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Devil On The Cross By DOWNLOAD HERE. Ngugi, the Bible and Devil on the Cross Devil on the Cross by Ngugi wa Thiong'o. download download the Ebook: . Devil on the Cross argues quite convincingly—so convincingly that, for a moment, I became a . The great Kenyan writer and Nobel Prize nominee's novel that he wrote in secret, on toilet paper, while in prison—featuring an introduction by Namwali Serpell.

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by Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Chinua Achebe. One of the cornerstones of Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s fame, Devil on the Cross is a powerful fictional critique of capitalism. It tells the tragic story of Wariinga, a young woman who moves from a rural Kenyan town to the capital, Nairobi, only to be. Devil on the. Cross () by Ngugi wa Thiong'o. Digitalized by. RevSocialist for. SocialistStories. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Ngugi, the Bible and Devil on the Cross. Ngugi, the Bible and Devil on the Cross. Malebogo Kgalemang.

With an OverDrive account, you can save your favorite libraries for at-a-glance information about availability. Find out more about OverDrive accounts. We want your feedback! Click here. Subjects Classic Literature Fiction Literature. It tells the tragic story of Wariinga, a young woman who moves from a rural Kenyan town to the capital, Nairobi, only to be exploited by her boss and later by a corrupt businessman. As she struggles to survive, Wariinga begins to realize that her problems are only symptoms of a larger societal malaise and that much of the misfortune stems from the Western, capitalist influences on her country.

Wariinga starts pondering over her misfortune very early and the scary possibility of the end of her studies looms large in her mind to the extent she becomes traumatized.

Trauma pushes her to think suicide would be a solution to her plight as she notices that her dearest ideal is trampled upon. But in order to earn her living, Wariinga accepts to pursue her studies and learns typewriting and shorthand.

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She then emigrates from her small rural town to the city of Nairobi but there also only to be requested sexual offer by her boss Kihara so as to safeguard her job. As she refuses to offer sex, she is dismissed on Friday morning and her lover John Kimwana, instead of comforting her, rather abandons her the same day, Friday in the evening, as she can no longer earn anything. The next day, Saturday, her landlord fires her out after having increased the rent. The heroine is therefore overwhelmed by series of ordeals and, and attempts to commit suicide for the second time.

For Friar Vicente, the devil came out on top: Brazil was the name that stuck, and the monk laments that the other appellation fell into oblivion, for it was much more virtuous and consonant with the courageous Portuguese people's goal of saving souls. For many years, God had kept the existence of this expansive region hidden and had finally unveiled it to human eyes so that heaven might gather "bountiful profits" from this treasure.

Not only is that which occurs supernaturally and miraculously to be deemed wonderful, but so too is that which "occurs naturally, outside the normal order of things," as was the case with the discovery of Brazil—which was therefore miraculous and supernatural. The discovery of Brazil revealed and reinforced the existence of God: a divine miracle—such was the revelation of the Portuguese colony in America.

The age of the discoveries was characterized by religious zeal; as is well known, the discoverer of America himself was seriously thinking about using American gold in a Crusade against the Infidel.

For Columbus, it can be said there were three kinds of reasons for navigating the seas: the human, the divine, and the natural. As components of the mental universe, they were never isolated from each other but maintained a constant and contradictory relationship: in the divine sphere, God does not exist without the devil; in the world of nature, there is no Earthly Paradise without hell; among human beings, virtue and sin alternate.

The maritime venture thus played itself out under the heavy influence of the European imagination, both positive and negative currents of thought. The golden age of European utopias was tightly linked to the great discoveries and travel accounts, "embellished by the imagination.

But even the rosiest interpretations spoke of risk, danger, and death. Thevet himself calls attention to the other side of expansion—the fear of the ocean sea, of maelstroms, of Adamastor giants: " With the advent of slavery, this imagination would be remolded and restructured while still maintaining deep European roots.

As a modified extension of the European imagination, Brazil also became an extension of the metropolis with the advance of the colonizing process. Everything that existed there existed here, but in a singular, colonial form. Once again, it was the highly astute Friar Vicente who perceived this similarity within difference: "Does wheat flour come from Portugal?

That of this land suffices. A most mild one is made from sugar and for those who like it strong, by boiling it for two days, it leaves one drunk like grape wine.

It is made from palm-tree coconuts. Cotton is made with less effort than it takes to make linen or wool there. They too can be replaced with cashews, et sic de ceteris. This was an early perception of being-and-nonbeing, which would intensify in the eighteenth century. America was much more a child of Europe than Asia or Africa had ever been. But "it was Europe, and at the same time, non-Europe; it was the geographical, physical, and soon the political antithesis of Europe.

In terms of nature, the idea that the New World was an extension of Europe—and thus the place where the myths of an Earthly Paradise would be realized—tended to triumph; almost always, nature was edenized. But when it came to a distinct kind of humanity, painted black by the African slave and brown by indigenous peoples, difference won out.

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The human world was infernalized to an extent never before dreamed by all of European teratology—an imaginary place of Western visions of an inviable humanity. Clouds of insects, gigantic snakes, and intense heat all aroused great perplexity, but the cannibalism and lassitude of indigenous peoples, the sorcery and noisy music of blacks, the mixing of the races, and, last, the colonists' desire for autonomy engendered repudiation.

Devil on the Cross

On the one hand, new lands were incorporated and made subject to the temporal power of European monarchs. On the other, new flocks were gathered for religion and for the pope.

Of all the fruits that the newly discovered land could yield up, to Pero Vaz de Caminha it seemed the finest would be the salvation of indigenous peoples. In Caminha's text, spreading the Catholic faith appears to be the monarch's great desire: "to do what Your Highness so desires, that is, expand our holy faith! It has become a commonplace to state that religion furnished the ideological means for justifying the conquest and colonization of America, masking and camouflaging the atrocities committed in the name of faith.

This was undeniably true. But if so much has been said about the relations between infrastructure and superstructure, almost no efforts have been made to dissect the complex world of religiosity. It never hurts to remember that the close of the Middle Ages and dawning of the Early Modern age were typified by a deep, zealous, angst-filled religiosity. Therefore, while material objectives were not minor, Christianizing was indeed an integral part of Portugal's colonizing program for the New World.

Moreover, it was an important part, given the weight of religion in the lives of sixteenth-century people. The Portuguese were sincerely convinced of their missionary role. The example of missionary zeal came from above, from the king: "All kings are of God, made by man: the king of Portugal is of God and made by God and for this he is more His," said Vieira.

But the example also came from God Himself above, who had elected the Portuguese from among other peoples, in a kind of repetition of the history of Israel. The question of faith was not separate from the issue of the overseas enterprise: the faith would be spread, but lands would be colonized as well. Portuguese caravels were vessels of God, and missionaries and soldiers sailed in them together, for "not only are the missionaries apostles, but so too are the soldiers and captains, as all go in search of heathens to bring them to the light of faith and to the congregation of the Church.

Friar Vicente do Salvador justified the colonizing endeavor on the basis of religion. Among the products raised in the colony were bread and wine, required for the holy sacraments. Gandavo proposed to engage colonists in the exploitation of maritime riches until mines of precious metal could be discovered inland. It was up to the settler to discover the land's riches and also to enrich the heavens, converting souls. There seems to have been a flow of reciprocity, a kind of balancing of accounts: Providence's benevolence, affording the discovery of silver and gold, should be repaid in souls.

By the same token, the more souls that were sent to heaven, the more benevolent the Creator would feel toward the colonists. The other part of the world, "no less agreeable," had lain bereft of paradise, patriarchs, the divine presence, the light of faith, and salvation for 6, years.

At the end of this period, "the order was given for this new and hidden world to appear"; the Portuguese were made God's arm and charged with spreading the faith to these new parts. Once more, here is the idea that God provided for everything, determining that the Portuguese should discover lands in order to colonize and Christianize them—again, the idea of a "kingdom of God by Portugal. Furthermore, as masters of the new colony, the Portuguese had the duty to make it produce material wealth by exploiting nature and spiritual wealth by recovering souls for the divine legacy.

The discovery of Brazil—a divine action—unveiled to the Portuguese the paradisiacal nature that so many would liken to the Earthly Paradise.

Within the storehouse of their imagination, they searched for elements of identification with the new land. Associating fertility, lush vegetation, and the pleasant climate with the traditional descriptions of the Earthly Paradise made this faraway, unknown land seem closer and more familiar to the Europeans.

The divine presence could be felt in nature as well; elevated to the divine sphere, this nature once more reinforced the presence of God in the universe. In a famous passage, Rocha Pitta describes the passion-fruit flower and associates it with Christ's passion: "mysterious creation of nature, which from the same parts that composed the flower shaped the instruments of the holy passion. Each time he recalled the image of that new world, "the serenity of the air, the diversity of the animals, the variety of the birds, the beauty of the trees and the plants, the excellence of the fruits, and, in short, the riches that adorn this land of Brazil," he remembered the cry of the Prophet in Psalm O Seigneur Dieu que tes oeuvres divers Sent merveilleux par le monde univers O que tu as tout fait par grand sagesse!

Bref, la terre est pleine de ta largesse. Fortunate were the peoples dwelling there, he concluded—but with this caveat: "if they know the author and creator of all these things. What other craftsman could fashion such a perfect work? In this context, the specific lends evidence to the varied and the multiple found within divine will and action.

God thus exists, for He makes what is beautiful and makes what is different. Incorporating these ideas, he read the colonial world through a religious prism in which Catholics and Protestants ended up converging. If the European imagination shifted its projections to the New World and if spreading the Christian faith and colonization went hand in hand, it was no surprise that the discoverer of America would be its first "edenizer" as well. As a Soldier of Christ, Columbus was concerned with the salvation of souls.

In order to justify the need for Christianization, the New World's "indigenous" peoples had to be denigrated—and by denigrating them, slavery was justified. Columbus therefore inaugurated the double-edged movement that would last for centuries in American lands: the edenization of nature and the denigration of men—barbarians, animals, demons. This tendency to associate the men of the colony with animals or demons would later be accentuated; but in Columbus there is an inarguable display of ceaseless interest in examining nature and a disinterest in the men who reaped its benefits.

The singing of the small birds is such that it would seem that a man would never willingly leave this place.

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The flocks of parrots darken the sun. Birds great and small are of so many kinds and so different from ours that it is a wonder," the discoverer was to write.

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Ever since his first voyage, based on analogies between what he saw before him and what he had read in authors like Mandeville, Columbus would endeavor to prove that he had reached the environs of the Earthly Paradise. Like him, countless authors would make repeated reference to the presence of paradise in American lands, in the literal or figurative sense. Friar Vicente do Salvador stopped short of expressing the idea that paradise lay there, but he did unreservedly state that "Brazil has a greater abundance of provisions than all lands that there are in the world, for in it are found the provisions of all the others.

Making no reference to the Earthly Paradise, focused much more on describing people than landscapes, Caminha said this new land was "so generous that, desiring to profit of it, everything shall grow in it, by virtue of the waters it hath. How did the earth look to Caminha? It is well worth citing the passage where he defends this position, for it lists all the paradisiacal features thereafter to be repeated ad infinitum in Brazil's national anthem as well : In no other region does the sky appear so serene, nor does the dawn awaken more lovely; in no other hemisphere does the sun have such golden rays, nor such radiant nocturnal reflections; the stars are the gentlest, and appear always joyful; the horizons, be the sun rising or be it dying, are always clear; the waters, drawn from springs in the fields or from aqueducts within settlements, are the purest; Brazil is, in short, the earthly paradise discovered, where the greatest rivers are born and flow; a wholesome climate prevails; gentle stars have influence, and the gentlest zephyrs breathe, although, since it lies beneath the torrid zone, Aristotle, Pliny, and Cicero would doubt and consider it uninhabitable.

Brazil—"remarkable, delicious, and rich portion of the great America"—had for a long time remained "hidden from the news of human discourse. Healthy air, fresh breezes, a mild climate, fertile earth, all cloistered by two precious keys: one of silver, demarcating its southern part; the other of gold, defining its northern.

Alluding to the Prata and siteas rivers, which delimited Brazil's lands, the author thus sought to liken Brazil to the Earthly Paradise. The beauty of this perspective—the natural world—reinforced the idea of an Earthly Paradise: "Peaked mountains" and "extensive valleys" filled with lush, fruitful trees, covered with "pomes at any season of the year"; joyous, multihued flowers, growing "with no more care for their raising than that of nature, and of time," capturing one's eye and stimulating one's sense of smell; birds that both "entertained the eye with the variety and sheen of their feathers" and "satisfied the taste with their tantalizing and appetizing meat," in addition to delighting people with their sweet songs—in short, a New World, where the Creator sought to repair some of the Old World's imperfections.

Citing an unnamed author, he exalts the qualities of Pernambuco—the most "flowering, fertile, and rich" of the captaincies. Knivet, a sixteenth-century Englishman who sailed with Thomas Cavendish, left some interesting images of Eldorado that reveal what a strong influence the European imagination wielded in views of the New World.

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Like Gandavo and Gabriel Soares, Knivet beheld the Resplendent Mountains: "We came into a fair Country, and we saw a great glistening Mountain before us, ten days before we could come to it, for when we came into the plain Country, and were out of the Mountains, the Sun began to come to his height, we were not able to travel against it, by the reason of the glistening that dazzled our eyes.

What is interesting about them, however, is that they lent new hues to this edenization, reiterating the notion that the edenic character is restructured and transformed during the process of colonization.

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