ing how to understand idiomatic English and for all speakers of. English who want to know.. alpha pdf NTC's Thematic Dictionary of American . understanding of American idioms, and the facility to use them, they are truly a . Most of these definitions are from NTC's American Idioms Dictionary, ed. Скачать / Download - McGraw-Hill's Essential American Idioms Dictionary. Richard Spears (pdf).
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A phrase or sentence of this type is said to be idiomatic. This dictionary is a collection of the idiomatic phrases and sentences that occur frequently in American. NTC's American Idioms Dictionary is designed for easy use by lifelong speakers of English, as well as the new-to-English speaker or learner. The dictionary. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Spears, Richard A. NTC's thematic dictionary of American idioms / Richard A. Spears. p. cm. Includes index.
Spears, Ph. The Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms explains over 7, idioms current in British, American and Australian English, helping learners to understand them and use them with confidence. The Cambridge Dictionary of American Idioms, based on the million words of American English text in the Cambridge International Corpus, unlocks the meaning of more than 5, idiomatic phrases used in contemporary American English. Full-sentence examples show how idioms are really used. The Cambridge University Press is respected worldwide for its commitment to advancing knowledge, education, learning, and research.
I hope that all speakers of English will find it both useful and enjoyable. Heartfelt thanks are due to the many friends and acquaintances who have offered valuable suggestions, advice, and help, especially my husband Dean Ammer. Jost and Kaethe Ellis for their invaluable expertise. I would also like to thank Jesse Sheidlower of Random House for his generous help dating some of the slang expressions. The dictionary has been vastly improved through their assistance.
Related or similar expressions are given in boldface in the text of the entry.
Historical precedents and obsolete phrases appear in italic type. Where a phrase has more than one meaning, definitions are numbered, and whenever possible, ordered by frequency of use.
Example sentences appear in italic type, quotations in roman type within quotation marks, and cross-references in small capitals. Alphabetization and Cross-References Entries are arranged alphabetically, letter by letter up to the comma in the case of inverted or appended elements. To locate an entry, it sometimes may be hard to decide which word in a phrase will come first in the alphabetical listing. For example, is as luck would have it under as or luck? To help sort out these problems, entries listing cross-references for key words appear alphabetically among the main entries.
By checking these key-word entries, readers can locate every phrase treated as an entry in this book. The reader who does not find as luck would have it under as can look under the entries beginning with the next word, luck.
If more help is needed, the entry for the word luck itself lists all the idioms containing that word which appear elsewhere in the book. Variants or related expressions that are covered under other entry words appear in parentheses in the cross-references. Note, however, that words in parentheses are alphabetical order, so one should look for hard sell, not Variable Pronouns not considered part of the hard soft sell. Many idioms can be used with different pronouns, as, for example, clean up his act, clean up her act, clean up my act.
Consequently, the pronouns one and someone are used in entry words and variants to indicate that the object or possessive pronoun in the idiom may vary according to context. One or one's means that the antecedent of the pronoun must be the subject of the clause, or in some cases an inanimate noun or a gerund must be the subject.
For example, the idiom hit one's stride can appear in a sentence such as She finally hit her stride, or the idiom serve one right can be used in a sentence such as It serves him right to be thrown off the team. But note that sentences like She finally hit his stride are not possible. The use of someone or someone's in the idiom means that the pronoun can be replaced only by a noun or pronoun that does not refer to the grammatical subject of the clause.
In other words, the action of the verb is directed from one person to another the "someone". For example, the idiom call someone's bluff implies that you or he or she or they can only call someone else's bluff, never your or his or her or their own.
Labels The labels in brackets preceding the date of an idiom's first appearance indicate the degree of formality or offensiveness. The label colloquial means that a phrase is used in ordinary speech and informal writing but not in more formal contexts.
Multiple meanings, number of related meaning, frequency of occurrence, and the lexicon. Cognitive Psychology, 13, — Multiple word meanings and lexical search speed. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, — Google Scholar Rubenstein, H.
Homographic entries in the internal lexicon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, — Homographic entries in the internal lexicon: Effects of systematicity and relative frequency of meanings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 57— Google Scholar Swinney, D.
The access and processing of idiomatic expressions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. Google Scholar Copyright information. The third edition contains more than one thousand idiomatic expressions not listed in the second edition and a number of new features that provide additional convenience and simplicity. Start by looking up the complete phrase that you are seeking in the dictionary.
Each expression is alphabetized under the first word of the phrase, except the words a , an , and the. After the first word, entry heads are alphabetized letter by letter. For example, in so many words will be found in the section dealing with the letter i. Entry phrases are never inverted or reordered like so many words, in; words, in so many; or many words, in so. Initial articles— a , an , and the —are not alphabetized and appear in a different typeface in the entry.
In the entry heads, the words someone or one stand for persons, and something stands for things. These and other generic expressions appear in a different typeface. If you do not find the phrase you want, or if you cannot decide exactly what the phrase is, look up any major word in the phrase in the PhraseFinder Index, which begins on page There you will find all the phrases that contain the key word you have looked up. Pick out the phrase you want and look it up in the dictionary.
An entry head may have one or more alternate forms. Many of the entry phrases have more than one major sense.
These senses are numbered with boldface numerals. Individual numbered senses may have additional forms that appear in boldface type, in which case the AND and the additional form s follow the numeral.
The boldface entry head together with any alternate forms is usually followed by a definition or explanation.
Definitions take the form of words, phrases, or sentences that are semantic equivalents of the entry head. Alternate definitions and restatements of the definitions are separated by a semicolon ;.
These additional definitions are usually given to show slight differences in meaning or interpretation. Sometimes an alternate definition is given when the vocabulary of the first definition is difficult. Some entries include instructions to look up some other phrase.