Editorial Reviews. About the Author. BRIGITTE BALDI, University of California, Irvine, USA DAVID S. MOORE, Purdue University, USA. The Practice of Statistics in the Life Sciences Solutions Manual better than downloaded The Practice of Statistics in the Life Sciences PDF solution manuals ? How is Chegg Study better than a printed The Practice of Statistics in the Life . The Practice of Statistics in the Life Sciences 3rd edition. Textbook Cover. Brigitte Baldi and David S. Moore Publisher: Macmillan Learning. eBook lifetime of.
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The results varied by stage at diagnosis and race. Conclusion Composite county-level measures of SES and HSS were effective in ranking counties and detecting gradients in cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis.
Thus, these measures provide valuable tools for monitoring geographic disparities in cancer outcomes. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The authors of this study did not receive special access privileges to the data.
Interested researchers will be able to obtain the data in the same manner as the authors, and replicate the results of this study using the data sources listed above in SAS software version 9. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: Sarah E. Socioeconomic forces that determine demand for health care and market forces that determine health services supply HSS may influence cancer outcomes directly or indirectly through individual characteristics [ 4 ].
These contextual effects lead to social patterning of cancer outcomes through area-level stratification processes that allow individuals to obtain health-enhancing knowledge, and take advantage of this through prevention, screening, and early detection.
Historically, researchers have used both single measures representing contextual attributes e. In addition, area-level indicators e. Therefore, a composite index should have greater validity, robustness, and explanatory power than single area-level measures in documenting the impact of area-level characteristics on disease outcomes [ 5 , 14 ].
However, research addressing area-level composite indices have paid limited attention to psychometric techniques that can be used to develop these measures. As a result, the rich tradition of psychometrics has not been fully exploited in the development and testing of area-level indices [ 2 ]. Limited focus on the application of standard psychometric techniques in the construction of area-level indices has contributed to a lack of consistency in variables used to create these measures, and comparability across measures [ 2 , 12 ].
Composite measures of SES have included different combinations of occupation, employment, poverty, income, education, housing, ownership and living crowdedness variables, thus, limiting the ability to systematically compare and assess the impact of area-level SES on disease outcomes [ 12 ].
Prostate, breast, and lung and bronchus cancer are the three most frequently diagnosed, and the leading causes of cancer mortality in the US and worldwide [ 15 , 16 ]. Globally, there is pronounced geographic variation in incidence rates across these three cancer sites [ 17 — 21 ].
The risk of these cancers is susceptible to human intervention through screening, early-detection, and prevention [ 22 — 24 ]. Thus, geographic variation in prostate, breast, and lung and bronchus cancer incidence rates has been attributed to differences in the use of screening tests and diagnostic practices, prevalence of risk factors such as smoking and obesity, as well as disparities in the distribution of socioeconomic characteristics and access to health care both in the US and worldwide [ 17 , 21 , 25 , 26 ].
The availability of health care services has the potential to impact cancer incidence through health-seeking behavior, access to health-promoting resources, travel distance, crowding, waiting times, and patient-provider relationships. Measures capturing health care resource scarcity may provide useful tools for identifying areas to which resources could be allocated to improve delivery of health services and potentially reduce geographic disparities in cancer incidence [ 27 ].
In the current study, we focused on introducing a psychometrically-induced, reproducible approach to developing county-level indices to capture area-level SES and HSS characteristics.
Using these composite measures, we examined the effects of county-level SES and HSS gradients on prostate, breast, and lung and bronchus cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis in the US.
Methods Geographic unit No general consensus exists regarding the geographic level at which area-based measures should be developed in the US [ 7 ].
SES indices have been developed at several levels using block, census tract, zip code, and county-level data [ 6 — 10 , 14 , 22 , 28 , 29 ]. Previous studies have used smaller areas, such as census tracts and blocks due to the likelihood of homogeneity in population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions [ 5 , 6 , 13 ]. While blocks and census tracts are more likely to be socioeconomically homogeneous than larger geographic units, they are more susceptible to change over time [ 5 ].
Zip codes, were established by the US Postal Service for efficient delivery of mail [ 7 ], and they do not provide a meaningful basis for economic or health services planning [ 30 ]. Counties are legislative areas with , persons on average, and are socio-politically and geographically more stable than census tracts and blocks [ 5 , 13 ].
Counties provide an appropriate socioeconomic, political, and community context within which many social and public health policies are formulated and implemented in the US [ 5 , 31 , 32 ]. Annual County Business Patterns CBP data for was used to obtain information on the availability of health care facilities and services [ 33 ].
County-level characteristics The literature is replete with different SES indices that are composed of various combinations of socioeconomic indicators [ 3 ].
The combinations of various area-level characteristics used by these SES indices belong to the broad domains of occupation, employment, education, poverty, income, housing, ownership, and living crowdedness.
We extracted thirty county-level socioeconomic characteristics belonging to the eight domains from the — ACS. Our online malaria trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top malaria quizzes. There are haemorrhagic blisters on the tympanic membrane extending along the external auditory canal. Multiple-choice questions Multiple-choice questions in thoracic transplantation medicine S W Dubrey, C Melikian, N R Banner Are the statements listed beneath each question true or false?
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HIV serology. Malaria is caused by a single-celled parasite of the genus Plasmodium; there are five species which infect humans, being Plasmodium falciparum, P.
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Show all work to receive credit. Researchers packaged anti-malaria genes with an enzyme which can cut DNA and a guide RNA to create a genetic "cassette" that, when injected into a mosquito embryo, targeted a highly specific spot on the germ line DNA to insert the anti-malaria antibody genes in this strain.
Malaria d Heart disease 2 Read each question carefully before answering. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of malaria medicines. Once you have answered the questions, click on 'Submit Answers for Grading' to get your results.
Health is the state of body and mind in a balanced condition B.
Biology Class 12 Important Questions are very helpful to score high marks in board exams. South America c. There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species — P. Early detection and adequate treatment at the right time can reduce deaths due to malaria.
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Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Mosquito is a vector for disease a Malaria b Typhoid c Dengue d All of d above. Answer: There is little direct evidence related to the impact of antimalarial medication on delivery date during third trimester infections with malaria.
The urologist discovers that prostatic hypertrophy is the cause. Hello I'm being treated for malaria. Arrange dental review. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand.
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Make yourself comfortable with the style of questions that will be presented on the AP exam by using these practice questions for multiple choice, long essay, and DBQ questions.
Far East b. Malaria d. Clearly indicate on the scan form the one best answer to each question among the answers provided. So to summarize, my students were enlightened about malaria, poverty, community service, and life because.
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Article 16 provides that No citizen can be discriminated against or be ineligible for any employment or office under the State on grounds of only 1. This parasite is found in the following regions of the world: a.
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