Lectures. 1. Siliciclastic sediments. – granulometric analysis, provenance and geotectonic position → modal composition, heavy minerals. – classification – see . This is the second edition of a book first published in The publisher's description on the back cover claims it to be a comprehensive text. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, p. ISBN This book emphasizes the properties of sedimentary rocks rather than.
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Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks is an advanced textbook describing the physical, SAM BOGGS, Jr. received his Ph.D. from the University of Colorado and. Cambridge Core - Sedimentology and Stratigraphy - Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks - by Sam Boggs, Jr. by Sam Boggs · petrology Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks is an advanced textbook describing the found by accessing Petro. Load more similar PDF files.
In addition to detailed sections on siliciclastic rocks sands tones, shales, conglomerates and carbonate rocks limestones and dolomites , it also discusses evaporites, cherts, iron-rich sedimentary rocks, phosphorites, and carbonaceous sedimentary rocks such as oil shales. This Second Edition maintains the fundamental structure of the original book, and presents a comprehensive treatment of sedimentary petrography and petrology. It has been thoroughly updated to include new concepts and ideas, and cutting-edge techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging of sedimentary rocks and backscattered electron microscopy. Numerous photographs and diagrams illustrate characteristic features while an extensive and up-to-date reference list provides a useful starting point for additional literature research. This textbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in sedimentary petrology. He has also worked part-time as a research geologist for the US Geological Survey.
Part I of the book deals with basic principles related to the origin, classification and occurrence of sedimentary rocks. Part II describes and discusses the siliciclastic sedimentary rocks such as sandstones. Part III describes the carbonate sedimentary rocks e. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students; however, professional geologists may also fmd the book useful.
Sedimentary petrology is a broad scientific discipline that encompasses study of all kinds of sedimentary rocks, including those that constitute a relatively small volume of total sedimentary rocks. These volumetrically minor rock types nonetheless provide valuable insight into Earth history, and some are economically significant. Thus, the book gives significant coverage to minor rock types such as cherts, phosphorites and iron-rich sedimentary rocks, as well as to more abundant sedimentary rocks such as sands tones, shales and limestones, which make up the bulk of the sedimentary rock record.
Petrologic study requires application of suitable techniques for field and laboratory observation and analysis. Several kinds of studies, such as measuring and describing sedimentary structures, are carried out in the field before specimens are collected for further analysis.
In the laboratory, petrographic microscopy is a venerable, basic tool for studying the composition and texture of sedimentary rocks; however, it is being supplemented increasingly by a variety of other tools and techniques see Chapter 1.
Electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, X-radiography, electron probe microanalysis, Fourier analysis and various kinds of spectroscopic analyses are examples of techniques that allow further optical, geochemical and physical characterization of sedimentary rocks.
This book discusses applications of many of these techniques and furnishes references to IX x Preface numerous published monographs that provide further in-depth discussion of analytical methods.
During preparation of Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, I drew heavily upon the published work of numerous researchers. Part I Principles Photomicrograph of a poorly sorted, Pleistocene volcaniclastic sandstone, Japan Sea 1 Origin, classification, and occurrence of sedimentary rocks 1.
By contrast, igneous and metamorphic rocks form mainly below Earth's surface where temperatures and pressures may be orders of magnitude higher than those at the surface, although volcanic rocks eventually cool at the surface. These fundamental differences in the origin of rocks lead to differences in physical and chemical characteristics that distinguish one kind of rock from another.
Sedimentary rocks are characterized particularly by the presence of layers, although layers are also present in some volcanic and metamorphic rocks, and by distinctive textures and structures. Many sedimentary rocks are also distinguished from igneous and metamorphic rocks by their mineral and chemical compositions and fossil content. Sedimentary rocks cover roughly three-fourths of Earth's surface.
They have special genetic significance because their textures, structures, composition, and fossil content reveal the nature of past surface environments and life forms on Earth. Thus, they provide our only available clues to evolution of Earth's landscapes and life forms through time.
These characteristics of sedimentary rocks are in themselves reason enough to study sedimentary rocks. In addition, many sedimentary rocks contain minerals and fossil fuels that have economic significance. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, salt, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and other metallic ores, and uranium are examples of some of the extremely important economic products that occur in sedimentary rocks. Many different terms are used to describe the study of sedimentary rocks, including stratigraphy, sedimentation, sedimentology, and paleontology.
The book focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the principal kinds of sedimentary rocks; however, it is concerned also with the relationship of these properties to depositional conditions and provenance sediment sources. I have attempted, where appropriate, to identify major problems and concerns regarding the origin of particular kinds of sedimentary rocks or particular properties of these rocks. Where controversy surrounds the origin, as with the origin of dolomites and iron-formations, different points of view are examined.
I also examine the tectonic setting of sediment accumulation. The composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, in particular, is strongly influenced by tectonic provenance and the kinds of depositional basins and depositional conditions present in the tectonic setting. Therefore, it seems appropriate in this opening chapter to consider tectonic setting and basin architecture as a framework for discussion in succeeding chapters.
Chapters 2 and 3 examine the sedimentary textures and structures that are common to many kinds of sedimentary rocks. Chapter 4 describes the characteristics of sandstones, Chapter 5 discusses conglomerates, and Chapter 6 describes the characteristic features of shales and mudrocks.
The extremely important topic of sediment provenance is discussed in Chapter 7, followed in Chapter 8 by discussion of diagenesis of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Chapters 9- 13 deal with the chemicaVbiochemical sedimentary rocks. The final chapter of the book, Chapter 13, discusses the organic-rich, carbonaceous sedimentary rocks such as oil shales and coals. They are the product of a complex, sequential succession of geologic processes that begin with formation of source rocks through intrusion, metamorphism, volcanism, and tectonic uplift.
Physical, chemical, and biologic processes subsequently play t important roles in determining he [mal sedimentary product. Weathering causes the physical and chemical breakdown of source rocks, leading to concentration of resistant particulate residues mainly silicate mineral and rock fragments and fonnation of secondary minerals such as clay t minerals and iron oxides.
At he same time, soluble constituents such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and silica are released in solution. Soluble constituents are constantly carried from weathering sites in surface and ground waters that discharge ultimately into the ocean.
Explosive volcanism may also contribute substantial quantities of particulate pyroclastic debris, including feldspars, volcanic rock fragments, and glass. In time, particulates are removed from the land by erosion, and undergo transportation by water, wind, or ice to depositional basins at lower elevations.
Within depositional basins, transport of particulates eventually stops when the particles are deposited below wave base.
Boring by photosynthesizing algae is confined to the photic zone and operates most effectively in the upper part of this zone at water depths less than about 70 — m.
On the other hand, the activities of fungi are believed to extend to depths of m or more, and heterotropic nonphotosynthesizing algae and bacteria may be present to abyssal depths e. Friedman et al. Boring of carbonate grains by endolithic fungi and algae is commonly most intense in shallow-water tropical areas.
If boring activities are prolonged and intense, the entire surface of a grain may become infested by these aragonite- or Mg-calcite-filled borings, resulting in the formation of a thin coat of micrite around the grain. This coating is called a micrite envelope Bathurst, The cortoids described in Chapter 9 probably formed in this way. Even more intensive boring may result in complete micritization of the grain, with the result that all internal textures are destroyed and a kind of peloid is created.
In colder and deeper waters, boring by endoliths may also be fairly intense.
Because these waters are not commonly saturated with CaCO 3 , however, the vacated borings do not fill with precipitated CaCO 3.