problem of E-Waste in developing countries like India where the collection and management of E-Waste and the recycling process is yet to be properly regulated . Keywords: e-waste management, environmental pollution, recycling. 1. Introduction In the last years, there is an increasing acknowledgment of our impact on the. Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is becoming major thread to the whole world. Its toxic emissions mixed with virgin soil and air and.
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PDF | Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is becoming major thread to the whole world. Its toxic emissions mixed with virgin soil and air and. PDF | The current practices of e-waste management in India suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUNDOPTIONS FORE-WASTES MANAGEMENT highlights the hazards of e-wastes, the need for its appropriate management and .
It does not constitute legal or other professional advice, and should not be relied on as a statement of the law. Because it is intended only as a general guide, it may contain generalisations. You should obtain professional advice for your specific circumstances. EPA has made every reasonable effort to provide current and accurate information, but it does not make any guarantees regarding the accuracy, currency or completeness of that information. Overview Electronic items contain valuable materials. These materials can be recovered from e-waste.
Leaded glass from CRTs is reused in car batteries, ammunition, and lead wheel weights, or sold to foundries as a fluxing agent in processing raw lead ore. Copper, gold, palladium, silver and tin are valuable metals sold to smelters for recycling.
Hazardous smoke and gases are captured, contained and treated to mitigate environmental threat. These methods allow for safe reclamation of all valuable computer construction materials. Hewlett-Packard product recycling solutions manager Renee St. Denis describes its process as: "We move them through giant shredders about 30 feet tall and it shreds everything into pieces about the size of a quarter.
Once your disk drive is shredded into pieces about this big, it's hard to get the data off". Reuse is an alternative option to recycling because it extends the lifespan of a device. Devices still need eventual recycling, but by allowing others to purchase used electronics, recycling can be postponed and value gained from device use. Benefits of recycling[ edit ] Recycling raw materials from end-of-life electronics is the most effective solution to the growing e-waste problem.
Most electronic devices contain a variety of materials, including metals that can be recovered for future uses.
By dismantling and providing reuse possibilities, intact natural resources are conserved and air and water pollution caused by hazardous disposal is avoided. Additionally, recycling reduces the amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by the manufacturing of new products.
Materials that can be recycled include "ferrous iron-based and non-ferrous metals, glass, and various types of plastic. Ferrous metals such as steel and iron also can be re-used.
In the U. Responsible recycling ensures best management practices of the electronics being recycled, worker health and safety, and consideration for the environment locally and abroad. Since many companies were responsible for the recycling of their own products, this imposed responsibility on manufacturers requiring many to redesign their infrastructure. As a result, manufacturers in Japan have the added option to sell the recycled metals.
There are two drivers in particular for this trend. On the one hand, consumer demand for low cost products mitigates against product quality and results in short product lifetimes.
Consumer dissatisfaction with this state of affairs has led to a growing repair movement. But the movement extends far beyond farm machinery with, for example, the restricted repair options offered by Apple coming in for criticism.
Manufacturers often counter with safety concerns resulting from unauthorised repairs and modifications. They are all recycled in many countries since they contain lead, mercury and cadmium. Some computer components can be reused in assembling new computer products, while others are reduced to metals that can be reused in applications as varied as construction, flatware, and jewellery.
Substances found in large quantities include epoxy resins , fiberglass , PCBs , PVC polyvinyl chlorides , thermosetting plastics , lead, tin, copper, silicon, beryllium, carbon, iron, and aluminium. Elements found in small amounts include cadmium , mercury , and thallium. Almost all electronics contain lead and tin as solder and copper as wire and printed circuit board tracks , though the use of lead-free solder is now spreading rapidly.
It is known to be carcinogenic. A typical inch cathode ray tube may contain 1. Adverse effects of lead exposure include impaired cognitive function, behavioral disturbances, attention deficits, hyperactivity, conduct problems, and lower IQ. Health effects include sensory impairment, dermatitis, memory loss, and muscle weakness. Exposure in-utero causes fetal deficits in motor function, attention, and verbal domains. Cadmium Found in light-sensitive resistors, corrosion-resistant alloys for marine and aviation environments, and nickel-cadmium batteries.
The most common form of cadmium is found in Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries. The sale of Nickel-Cadmium batteries has been banned in the European Union except for medical use.
When not properly recycled it can leach into the soil, harming microorganisms and disrupting the soil ecosystem. Exposure is caused by proximity to hazardous waste sites and factories and workers in the metal refining industry. The inhalation of cadmium can cause severe damage to the lungs and is also known to cause kidney damage.
A known carcinogen after occupational inhalation exposure. Health effects include liver damage, kidney damage, heart damage, eye and throat irritation. When released into the environment, it can create sulfuric acid through sulfur dioxide.
Health effects include impaired development of the nervous system, thyroid problems, liver problems.
PBBs were banned from to on. PCBs were banned during the s. PFOAs are formed synthetically through environmental degradation. Studies in mice have found the following health effects: Hepatotoxicity, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, hormonal effects and carcinogenic effects.
Studies have found increased maternal PFOA levels to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion miscarriage and stillbirth. Increased maternal levels of PFOA are also associated with decreases in mean gestational age preterm birth , mean birth weight low birth weight , mean birth length small for gestational age , and mean APGAR score.
Occupational exposures associated with lung cancer, other common adverse health effects are beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and acute beryllium disease. Due to the rapid progress in the area of IT and electronics, newer and modified versions of software are introduced every few months. Mostly, older hardware is not compatible with the new software and purchase of a new device appeals more to the owner over modification of the older devices.
A number of our respondents pointed out that considering the cost of modification or repair and the uncertainty involved thereafter, it is wiser to purchase a new device with a warranty period than modifying or repairing the older electronics. Subsequently, the total volume of E-waste collected and recycled through authorized vendors in — was a significant tons. All the E-waste collected by this IT giant is recycled by authorized recyclers.
Wipro engages closely with government on E-waste policy advocacy, both through industry networks and direct contacts.
It has been observed that at institutional levels of IT and electronics sector, there are provisions to address the E-waste generated by their own facilities. These diverse categories of waste are subsequently either recycled internally in its in-house facilities or outsourced through vendors.
Wipro maintains a mass-balance report where E-waste recyclers have to report back to the company about the procedures adopted to dispose of the collected obsolete EEEs. In detail, reporting on the treatment and disposal mechanisms for hazardous and non-hazardous components of E-waste is a compulsory practice.
The company seeks proof of the disposal procedures that the recyclers claim to adopt and thus cross-checks the data provided by the recyclers. Wipro even has its own recycling facility in the city of Bangalore to promote recycling of obsolete lamps. In its recycling facility, heavy metals present in waste lamps are segregated and reused.
Mercury, present in the lamp, is usually distilled and then used again. Wipro has collaborated with Electronic Light Manufacturing Association, Bangalore, for responsible disposal and recycling of waste lamps.
This area hosts the majority of IT companies in the city and thus produces considerable volume of E-waste. InfoActiv is considered a major organization with key focuses on E-waste. The platform provided by the Wipro-InfoActiv collaboration aids in streamlining the processes for E-waste management from the bulk consumers. Unlike Wipro, a talk with an official of a major global electronics giant name withheld to secure the identity of the interviewee provided a different picture.
Average 4—5 trials per month are carried out in different facilities of the company which involve the use of a large amount of trial mobile phones. In order to avoid duplication by the competitors and other market-related concerns, these trial phones are disposed off and subsequently destroyed in bulk once testing and experimentation are completed.
As per the information provided, the mobile phones and cameras are just taken to landfill sites and crashed with the help of crashing machines or vehicles. In most of the cases, these are high-definition phones eventually attracting high prices in the market. The person interviewed revealed that he had around 70—80 trial mobile phones under his control alone. Considering the size of the company and the number of people engaged in testing activities, it could be postulated that huge quantities of waste phones are produced in different facilities of the company in different Indian cities.
However, mobile phones are not the only equipment that undergoes such a procedure. It is applied to many other EEEs before eventually finding its way to the market.
However, a discussion with a number of employees shows that they do not have much idea regarding the whereabouts of the obsolete EEEs once they are discarded in those bins. A respondent at the State Bank of Mysore revealed that the dumping tendency is more in the public sector banks as compared to their private sector counterparts because of the popular negligence among the citizens towards public resources in the country. This store house acts as a large base of obsolete computers waiting the disposal procedure such as passing of tenders and auctions.
However, a premier educational institute in the country, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore IIM-B , affirmed that they always try their best to repair their faulty electronics in order to maximize the lifespan. This kind of behaviour by a bulk consumer could be considered as a positive state of affair in the current E-waste management regime in the country. Nevertheless, it has been observed that electronics such as mobile phones and computers are discarded while still very much in their useful life.
This signifies a gradually declining lifespan of EEEs at each of the sectors considered. Once discarded, all these EEEs contribute to the E-waste stream of the country. For instance, there is no significant difference between E-waste disposal practices among public, private and corporate banks and all abide by the rules of auction to manage their E-waste.
While passing the tenders, only E-waste recyclers authorized by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board are called for bidding. Karnataka Bank was the only bank which showed genuine interest in providing relevant information on their E-waste disposal practices and said that they follow a strict buy-back policy.
With their dealer Wipro, they have an agreement which says that Wipro should replace their older computers, while the bank purchases new computers from the company. However, computer peripherals such as printers do not come under this buy-back policy. Therefore, the bank has to discard the printers through scrap dealers at certain price. IIM-B declares that it obtains certificates from the recyclers regarding eco-friendly disposal of the E-waste produced in their campus. On a positive note, IIM-B has taken a number of commendable initiatives towards managing their E-waste.
Under the leadership of founder Mr. Achitra Borgohain, the start-up currently deals with all kinds of E-waste together with paper and plastic waste. The business model of Binbag is based on three pillars—awareness, access and assets in the form of physical infrastructure or recycling facilities.
The company essentially works with an aim to fill up the gap between the NGOs and recyclers. During our conversation with Mr. Borgohain, we were informed that Binbag has aided in recycling of approximately 12 tonnes of E-waste and has provided its service to customers in the city of Bangalore as of June