To print PowerPoint slides as Ready Notes for inclass note-taking: 1. File + Print. 2. Choose "Handouts" from the Print What Menu. 3. Choose "3" from the. Oct 16, Principles of Management book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Management, 11/e takes a practical. Principles of. Management. Eleventh Edition. ROBERT KREITNER. Arizona State Frederick W. Taylor's Scientific Management 37;. Taylor's Followers 38; The.
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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Robert Kreitner, Ph.D., is a Professor Emeritus of Principles of Management - Kindle edition by Robert Kreitner. Download. "Kreitner's MANAGEMENT is probably the best text I've used for the Principles of Management course. It's an excellent text for beginning management students. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Kreitner's MANAGEMENT is probably the best text I' ve used for the Principles of Management course. It's an excellent text for.
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Terry, defines management as a process "consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.
Secondly it states four management activities: Planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling. Planning is thinking of an actions in advance.
Actuating is motivation and direction of subordinates. Controlling means the attempt to ensure no deviation from the norm or plan.
Thirdly it states that manager uses people and other resources. For example a manager who wants to increase the sales, might try not only to increase the sales force, but also to increase advertising budget. And fourthly, it states that management involves the act of achieving the organization's objectives.
Definitions[ edit ] A few definitions by experts are: "Management is an art of knowing what is to be done and seeing that it is done in the best possible manner. Taylor father of scientific management "Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control activities of others. Management is not a onetime act but an on-going series of interrelated activities. The sum total of these activities is known as management process. It consists of a set of interrelated operations or functions necessary to achieve desired organizational goals.
A process is a systematic way of doing things. It is concerned with conversion of inputs into outputs. An analysis of management process will enable us to know the functions which managers perform. Goal oriented Process: The process of management comes with the purpose of achieving the organizational goals correctly and meaningfully.
Hence, it is a goal oriented process. All Pervasive: Management is used by all departments of an organization and by all organizations, irrespective of size, nature and location. It is also practiced at each level of an organization.
Multidimensional: Management covers all aspects of an organization ranging from work, people and operations.
Different mechanisms and systems are set up for each aspect. Continuous Process: A series of functions are performed in organization by all its managers simultaneously. It keeps running in a cycle that repeats itself over and over again. Group Activity: Management is never done in solidarity.
It is a group activity that involves participation of all the people of an organization, including the managers and the workers, for the desired achievement of objectives. Intangible Force: Management in its essence cannot be seen or touched, and hence is termed as intangible. But its effect can be felt and measured based on the results achieved by way of the organizational functions. Management: Art or science?
While certain aspects of management make it a science, certain others which involve application of skills make it an art.
Every discipline of art is always backed by science which is basic knowledge of that art. Similarly, every discipline of science is complete only when it is used in practice for solving various kind of problems.
Whereas under "science" one normally learns the "why" of a phenomenon, under "art" one learns the "how" of it. In the words of Robert H. Hilkert: "In the area of management, science and art are two sides of the same coin". In the beginning of development of management knowledge, it was considered as an art. There was a jungle of management knowledge. Any one used it to get things done in his own way. But later by codifying and systemizing the management, it became a science as well as being an art.
Management as an Art[ edit ] Management can be an art in the sense that it has the following characteristics: Just like other arts it has to be practiced and performed. The knowledge should be learned and practiced, just as medical or legal practitioners practice their respective sciences. The manager gains experience by continual application of management knowledge and facing new experiences.
This helps to develop more skills and abilities for translating knowledge into practice. Application calls for innovativeness and creativity. The fourth reason is that in many situations, theoretical knowledge of management may not be adequate or relevant for solving the problem. It may be because of complexity or unique nature of the problem. The art is in knowing how to accomplish the desired results. This implies that there exists a body of knowledge which management uses to accomplish the desired results in organization Management as a Science[ edit ] Management as a science has the following characteristics: Its principles, generalizations and concepts are systematic.
In this case the manager can manage the situation or organization in a systematic and scientific manner. Its principles, generalizations and concepts are formulated on the basis of observation, research, analysis and experimentation, as is the case with the principles of other sciences. Like other sciences, management principles are also based on relationship of cause and effect.
It states that same cause under similar circumstance will produce same effect. Suppose if workers are paid more cause , the produce more effect. Management principles are codified and systematic, and can be transferred from one to another and can be taught.
Management principles are universally applicable to all types of organizations. To ascertain the nature of management with respect of science or art, there is a need to know the exact meaning of the words 'science' or 'art' and subsequently, their application to management. Management: A profession? Professional knowledge in systemized and codified form can be learned through formal education system.
A profession emphasizes on having a central body to formulate a code of behavior for its members. A profession calls for rendering competent and specialized services to clients.
A profession maintains the scientific attitude and commitment for discovering new ideas and upgrading in order to improve quality of service and level of efficiency provided to clients. A profession requires members to exercise restraint and self-discipline. Management knowledge meets the first two criteria because it has grown into a systematic body of knowledge and also it can be acquired and learned through the formal education.
There is no minimum qualification prescribed either for getting entry in the management profession or for becoming members of it.
In practice, whosoever manages in known as manager, irrespective of qualifications. Peter Drucker in support of this view says that "no greater damage could be done to our economy or to our society than to attempt to professionalize management by licensing managers, for instance, or by limiting access to management to people with a special academic degree.
Even so, managers are not respected as other professionals like doctors, advocates and chartered accountants. Professional vs. Family Management[ edit ] Professionalization of management[ edit ] The following reasons are in a support of the professionalization of management: In joint stock company, ownership has been separated from its management and control.
This situation has really contributed to the development of management as a profession. Rapid expansion and growth of management universities and institutions is an indicative of management professionalization trend. In a high-tech industrial society, manifold changes have occurred in the role of managers.
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Principles of Management by Robert Kreitner. The student-friendly content features references to pop culture and cites current publications of interest to students. In addition to providing the management framework and introducing students to contemporary management topics, the text provides experiential activities to get students thinking and acting like real-life managers.
Test Preppers at the end of each chapter provide students with immediate reinforcement and assessment of their understanding of key chapter concepts. A robust network of supplements helps students to understand the hands-on, real-world application of chapter concepts.
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