Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. Film studies. Other Authors. Nelmes, Jill, , (editor.) Nicholls, Bill, (author of introduction, etc.) Edition. Fifth edition. Published. Oxon ; New York: Routledge. Introduction to Film Studies (5th ed.) by Jill Nelmes. Read online, or download in secure PDF or secure ePub format.
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Chapter 2 C o n t e m p o r a r y F i l m Te c h n o l o g y William Whittington m Introduction 42 m Te c h n o l o g y i n m o t i o n: f r o m i n v e n t i o n t o a g e n c y. Download and Read Free Online Introduction to Film Studies Jill Nelmes Introduction to Film Studies by Jill Nelmes Free PDF d0wnl0ad, audio books, books. Introduction to Film Studies is a comprehensive textbook for students of cinema. Edited ByJill Nelmes DownloadPDF MB Read online.
The book has definitely evolved from its first edition and has a more comprehensive feel, with more detailed summaries of academic arguments and developed references to fields of study that make it useful to return to as your studies advance. Reading the book I was struck by how things have changed since the appearance of the first edition, and how the editor and contributors have kept up with those changes without losing touch with the rich history of cinema that informs contemporary developments. We will continue to recommend Introduction to Film Studies to our advanced students and it will be required reading at entry level. Harvey O'Brien, University College Dublin, Ireland "Nelmes' Introduction to Film Studies perfectly combines introducing students to film as an object of study and to the various ways that film can and has been analyzed within the academy. Its balance between defining film form terminology and providing a history of film with more current film theories is perfect for the course I teach, which includes film studies concentrators and many generally interested students from other disciplines looking for an elective.
To their detriment, these approaches often proceed with the underlying assumption that industries and markets move in ways that are self-sustaining and perpetually seeking advancement in regard to their market share. The history of the film industry like many industries , however, is replete with examples of poor business decisions, the embrace of inferior technologies, and simple human self-interest and greed over the basic needs of a company or the marketplace.
For example, economics does not always account for the rejection of superior technology in the marketplace. Beta tapes and technology 2 : C o n t e mp o r a r y F i l m T e c h n o l o g y 47 were superior in recording and playback quality and were in fact embraced by many media production outlets, yet VHS format prevailed in part due to marketing, reviews and availability and preferences of consumers.
Unexpected adoption patterns plagued the introduction of DVDs and Blu-ray formats as well. Ultimately, when considering technology within a critical framework, it is perhaps best to consider a multifaceted approach, which reflects a balance of theories of technology, economics and social considerations, as outlined above. C omputer graphic imaging systems One of the most transformative technologies to be introduced to contemporary cinema is not a single technology at all, but rather a host of convergent technologies related to computer imaging systems.
These emerge in the form of computer hardware, software applications and input devices such as touchpads and pens. Computer graphic imaging systems come in a multiplicity of configurations and platforms, and are often tailored to support the particular needs of a production. Over the past two decades, these systems have transformed the visual field of films, television programmes, commercials and video games through the creation of computer generated images or CGI.
Using these workstations, graphic artists control data to design images and forms in 2D and 3D and to establish simulated environments.
For example, Image Engine, a special effects company based in British Columbia, used various computer programs to create the 3D wireframe models of the aliens in District 9 These digital creatures were covered with various textured surfaces based on insects and bugs, and then placed within the context of the live-action footage that was shot on location in South Africa, creating a realistic composite that evokes the futuristic and the uncanny effects of the film. With pixels and programs that simulate physical phenomena, a dead moon became a planet in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan , and dinosaurs came to life in Jurassic Park Traditional visual effects production involves a host of techniques and technologies to create cinematic trickery.
Some of the most common techniques are the use of small and large-scale models, matt paintings, stop- motion modelling, fire and explosive effects, and make-up and prosthetic appliances for creature effects. The processes to create these effects, however, are often labour intensive — involving long hours of design and manufacture before going in front of the camera.
In addition, numerous duplicates must be created for repeated takes, especially when dealing with disaster sequences like those found in Earthquake or Towering Inferno Over the past three decades, special effects houses such as Pacific Data Images, Industrial Light and Magic, Weta and Pixar began to experiment with computer technology as a means of creating effects within virtual environments.
Hardware and software, such as the Pixar Image Computer and, later, RenderMan and Maya software, were developed to create digital models and characters, 48 C in e m a a s in s t i t u t i o n render colours and surface textures, and create simulated landscapes and environ- mental effects.
This technology is by no means limited to special effects, but extends to virtual lighting, camera motion effects and even set design and digital make-up. Early examples produced from the technology can be seen in such films as Tron , The Abyss , Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Forrest Gump as well as more recent film such as the Lord of the Ring series —3 , the Star Wars prequels — and Avatar CGI technology has had a profound impact on our understanding of film form.
The visual spectacles created with this technology have become part of the narrative For further discussion on dynamics of the blockbuster. It is Chapter Pixar is perhaps the most familiar studio in this regard, producing feature-length animated films such as Toy Story , Monsters Inc.
Initially, when computer generated images were introduced into films, they often stood out because of their crude design or limited ability to integrate with the live-action footage. In a film like The Last Starfighter , the digitally rendered spacecraft were boxy and geometric, and because of the screen capture methods, they were steeped in a bluish hue that caused them to separate from their backdrops when combined with live-action shots.
The initial integration did not quite fit in the context of the story world. Does the scope for the kind of transmutation of the visual field that might make an effect special even exist once a film begins to be made over in the mode of an animated feature?
Pierson —3 The following case study of District 9 gives an example of this re-imagining of the visual field and the resultant shifts in critical reception. On-set image of actor with District 9 Neill Blomkamp, Final image with the CGI alien reference marks on his costume to be used in the process of inserted. Culturally, we as filmgoers are acutely aware of these stylistic uses from modern media, and the filmmakers engaged them to foster a suspension of disbelief within the context of a genre blockbuster.
Thematically, the film is about fusion or more specifically the reprogramming of human flesh with alien DNA, but it is equally about the repro- gramming of media images and forms. Within the narrative, Wikus is exposed to alien DNA, which rapidly begins to transform his body into an alien-human hybrid.
Government officials and criminal mercenaries grasp the importance of this fusion and seek to kidnap Wikus in order to exploit the weaponry brought by the aliens, which only they can use. Through the use of computers, the film style picks up these themes of hybridism and reprogramming in its visual lexicon.
The alien creatures were based on the textures and structures of real bugs, crabs, grasshoppers and spiders and modelled in the 3D virtual environment using CGI technology. On set, actors provided reference positioning for the creature effects by wearing special suits with data markings that the computers would recognise and record. From this set of data, the creatures were created and seamlessly inserted into the documentary style footage with matching lighting and colour gradients.
The footage itself then reprograms the tropes of the documentary style, evoking a new era in civil rights media, which also makes reference to the civil rights issues of South Africa.
CGI technology evokes a News program stylistic, through the use of onscreen graphics and remapping of the visual field. This early multichannel technology featured two synchronised soundtracks that delivered music and effects to fifty-four speakers in specially equipped theatres in the major film markets of New York and Los Angeles Blake The system failed to take hold due to synchro- nisation difficulties associated with interlinking the sound tracks with the 35mm print.
The s provided another opportunity for multichannel development with widescreen formats such as CinemaScope and Todd-AO releases. As a result of the introduction of magnetic audiotape, various studios began to experiment with new sound processes on the surface of film prints, stereophonic recording on set and designs for speaker arrays within theatrical venues.
Filmmakers such as Francis Ford Coppola, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg also played a major role in the renewal of sound presentation in the s and s, demanding greater quality control and presentation of film sound for their films such as Apocalypse Now and Close Encounters of the Third Kind The producers of Star Wars are often credited with ushering Dolby Stereo into widespread use in the domestic US theatre circuit by requiring that prints of the film be Dolby Stereo encoded.
The Dolby Stereo format was introduced in , and reviewed how the traditional optical track was being utilised.
The system divided the allotted space on the celluloid near the sprocket holes into two optical soundtracks, and sent the signals through an electronic matrix.
This matrix divided the audio streams into the left, right, centre and surround channels, producing what we have come to know as multichannel surround sound. The format provided superior fidelity with the added benefit of new audio streams that could fill up the theatre space, immersing filmgoers in sound and music.
The box office success of Star Wars, as well as other films such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Superman , meant theatre owners began converting to accom- modate the new sound formats. These new formats provided unprecedented dynamic range and sound fidelity. The Dolby Digital sound track, which runs between the sprocket holes along the edge of the film, provides 5. This encoding allows discrete sound channels to be directed to an array of speakers, consisting of left, right, centre, left surround, right surround and low frequency channels Holman 42—3.
Drawing of 5. From a cultural perspective, multichannel sound has become an integral part of the cinematic spectacle of the blockbuster. For this type of genre cinema, multichannel sound technology has expanded cinematic form in three ways: it has provided greater locali- sation of sound effects and music, eliminated masking posed by different sounds, and provided sonic enhancement in regard to space.
As an example of localisation, the image of a car moving from stage right to stage left and driven by the young James Kirk in Star Trek tracks precisely with the sound effects of the revving engine moving through the right, centre and left speakers, then off into the surrounds.
Masking issues or the condition of sounds lying on top of one another are also eliminated with this technology. The separate speakers allow complex sound designs that span the dynamic range but do not to interfere with one another because they are separated in space.
Low-frequency explosions aboard the Starship Kelvin are set well below the chatter of mid-range frequency dialogue and communications because they are presented in a separate speaker array. Finally, multichannel sound allows filmmakers to plot out sound use in different sound fields within the theatre space, expanding the diegesis of a film well beyond the borders of the screen image into the surrounds, as we will explore in the case study of Star Trek The original television show from the s spawned several films with the original crew and a number of spin-off television shows and film series.
In the opening sequence, Abrams altered the canonical timeline of the original series, collapsing the past and future to rewrite the origin story of the main characters. The first television series was known for its spare yet unique use of sound, inventing effects for hydraulic doors, phasers and scanning devices.
The reboot revives all of these effects in the opening shots of the film to offer intertextual references to the earlier series, but then reshapes the overall sound design into a multichannel assault on the senses as a federation ship is attacked by a hostile Romulan ship and its captain bent on revenge. The phasers in the new movie are more like the blasters in Star Wars in the sense that they are flying bolts.
Through multichannel sound design, Burtt engineered the opening sequence to function as an operatic and heroic overture, while preparing filmgoers with a preview of the overall sound design and themes that would pervade the film. Abrams, Multichannel sound with action presents a sense of audio-visual chaos aboard U. A multichannel blast creates an immersive cacophony as the hull breaches on the ship.
The point of audition shifts as the soundtrack falls silent to reveal the void of space. But when a missile hits the ship, the sound perspective shifts and all sound ceases as a crew member, whose point of audition we are suddenly hearing, is pulled out into the void of space. The multichannel format allows for not only a rich tapestry of sounds from the highest frequency to the lowest, but also the removal of all sound. The spectacle of silence in space is overwhelming, and underscores the dangers of space travel and exploration through a metaphor of absence.
The operatic elements overtake the sound design as a child the future James T. Kirk is born during the attack, and the filmmakers drop all sound effects to emphasise the orchestral score during the birth. Surround sound effects are used to explore outer space as well as the inner space of the mind.
In this way, we are allowed to see and hear the timeline that has been lost, while being presented with the sounds of the future that is to come. Currently, there has been a revival of interest in stereo- scopic imaging, which not surprisingly intersects with the advances in CGI and sound to create new and innovative ways of experiencing cinema. The 3D technique in cinema is a trick of perception. Humans perceive depth as a result of the separation of the eyes, which results in a slightly different view of an object.
Three-dimensional cinema mimics this approach by projecting two images onto the screen, which are either differentiated by a two-colour system most commonly red and green or by the other commonly used technique that alternately blocks light to the left and right eye in a pattern of opposite polarisation.
The filmgoer then views the images through glasses or polarised filters so the right eye sees one image and the left the other. The result mimics three-dimensional perception. Despite a wave of interest in 3D in the s, the technology proved problematic for filmmakers, exhibitors and filmgoers. Filmmakers were unsure of how to best use the technique, raising questions about how often the technique should be used and to what end.
The propensity of use fell into the category of 3D objects being thrust outward toward the audience, which often interrupted the narrative flow of a film.
The visual poetic of 3D was given only a short time to develop in the s, until filmgoers grew tired of the cluster of similar uses, and became even more frustrated by the lingering headaches that occurred after viewing films in 3D. While some historians 54 C in e m a a s in s t i t u t i o n argue that the quality of the films alone stifled the diffusion of the technology, this line of criticism is perhaps overstated.
More likely, complaints by filmmakers, exhibitors and filmgoers together doomed the technology. Exhibitors, in particular, found the images too dark, the glasses too expensive, and sightlines for optimal viewing too limited within the theatrical spaces. In the current era of digital projection, 3D has experienced a significant revival, though some of the concerns about the technology still linger.
Captain EO , starring Michael Jackson, premiered at Disney theme parks in the mids, while Terminator 2 3-D: Battle Across Time debuted at Universal Studies a decade later, combining a live-action stage show with 3D projected images. The technique made the leap into mainstream filmmaking in conjunction with the IMAX format. In November , approximately 25 per cent of the overall box-office receipts for the film Polar Express came from these mixed-format venues.
The integration of 3D exhibition into contemporary cinema is by no means assured. Critics have noted continued problems with line of sight, murky and dark images, and simulation sickness, a kind of motion sickness that plagues some filmgoers. Also, some studios are converting films that were not shot or conceived in 3D and rushing them into the marketplace in order to gather the lucrative surcharges.
The three paradoxes of cinematic authorship. The industrial contexts of film production: Searle Kochberg; Introduction; The origins of the American film industry to ; The studio era of American film to ; Case study 1: Warner Brothers; The contemporary film industry onwards. Further viewing2. Before getting to the bigger picture: Patrick Phillips; Introduction: changing aproaches to film; A short film on YouTube. The still and the moving imageTrying to name a certain quality in film; Time and memory; Conclusion: Film fragments; Summary; Notes; Further reading; Further viewing; 4.
Abstract: Questions for discusion; Further reading; Further viewing; Resource centres; 5. Cinematic authorship and the film auteur: Paul Watson; Introduction. Introduction to Film Studies is a comprehensive textbook for students of cinema. This completely revised and updated fifth edition guides students through the key issues and concepts in film studies, traces the historical development of film and introduces some of the worlds key national cinemas.
A range of theories and theorists are presented from Formalism to Feminism, from Eisenstein to Deleuze.