Third box, reproduced by permission of National Geographic Maps. Fourth box . Information. Systems and Science) demands a new edition that benefits. for the Third Edition of Geographic Information Systems and Science by Dr. Alex. Singleton echecs16.info~worboys/mywebpapers/sdhpdf. 5. Geographic information systems and science 3rd edition by p a longley m f is available in various formats such as pdf doc and epub which you can directly.
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PDF | On Aug 1, , Wooil M. Moon and others published Geographic Information Systems and Science (3rd Edition) by P. A. Longley, M. F. A free PDF of the book can be obtained here. Geographic Information Systems and Science (Third Edition) (P A Longley, M F Goodchild, D J Maguire, D W. Geographic Information Systems and Science - echecs16.info - Ebook download as PDF File Third box, reproduced by permission of National Geographic Maps. .. as a team – the second edition of the 'Big Book' of GIS (Longley et al ).
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Description: Fourth edition. Information technology--Encyclopedias.
AR had its recognition apps coding creates exclusions face to those who in , when Caudell and Mizzel developed can only view and contribute to these features works for Boeing and designed a digital transport Elwood, Yet, the concept of AR is much older. In this statement, are growing abreast and rapidly. Developments there must be a relationship between reality and of GIS technology and applications must grow the information made available in digital media.
The M. A view of cloud computing.
For Netto, M. Big Data this more deeply and integrated analysis models computing and clouds: Trends and future direc- are required and at the same time more spread tions. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Comput- applications will be required to provide the spatial ing, 79—80, 3— Azuma, R.
A survey of augmented real- ity. Presence Cambridge, Mass. Geographic information gies created conditions to proliferate different systems: an introduction 3rd ed.
Blower, J. Paper conception to the present. Location and areas to multi collaborate users, from desktop to GIS. In Location Science pp. In fact, maps have always been used for Budhathoki, N. GeoJournal, 72 , — GIS intelligence statement.
The development of Associated to this for delivering computing as the 5th utility. The cumulative advances doi Geographic plication using Open Source Software for Sharing information will reinforce their position in our Geospatial Data.
IDC iview, , GIS applications. International Journal of Geo- Giuliani, G. Facilitating the produc- doi International Journal of Applied Earth W. Reliable Observation and Geoinformation, 44, — Real-time phers, 6 , — Interna- Chen, J.
Exploratory data analysis of doi Goodchild, M. Geographic Information Journal of Transport Geography, 19 3 , — Valentine Eds. Crampton, J. Cartography: Maps 2. SAGE Publications. Progress in Human Geography, 33 1 , 91— Citizens as sensors: The Crossland, M.
Geographical Informa- world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal, tion Systems as Decision Tools. Khosrow- 69 4 , — Prospects for a space— and Technology 1st ed. Annals of the Association of The impact of opening Goodchild, M.
International Journal of Geo- Systems, 35 4 , — Integrating participatory Graham, M. Journal content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of Geography in Higher Education, 33 1 , 51— The language of spatial analysis. Grossner, K. Defining a digital earth system. Transac- Faiz, S. Geographical tions in GIS, 12 1 , — What about people in re- Kwan, M. Space-time and integral gional science? Papers in Regional Science, 24 1 , measures of individual accessibility: A com- 7— Geographical Analysis, 30 3 , — Paper presented at the Regional Science Association.
Lee, Y. Is server con- doi A case study of World of Warcraft. Paper presented at the Cloud Haklay, M. A Comparative Study tional Conference. Environment and Planning. Earth-Science Reviews, Web mapping 2. Geography Compass, 2 6 , — Cloud computing—The Haklay, M. Usability business perspective. The Cartographic Journal, 45 2 , 87— Mokhtar, S. Information Systems, 47, 98— Modelling accessibility using space-time prism concepts within geographical Hendriks, P.
Kemp, KK. Background on international GIS professional certification efforts. Kemp, Karen K. Towards an ontology of fields. Integrating traditional spatial models of the environment with GIS. In Autocarto 13, Seattle, WA. GIS education in the global marketplace, in J. Harts, H. Scholten, eds.
H, Vienna, Austria, pp. Environmental modelling with GIS: dealing with spatial continuity, in K. Nachtnebel Eds. Kemp, D. Mark and A. The U. Other publications Singleton, Alex, K.
Unwin, G. Lansley and Q. Longley, M. Goodchild, D. Maguire and D. Published on-line. Kuhn and C. Geo-everything is everywhere. Meicom Connect. February University of Hong Kong. Geographical Analysis 43 4 : Unwin, DeMers, A. Johnson, K. Kemp, A. Luck, B. Plewe and E. In U. National Report to the ICA. GIS Development, 10, p. Those of us teaching GIS must set the example. GIS Development.
Available on-line at www. Transactions in GIS 6 4 Maher, R. ArcNews, Winter Geography and GIS. International certification efforts. In Somers, R. Geo Info Systems. May , pp. Obermeyer, AAG Newsletter. Reeve, and D. Heywood, In Interoperating GISs. Wright, R. GIScience Education Challenges. Intergovernmental Solutions Newsletter. Wright, Geo Info Systems, September , pp. Taylor, J.
Digital elevation model, map image , and vector data Raster data type consists of rows and columns of cells, with each cell storing a single value.
Raster data can be images raster images with each pixel or cell containing a color value. Additional values recorded for each cell may be a discrete value, such as land use, a continuous value, such as temperature, or a null value if no data is available. While a raster cell stores a single value, it can be extended by using raster bands to represent RGB red, green, blue colors, colormaps a mapping between a thematic code and RGB value , or an extended attribute table with one row for each unique cell value.
The resolution of the raster data set is its cell width in ground units. Database storage, when properly indexed, typically allows for quicker retrieval of the raster data but can require storage of millions of significantly sized records.
Vector In a GIS, geographical features are often expressed as vectors, by considering those features as geometrical shapes. Different geographical features are expressed by different types of geometry: Points A simple vector map, using each of the vector elements: points for wells, lines for rivers, and a polygon for the [lake Zero-dimensional points are used for geographical features that can best be expressed by a single point reference—in other words, by simple location.
Examples include wells, peaks, features of interest, and trailheads. Points convey the least amount of information of these file types. Points can also be used to represent areas when displayed at a small scale. For example, cities on a map of the world might be represented by points rather than polygons. No measurements are possible with point features.
Lines or polylines One-dimensional lines or polylines are used for linear features such as rivers, roads, railroads, trails, and topographic lines. Again, as with point features, linear features displayed at a small scale will be represented as linear features rather than as a polygon.
Line features can measure distance. Polygons Two-dimensional polygons are used for geographical features that cover a particular area of the earth's surface. Such features may include lakes, park boundaries, buildings, city boundaries, or land uses. Polygons convey the most amount of information of the file types. Polygon features can measure perimeter and area.
Each of these geometries are linked to a row in a database that describes their attributes. For example, a database that describes lakes may contain a lake's depth, water quality, pollution level. This information can be used to make a map to describe a particular attribute of the dataset. For example, lakes could be coloured depending on level of pollution. Different geometries can also be compared. For example, the GIS could be used to identify all wells point geometry that are within one kilometre of a lake polygon geometry that has a high level of pollution.
Vector features can be made to respect spatial integrity through the application of topology rules such as 'polygons must not overlap'. Vector data can also be used to represent continuously varying phenomena. Contour lines and triangulated irregular networks TIN are used to represent elevation or other continuously changing values. TINs record values at point locations, which are connected by lines to form an irregular mesh of triangles. The face of the triangles represent the terrain surface.
Advantages and disadvantages There are some important advantages and disadvantages to using a raster or vector data model to represent reality: Raster datasets record a value for all points in the area covered which may require more storage space than representing data in a vector format that can store data only where needed.
Raster data is computationally less expensive to render than vector graphics There are transparency and aliasing problems when overlaying multiple stacked pieces of raster images Vector data allows for visually smooth and easy implementation of overlay operations, especially in terms of graphics and shape-driven information like maps, routes and custom fonts, which are more difficult with raster data.
Vector data can be displayed as vector graphics used on traditional maps, whereas raster data will appear as an image that may have a blocky appearance for object boundaries. Vector data is more compatible with relational database environments, where they can be part of a relational table as a normal column and processed using a multitude of operators.
Vector file sizes are usually smaller than raster data, which can be tens, hundreds or more times larger than vector data depending on resolution. Vector data is simpler to update and maintain, whereas a raster image will have to be completely reproduced. Example: a new road is added. Vector data allows much more analysis capability, especially for "networks" such as roads, power, rail, telecommunications, etc.
Examples: Best route, largest port, airfields connected to two-lane highways. Raster data will not have all the characteristics of the features it displays. Non-spatial data Additional non-spatial data can also be stored along with the spatial data represented by the coordinates of a vector geometry or the position of a raster cell. In vector data, the additional data contains attributes of the feature.
For example, a forest inventory polygon may also have an identifier value and information about tree species. In raster data the cell value can store attribute information, but it can also be used as an identifier that can relate to records in another table. Software is currently being developed to support spatial and non-spatial decision-making, with the solutions to spatial problems being integrated with solutions to non-spatial problems. The end result with these flexible spatial decision-making support systems FSDSSs  is expected to be that non-experts will be able to use GIS, along with spatial criteria, and simply integrate their non-spatial criteria to view solutions to multi-criteria problems.
This system is intended to assist decision-making. Data capture Example of hardware for mapping GPS and laser rangefinder and data collection rugged computer.
The current trend for GIS is that accurate mapping and data analysis are completed while in the field. Depicted hardware field-map technology is used mainly for forest inventories, monitoring and mapping. Data capture—entering information into the system—consumes much of the time of GIS practitioners.
There are a variety of methods used to enter data into a GIS where it is stored in a digital format. Existing data printed on paper or PET film maps can be digitized or scanned to produce digital data. A digitizer produces vector data as an operator traces points, lines, and polygon boundaries from a map. Scanning a map results in raster data that could be further processed to produce vector data.
Survey data can be directly entered into a GIS from digital data collection systems on survey instruments using a technique called coordinate geometry COGO. New technologies allow to create maps as well as analysis directly in the field, projects are more efficient and mapping is more accurate. Remotely sensed data also plays an important role in data collection and consist of sensors attached to a platform. Sensors include cameras, digital scanners and LIDAR, while platforms usually consist of aircraft and satellites.
Recently with the development of Miniature UAVs, aerial data collection is becoming possible at much lower costs, and on a more frequent basis. For example, the Aeryon Scout was used to map a 50 acre area with a Ground sample distance of 1 inch in only 12 minutes. Soft-copy workstations are used to digitize features directly from stereo pairs of digital photographs.
These systems allow data to be captured in two and three dimensions, with elevations measured directly from a stereo pair using principles of photogrammetry. Currently, analog aerial photos are scanned before being entered into a soft-copy system, but as high quality digital cameras become cheaper this step will be skipped. Satellite remote sensing provides another important source of spatial data. Here satellites use different sensor packages to passively measure the reflectance from parts of the electromagnetic spectrum or radio waves that were sent out from an active sensor such as radar.
Remote sensing collects raster data that can be further processed using different bands to identify objects and classes of interest, such as land cover. When data is captured, the user should consider if the data should be captured with either a relative accuracy or absolute accuracy, since this could not only influence how information will be interpreted but also the cost of data capture.
In addition to collecting and entering spatial data, attribute data is also entered into a GIS. For vector data, this includes additional information about the objects represented in the system. After entering data into a GIS, the data usually requires editing, to remove errors, or further processing.
For vector data it must be made "topologically correct" before it can be used for some advanced analysis. For example, in a road network, lines must connect with nodes at an intersection. Errors such as undershoots and overshoots must also be removed. For scanned maps, blemishes on the source map may need to be removed from the resulting raster. For example, a fleck of dirt might connect two lines that should not be connected. Raster-to-vector translation Data restructuring can be performed by a GIS to convert data into different formats.
For example, a GIS may be used to convert a satellite image map to a vector structure by generating lines around all cells with the same classification, while determining the cell spatial relationships, such as adjacency or inclusion. More advanced data processing can occur with image processing , a technique developed in the late s by NASA and the private sector to provide contrast enhancement, false colour rendering and a variety of other techniques including use of two dimensional Fourier transforms.
Since digital data is collected and stored in various ways, the two data sources may not be entirely compatible. So a GIS must be able to convert geographic data from one structure to another. Projections, coordinate systems and registration A property ownership map and a soils map might show data at different scales. Map information in a GIS must be manipulated so that it registers, or fits, with information gathered from other maps. Before the digital data can be analyzed, they may have to undergo other manipulations—projection and coordinate conversions, for example—that integrate them into a GIS.
The earth can be represented by various models, each of which may provide a different set of coordinates e. The simplest model is to assume the earth is a perfect sphere. As more measurements of the earth have accumulated, the models of the earth have become more sophisticated and more accurate. In fact, there are models that apply to different areas of the earth to provide increased accuracy e. See datum geodesy for more information.
Projection is a fundamental component of map making. A projection is a mathematical means of transferring information from a model of the Earth, which represents a three-dimensional curved surface, to a two-dimensional medium—paper or a computer screen.
Different projections are used for different types of maps because each projection particularly suits specific uses. For example, a projection that accurately represents the shapes of the continents will distort their relative sizes. See Map projection for more information.
For images, this process is called rectification.
Spatial analysis with GIS Given the vast range of spatial analysis techniques that have been developed over the past half century, any summary or review can only cover the subject to a limited depth. This is a rapidly changing field, and GIS packages are increasingly including analytical tools as standard built-in facilities or as optional toolsets, add-ins or 'analysts'. In many instances such facilities are provided by the original software suppliers commercial vendors or collaborative non commercial development teams , whilst in other cases facilities have been developed and are provided by third parties.
Slope and aspect Slope, aspect and surface curvature in terrain analysis are all derived from neighbourhood operations using elevation values of a cell's adjacent neighbours.
Slope is a function of resolution, and the spatial resolution used to calculate slope and aspect should always be specified  The elevation at a point will have perpendicular tangents slope passing through the point, in an east-west and north-south direction. The gradient is defined as a vector quantity with components equal to the partial derivatives of the surface in the x and y directions. A GIS, however, can be used to depict two- and three-dimensional characteristics of the Earth's surface, subsurface, and atmosphere from information points.
For example, a GIS can quickly generate a map with isopleth or contour lines that indicate differing amounts of rainfall. Such a map can be thought of as a rainfall contour map.