Buy ASTM D PRACTICE FOR PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SHIPPING CONTAINERS AND SYSTEMS from SAI Global. D - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. ASTM standard. Uploaded by. wdavid81 · ISTA_2A_ Uploaded by. One test regime is detailed by ASTM International in ASTM D - 09,. Standard Practice One recommended option is to select simulated manual handling.
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Standards PDF Cover Page Document preview. Historical. ASTM D Standard Practice ASTM International [ASTM]. Add to Alert; PDF. Add to Alert. × . D Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and .. Active Standard ASTM D | Developed by Subcommittee: D Oct 1, Protective Packaging Test Protocols pre-ASTM D 4 . Added Conc. Impact. D, mod FL Handling, editorial. 3.
This standard replaces the previous version and aims at providing, under laboratory controlled environment, uniform basis of evaluating the ability of shipping units to withstand distribution environments. For that purpose, the packaged products are exposed to different hazard elements encountered in the package distribution cycle. The changes in the version are mainly affecting the random vibration tests, more specifically the Vehicle Vibration simulating the Truck profile. In the previous D test version each Assurance Level had its own corresponding vibration profile. In the version, the Assurance Levels were abandoned for Random Vibration option.
Methods may range from simple pass-fail judgments to highly quantitative scoring or analysis systems. Condition the shipping units to a standard atmosphere of Condition fiberboard containers in accordance with Practice D The same atmospheric condition should be used for any assurance level. A conditioning period of 72 h, or sufficient time to reach equilibrium of all parts of the package and product is recommended.
Tests should be conducted in the conditioned atmosphere whenever possible. If not possible, conduct the tests as soon after removal from the conditioning atmosphere as practicable. Recondition the shipping units to the standard atmosphere as necessary during the test plan. The same climatic condition should be used for any assurance level. A conditioning period should be provided which will allow sufficient time to reach equilibrium of all parts of the package and product.
Recondition the shipping units as necessary during the test plan. For atmospheres other than the standard conditioning atmosphere, the user must determine the appropriate compressive load factor for warehouse and vehicle stacking, as the factors given in See 3. Determine whether the container will be manually or mechanically handled.
The level should be one of three pre-established assurance levels. This must be pre-established based on the product value, the desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, the number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the shipping environment, or other criteria.
Assurance Level II is suggested unless conditions dictate otherwise. Assurance Level I provides a more severe test than II. The assurance level may be varied between schedules see Sections 10 15 if such variations are known to occur. If not possible, conduct the tests as soon after removal from the conditioning atmosphere as 5 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of this practice. Consider using Practice D for single parcel carrier shipments.
A Stacking Handling Handling Sixth Seventh AThis high altitude, non-pressurized transport simulation test may be deleted from this distribution cycle when testing shipping units that contain primary packages that have a porous material.
Recondition the shipping units to the standard atmosphere as necessary during the test plan. The same climatic condition should be used for any assurance level. A conditioning period should be provided which will allow sufficient time to reach equilibrium of all parts of the package and product.
If not possible, conduct the tests as soon after removal from the conditioning atmosphere as practicable. Recondition the shipping units as necessary during the test plan. For atmospheres other than the standard conditioning atmosphere, the user must determine the appropriate compressive load factor for warehouse and vehicle stacking, as the factors given in Acceptance Criteria 7.
The organizations conducting the test may choose any acceptance criteria suitable for their purpose.
It is advisable to compare the type and quantity of damage that occurred to the test specimens with the damage that occurs during actual distribution and handling or with test results of similar containers whose shipping history is known. Criterion 2—Package is intact. Criterion 3—Both criteria 1 and 2. Often, this means that the shipping container and its contents are suitable for normal sale and use at the completion of the test cycle.
Detailed acceptance criteria may allow for accepting speci? The form and content of acceptance criteria may vary widely, in accordance with the particular situation.
Methods may range from simple pass-fail judgments to highly quantitative scoring or analysis systems. Procedure 8. See 3. Determine whether the container will be manually or mechanically handled.
The level should be one of three pre-established assurance levels. This must be pre-established based on the product value, the desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, the number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the shipping environment, or other criteria. Assurance Level II is suggested unless conditions dictate otherwise. Assurance Level I provides a more severe test than II.
The assurance level may be varied between schedules see Sections if such variations are known to occur. The test levels used should be reported.
See Section Use the DC that most closely correlates with the projected distribution. When the distribution is unde? When the anticipated distribution is well understood, a special distribution cycle DC-2 may be speci? In using DC-2, the user selects test schedules from Section 9 and speci?
For purposes of DC-3 and DC, the bottom of a single package is the surface on which the package rests in its most stable orientation. The identi? Obtain the test intensities from the referenced schedules. The test plan intensity details must take into account the assurance levels selected as well as the physical description of the shipping unit. Table 1 thus leads to a detailed test plan consisting of the exact sequence in which the shipping unit will 4 D — 09 be subjected to the test inputs.
The test schedules associated with each element reference the existing ASTM test methods for clari? This information is very useful for the planning of subsequent tests of similar shipping containers.
Hazard Elements and Test Schedules 9. Schedule A—Handling—Manual and Mechanical The manual handling test should be used for single containers, smaller packages, and any shipping container that can be handled manually, up to a weight of lb Mechanical handling should be used for unitized loads, large cases and crates, and any shipping container or system that will be handled by mechanical means.
Manual and mechanical handling are described further in The main hazards from these operations are the impacts caused by dropping or throwing. Size, weight, and shape of the shipping unit will affect the intensity of these hazards.
Several test method options are permitted, including free fall and simulated drop test using shock machines.
While these test methods produce similar results, the shock machine method produces more control of orientations of impact; see Test Method D for limitations of the shock machine method. Conditioning—See Section 6. Shipping Weight, lb kg 0 to 20 0 to 9. This is the? The drop should be in the impact orientation most likely for a drop to occur, usually the largest face or the bottom. For distribution cycles where any drop orientation is possible that is, shipments via carriers that mechanically sort packages , this drop should be in the most critical or damage-prone orientation, as de?
NOTE 2—The equivalent velocity change corresponding to the speci? For large shipping cases and crates and any single package with pallet or skid, 5 D — 09 different test methods are used versus unit loads.
Gross Weight, lb kg 0 to 0 to One drop? Use the same drop heights versus shipping unit weight as in Alternately, use Test Method D Method B using a short duration programmer, assuming the coefficient of restitution is 0.
Alternately, use Test Method D, Method B using a short duration programmer, assuming the coefficient of restitution is 0. The required loading must consider the effects of length of time in storage, the alignment or stacking pattern of the container, variability in container strength, moisture content, temperature, previous handling and transportation, method of load support, and vibration.
The minimum required loads for typical shipping units which include the combined effects of the above factors are recommended below for Schedule B—Warehouse Stacking and Schedule C—Vehicle Stacking select test levels for either warehouse or vehicle stacking as de? Containers constructed of materials other 3. Remove the load within 3 s after reaching the speci? If the average shipping density factor Mf for the speci? The test levels and methods account for the magnitude, frequency range, duration, and direction of vibration.
Two test method options are permitted, sine and random.
The two methods are not equivalent; they will not necessarily produce the same results. The random test method results in a better simulation of actual transport vibration environments, and is the preferred method for quali? The sine test method is often used in conjunction with the random method as a means of determining and observing system resonances. It is permissible to use a concentrated dead load to simulate an upper unit load or mixed commodities.
The concentrated load may be calculated from the formulas in Recommended intensities and durations for the random tests are given in A Conditioning—See Section 6. Special Instructions—The following power spectral densities, as de?
The Truck test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The Rail test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 7, 8 and A60 min Truck test followed by a min Rail test is recommended for Distribution Cycles 9 and A60 min Truck test followed by a min Air test is recom- mended for Distribution Cycles 12 and B For vehicle vibration tests in multiple shipping unit orientations, the total duration should be distributed evenly between the orientations tested.
The average test time required to reproduce shipping damage is dependent on the mode of failure, as well as the vibration level. Some over-stress and abrasion modes of failure will occur in much less than 3 h, while some fatigue failure modes may require more than 3 h to occur.
Test durations ranging from 30 min to 6 h have been used successfully for different product or package types. The recommended min duration is reasonable in the absence of speci? Special Instructions—Dwell time is for each noted product or package resonance up to four discrete resonances. If more than four resonances are noted, test at the four frequencies where the greatest response is noted. In frequency sweeps it is advisable to consider the frequency ranges normally encoun- tered in the type of transportation being considered.
The resonant frequency ies may shift during test due to changing characteristics of the container system.
It is suggested that the dwell frequency be varied slightly during the test to detect any shift and to continue testing at the frequency of maximum response. Schedule F—Loose Load Vibration The test levels and test method account for amplitude, direction, and duration of the repetitive shocks. Schedule G—Simulated Rail Switching Special Instructions—Three impacts shall be performed. For railcars with standard draft gear, shock durations of 40 6 10 ms shall be used, as measured on the?
For railcars with long—travel draft gear, shock durations of 6 50 ms shall be used. Note that Test Method D is used for standard draft gear only. For purposes of this test, the coefficient of restitution shall be considered 0.
Container impact surface should be the same as occurs in actual shipment. If more than one orientation is possible, impact that surface which is known to be most sensitive to damage. Refer to Test Methods D or D for speci?
Total backload shall be equivalent to a minimum of 3 ft lineal 0. The package used as backload in contact with the test package must be identical to the test package. The speci? Schedule H—Environmental Hazard This schedule determines the susceptibility of the total pack to the effects of moisture, temperature shock, or the combined effects of cyclic exposure.
Testing shall be in accordance with Test Method D, where spray intensities of 4 6 0. At the end of the three day period, the unit pack being tested shall then set overnight 6 5 71 6 2 16 Not applicable This test shall be conducted in accordance with levels described in Test Method D This test should be included for products and packages that could be sensitive to a low pressure environment, for example, sealed?