echecs16.info Physics COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND MAINTENANCE BOOK

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND MAINTENANCE BOOK

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Advanced Java Books and PPTs Computer Architecture and Maintenance ( ) The subject helps the students to do the maintenance of the Computer, . Find Computers Computer Architecture Repair Maintenance books online. Get the best Computers Computer Architecture Repair Maintenance books at our. Book Details. For MSBTE, as per semester syllabus E-Scheme echecs16.infoic Year Polytechnic Fourth Semester for Diploma in computer Engineering .


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This is a user friendly book on Computer Architecture and Maintenance. It treats the subject content from a practical perspective. No knowledge of computer. download book Computer Architecture and Maintenance computer architecture and maintenance engineering computer second year by Shrikant S Velankar, Y C. Contents. 1. Motherboard And Its Components. Introduction. Chipset Basics. Architecture of Intel Chipsets. Buses on Motherboard (Expansion OR.

Govindarajalu Author Info "B. Tech in Computer Science and Engineering from Bombay. Chennai ; and Microcode Chennai. He has over 37 years of experience in computer hardware and IT industry covering design and development, manufacturing, maintenance, technical support, teaching and training. After 15 years of industrial experience, he founded Microcode, an IT firm specializing in PC hardware and networking training and development of diagnostic tools much he trained nearly 10, engineers in PC maintenance. He has developed a series of certification tests on computer architecture, PC hardware and networking. He has also taught personal computer hardware and architecture as visiting professor at several institutions such as Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Crescent Engineering College, Jaya Engineering College, Vellore Institute of Technology and Sastha Institute of Technology.

The bootloader is present in desktop computers and workstations, and may be present in some embedded computers. Above the firmware, the operating system controls the operation of the computer. It organizes the use of memory and controls devices such as the keyboard, mouse, screen, disk drives, and so on.

It is also the software that often provides an interface to the user, enabling her to run application programs and access her files on disk. The operating system typically provides a set of software tools for application programs, providing a mechanism by which they too can access the screen, disk drives, and so on. Not all embedded systems use or even need an operating system. Often, an embedded system will simply run code dedicated to its task, and the presence of an operating system is overkill.

In other instances, such as network routers, an operating system provides necessary software integration and greatly simplifies the development process. Whether an operating system is needed and useful really depends on the intended purpose of the embedded computer and, to a lesser degree, on the preference of the designer. At the highest level, the application software constitutes the programs that provide the functionality of the computer. Everything below the application is considered system software.

For embedded computers, the boundary between application and system software is often blurred. This reflects the underlying principle in embedded design that a system should be designed to achieve its objective in as simple and straightforward a manner as possible.

Processors The processor is the most important part of a computer, the component around which everything else is centered. In essence, the processor is the computing part of the computer. A processor is an electronic device capable of manipulating data information in a way specified by a sequence of instructions. The instructions are also known as opcodes or machine code. This sequence of instructions may be altered to suit the application, and, hence, computers are programmable. A sequence of instructions is what constitutes a program.

Instructions in a computer are numbers, just like data. Different numbers, when read and executed by a processor, cause different things to happen.

A good analogy is the mechanism of a music box. A music box has a rotating drum with little bumps, and a row of prongs. As the drum rotates, different prongs in turn are activated by the bumps, and music is produced. In a similar way, the bit patterns of instructions feed into the execution unit of the processor. Different bit patterns activate or deactivate different parts of the processing core.

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Thus, the bit pattern of a given instruction may activate an addition operation, while another bit pattern may cause a byte to be stored to memory. A sequence of instructions is a machine-code program.

Each type of processor has a different instruction set, meaning that the functionality of the instructions and the bit patterns that activate them varies. Basic System Architecture The processor alone is incapable of successfully performing any tasks. The basic computer system is shown in Figure Basic computer system A microprocessor is a processor implemented usually on a single, integrated circuit.

With the exception of those found in some large supercomputers, nearly all modern processors are microprocessors , and the two terms are often used interchangeably. The range of available microcontrollers is very broad. In this book, we will look at both microprocessors and microcontrollers. Microcontrollers are very similar to System-on-Chip SoC processors, intended for use in conventional computers such as PCs and workstations.

Microcontrollers usually have all their memory on-chip and may provide only limited support for external memory devices.

The memory of the computer system contains both the instructions that the processor will execute and the data it will manipulate. The memory of a computer system is never empty. It always contains something, whether it be instructions, meaningful data, or just the random garbage that appeared in the memory when the system powered up.

Instructions are read fetched from memory, while data is both read from and written to memory, as shown in Figure Data flow This form of computer architecture is known as a Von Neumann machine, named after John Von Neumann, one of the originators of the concept.

With very few exceptions, nearly all modern computers follow this form. Von Neumann computers are what can be termed control-flow computers. The steps taken by the computer are governed by the sequential control of a program.

In other words, the computer follows a step-by-step program that governs its operation. Tip There are some interesting non-Von Neumann architectures, such as the massively parallel Connection Machine and the nascent efforts at building biological and quantum computers, or neural networks.

A classical Von Neumann machine has several distinguishing characteristics: There is no real difference between data and instructions.

A processor can be directed to begin execution at a given point in memory, and it has no way of knowing whether the sequence of numbers beginning at that point is data or instructions.

The processor has no way of telling what is data or what is an instruction. If a number is to be executed by the processor, it is an instruction; if it is to be manipulated, it is data.

Because of this lack of distinction, the processor is capable of changing its instructions treating them as data under program control. And because the processor has no way of distinguishing between data and instruction, it will blindly execute anything that it is given, whether it is a meaningful sequence of instructions or not.

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Data has no inherent meaning. There is nothing to distinguish between a number that represents a dot of color in an image and a number that represents a character in a text document. Meaning comes from how these numbers are treated under the execution of a program.

Data and instructions share the same memory. This means that sequences of instructions in a program may be treated as data by another program. A compiler creates a program binary by generating a sequence of numbers instructions in memory. To the compiler, the compiled program is just data, and it is treated as such. It is a program only when the processor begins execution. Similarly, an operating system loading an application program from disk does so by treating the sequence of instructions of that program as data.

The program is loaded to memory just as an image or text file would be, and this is possible due to the shared memory space. Memory is a linear one-dimensional array of storage locations. Each location in the memory space has a unique, sequential address. The address of a memory location is used to specify and select that location. The address space is the array of all addressable memory locations. Hence, the processor is said to have a 64K address space.

Most microprocessors available are standard Von Neumann machines. The main deviation from this is the Harvard architecture , in which instructions and data have different memory spaces Figure with separate address, data, and control buses for each memory space.

This has a number of advantages in that instruction and data fetches can occur concurrently, and the size of an instruction is not set by the size of the standard data unit word. Harvard architecture Buses A bus is a physical group of signal lines that have a related function. Buses allow for the transfer of electrical signals between different parts of the computer system and thereby transfer information from one device to another.

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For example, the data bus is the group of signal lines that carry data between the processor and the various subsystems that comprise the computer. For example, an 8-bit-wide bus transfers 8 bits of data in parallel.

The majority of microprocessors available today with some exceptions use the three-bus system architecture Figure The three buses are the address bus , the data bus, and the control bus.

Three-bus system The data bus is bidirectional, the direction of transfer being determined by the processor. The address bus carries the address, which points to the location in memory that the processor is attempting to access. It is the job of external circuitry to determine in which external device a given memory location exists and to activate that device.

This is known as address decoding. The control bus carries information from the processor about the state of the current access, such as whether it is a write or a read operation. The control bus can also carry information back to the processor regarding the current access, such as an address error. Different processors have different control lines, but there are some control lines that are common among many processors. The control bus may consist of output signals such as read, write, valid address, etc.

A processor usually has several input control lines too, such as reset, one or more interrupt lines, and a clock input. It was a massive machine, filling a very big room with the type of solid hardware that you can really kick. It was quite an experience looking over the old machine. I remember at one stage walking through the disk controller it was the size of small room and looking up at a mass of wires strung overhead. I asked what they were for. Processor operation There are six basic types of access that a processor can perform with external chips.

The internal data storage of the processor is known as its registers. The instructions that are read and executed by the processor control the data flow between the registers and the ALU. A symbolic representation of an ALU is shown in Figure These values, called operands , are typically obtained from two registers, or from one register and a memory location.

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The result of the operation is then placed back into a given destination register or memory location. The status outputs indicate any special attributes about the operation, such as whether the result was zero, negative, or if an overflow or carry occurred. Some processors have separate units for multiplication and division, and for bit shifting, providing faster operation and increased throughput.

Each architecture has its own unique ALU features, and this can vary greatly from one processor to another. However, all are just variations on a theme, and all share the common characteristics just described. Interrupts Interrupts also known as traps or exceptions in some processors are a technique of diverting the processor from the execution of the current program so that it may deal with some event that has occurred.

An interrupt is generated in your computer every time you type a key or move the mouse. You can think of it as a hardware-generated function call.

Instead, the processor may continue with other tasks. Interrupts can be of varying priorities in some processors, thereby assigning differing importance to the events that can interrupt the processor.

If the processor is servicing a low-priority interrupt, it will pause it in order to service a higher-priority interrupt. However, if the processor is servicing an interrupt and a second, lower-priority interrupt occurs, the processor will ignore that interrupt until it has finished the higher-priority service.

When an interrupt occurs, the usual procedure is for the processor to save its state by pushing its registers and program counter onto the stack. The processor then loads an interrupt vector into the program counter. The interrupt vector is the address at which an interrupt service routine ISR lies.

Thus, loading the vector into the program counter causes the processor to begin execution of the ISR, performing whatever service the interrupting device required. This causes the processor to reload its saved state registers and program counter from the stack and resume its original program.

Interrupts are largely transparent to the original program. Processors with shadow registers use these to save their current state, rather than pushing their register bank onto the stack. This saves considerable memory accesses and therefore time when processing an interrupt. If it does not, important state information will be lost. Upon returning from an ISR, the contents of the shadow registers are swapped back into the main register array.

For some time-critical applications, polling can reduce the time it takes for the processor to respond to a change of state in a peripheral. A better way is for the device to generate an interrupt to the processor when it is ready for a transfer to take place.

Small, simple processors may only have one or two interrupt inputs, so several external devices may have to share the interrupt lines of the processor.

When an interrupt occurs, the processor must check each device to determine which one generated the interrupt. This can also be considered a form of polling. The advantage of interrupt polling over ordinary polling is that the polling occurs only when there is a need to service a device. Polling interrupts is suitable only in systems that have a small number of devices; otherwise, the processor will spend too long trying to determine the source of the interrupt.

Vectored interrupts reduce considerably the time it takes the processor to determine the source of the interrupt. If an interrupt request can be generated from more than one source, it is therefore necessary to assign priorities levels to the different interrupts. This can be done in either hardware or software , depending on the particular application.

In this scheme, the processor has numerous interrupt lines, with each interrupt corresponding to a given interrupt vector. Vectored interrupts can be taken one step further. Some processors and devices support the device by actually placing the appropriate vector onto the data bus when they generate an interrupt.

This means the system can be even more versatile, so that instead of being limited to one interrupt per peripheral, each device can supply an interrupt vector specific to the event that is causing the interrupt. However, the processor must support this function, and most do not. Some processors have a feature known as a fast hardware interrupt.

With this interrupt, only the program counter is saved. It assumes that the ISR will protect the contents of the registers by manually saving their state as required.

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A special and separate interrupt line is used to generate fast interrupts. Software interrupts A software interrupt is generated by an instruction.

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It is the lowest-priority interrupt and is generally used by programs to request a service to be performed by the system software operating system or firmware. So why are software interrupts used? For that matter, why use an operating system to perform tasks for us at all? It gets back to compatibility. Jumping to a subroutine calling a function is jumping to a specific address in memory. A future version of the system software may not locate the subroutines at the same addresses as earlier versions.

By using a software interrupt, our program does not need to know where the routines lie. It relies on the entry in the vector table to direct it to the correct location. CISC processors have a single processing unit, external memory, and a relatively small register set and many hundreds of different instructions. Write a review. Programming in C Rs. Add to Cart. Add to Wishlist.

Communication Skills Rs. Applied Science - Civil Group Rs. Applied Science - Mechanical Group Rs. Electronics - Computer Group Rs. Engineering Mechanics Rs. Object Oriented Programming Rs. Relational Database Management Digital Techniques Rs. Applied Mathematics Electrical Applied Mathematics Mechanical Basic Electronics Rs. This note will give an introduction to designing and programming high performance processors. This note explains the follolwing topics: This note covers the following topics: Author s: This note contains the study of the evolution of computer architecture and the factors influencing the design of hardware and software elements of computer systems.

Joel Emer, Prof. Krste Asanovic and Prof. This note will review fundamental structures in modern microprocessor and computer system architecture design. It will also cover system level topics such as storage subsystems and basics of multiprocessor systems. This note will describe the basics of modern processor operation. This lecture note explains the basic principles and current practices of computer architectures and organizations, including instruction set design, pipelining, caching, virtual memory, and parallelism.

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This book is an introduction, a survey, a history,and an evaluation of capability-and object-based computer systems.

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