One important contract is that between the owner and contractor to do the work based on the drawings and specifications.
There may also exist a whole series of other contracts between the contractor and subcontractor, or contractor and material supplier. Construction Drawings Construction drawings often called working drawings visually communicate the design and the information required to bring it into reality to everyone who is involved in the building process. These drawings generally follow a set of architectural drawing conventions that are widely accepted in the industry.
However, there is not just one right way to do construction drawings. The office staff and project size, office standards, and the detail needed for custom fabrications can require construction drawings that vary from the conventions.
Organization of Construction Drawings A variety of types of drawings are needed to accurately describe a project to the various tradespeople who will do the work. Two main types are what are generally called architectural and engineering drawings. For example, a concrete wall may be described as to its size and finish on the architectural drawings, but an engineering drawing is also needed to spell out the exact structural components, such as size and spacing of steel reinforcing in the wall.
In addition to these two categories of drawings, there might be other specialty drawings that do not fit neatly within either one. For example, an architectural floor plan might show exact information about rooms, doors, windows, and other particulars, but items such as the exact placement of office desks and files would be 52 PART II: In interiors projects, the interior partition plans, details, and ponents, as illustrated in Table This sequence generally follows A preprinted ASID contract furniture drawings could be included with the architectural set, or how the building is constructed, from the ground to the shell of the document.
Another type building to the interiors. However, the exact sequence of drawings of specialized drawing might be a drapery installation plan for and their content will vary from project to project and office to detailing specific window coverings. For example, the number of sheets of construction drawings Figure A furniture installation plan included in a set of construction drawings for a restaurant.
Figures , , and show the example of a small model home where only three sheets comprise the whole set of construction drawings. A more complex commercial project might include as many as 21 sheets of drawings, as illustrated in Figure , which shows the cover sheet for a restaurant project with a table of contents listing the 21 sheets.
In both cases, however, the sheet order remains similar. The sheets are numbered and bound sequentially as a set, for clarity and ease of use by contractors, subcontractors, and others involved in the project. The sheet numbering system can vary according to the complexity of the project and office preference.
For small projects, a simple numeric system can be used. A list of the most common prefixes follows; however, other prefixes may be added as needed. Structural Q Equipment Sheet 1 of 3 includes the foundation plan, floor plan, and a footing detail.
The table of contents lists what can be found on each sheet. Guidelines for Preparing Construction Drawings must be collected and available for input into the drawings. The welfare. Preliminary information is first created to give an overview of the sequence of sheets and from other consultants, such as electrical and acoustical engineers, their individual contents, as shown in Figure These mock-up drawings are generally drawn on a small scale, such as half-size, quarter-size, or even smaller.
Each drawing to be placed on a separate sheet is blocked out as a rectangle at the properly scaled size with its title, reference number, and the scale it is to be drawn to. This mock-up set of drawings serves as a guide for the individual or team when preparing the construction drawing set. On a small project, a small number of mock-up drawings may be required, whereas larger projects demand a carefully planned out mock-up set, which usually requires a greater number of drawings and more details.
Sheet Size The size of sheets that drawings are done on can vary among professional firms, depending upon office standards, the type of project, and the form of reproduction selected for the drawings. Generally, sheets are composed in a horizontal format, and multiple sheets which comprise a set are bound on the left side, as for Figure Most information should be a book. However, some mm from this edge. Drawings, lettering, and dimensions are com- information can also be placed to be posed so they can be read from the bottom of the sheet when read from the right side of the sheet.
It occasionally becomes necessary to arrange for dimensions and some notes to be read from the right side of the sheet, but never from the top or left side. The most common sheet sizes used by offices are 18 x 24 inches x mm , 24 x 36 inches x mm , and 36 x 48 inches x mm. These smaller sizes are based on standard photocopier, inkjet, and laser printer machines.
Sheet Composition When sheets are bound into a set and a person leafs through the sheets, the information on the right-hand side of the sheet is generally seen first. For this reason, title blocks and important information are often placed to the right side of the sheet, as seen in Figure This is particularly important if the sheet is not completely filled with drawings, schedules, etc.
The blank, unused areas should appear to the left. In that case, the borderline is have them preprinted on the sheets or programmed into the com- Figure Important informa- puter to print out when the drawings are produced.
Other methods tion is placed on the lower right Title Blocks include making reproducible title blocks with photocopiers on of the sheet for ease of finding.
Title blocks on a construction-drawing sheet serve a number of key transparent sticky-back sheets and individually adding them to the Sets of drawings can then be functions. These blocks are standardized for each office and are drawing sheets. Figure illustrates revision blocks, and space for professional seals. It might also the most common placement of title blocks. Many firms sulting engineers. Title blocks, as shown in Figure , are generally placed on generally include: When several revisions are made to a sheet, they are listed as Revision A, B, etc.
Lettering on Drawings The most important aspect of lettering in construction drawings is its readability.
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