Get this from a library! My feudal lord. [Tehmina Durrani]. In the writing of My Feudal Lord, Tehmina Durrani worked with William Hoffer, author of Midnight Express and co-author of Betty Mahmoody's. Tehmina Durrani (Urdu: تہمینہ درانی ; born 18 February ) is the daughter of a former Governor of State Bank of Pakistan and Managing Director of Paki.
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PDF | Autobiography has become an ideal vehicle to convey women's issues and autobiography of Tehmina Durrani 'My Feudal Lord'. She is an illustrious controversial writer catapulted to fame with the publication of her autobiography, My Feudal Lord, (). It won Italy's prestigious Marissa. Tehmina Durrani is one of the widely discussed Pakistani women writers in .. My Feudal Lord describes Durrani's traumatic marital life with. Gulam Mustafa.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. A Deconstruction of Religious Hypocrisy. Dr Shamenaz. A Deconstruction of Religious Hypocrisy Dr. Khar was one of the founders of the Pakistan People's Party and Tehmina was his eighth wife. Khar was jailed by the Zia regime and after his release, they were separated.
P8 D87 Dewey My Feudal Lord: My feudal lord , Corgi. Schiava di mio marito , Arnoldo Mondadori. Readers waiting for this title: My feudal lord , T.
My Feudal Lord. History Created December 9, 7 revisions Download catalog record: Libraries near you: WorldCat Library. My feudal lord , Corgi in English. Schiava di mio marito , Arnoldo Mondadori Hardcover in Italian. It is feudalism which considers woman a toy or play thing.
Woman as a woman has no place in feudal culture. She can only survive as a mother, daughter, wife and sister. Women survive in terms of their relation with someone else. A woman is expected to be a submissive daughter, a caring mother and a docile wife. I knew my personality had to change I had become submissive and weak like his previous wives.
Life with Khar becomes a Herculean task for Durrani. Culture is ingrained in the personality of an individual. Khar represented feudal culture. It was reflected in his domestic habits especially in his treatment of women.
Durrani testifies, I could only develop in the direction that he chose. To think independently was a crime that he had the right to punish. Many of his beliefs ran counter to everything that I considered right, but there was no way that I could engage with him in a rational debate.
His values were steeped in a medieval milieu, a mix of prejudices, superstitions and old wives tale. High on the list was the role of the wife. He encloses it and protects it. If it is barren, he neglects it.
Land is power, prestige and property This points to the otherness of woman. The theme of otherness is also central to autobiographical writings. To support my argument, I would quote Spivak here, within the effaced itinerary of the subaltern subject, the track of sexual difference is doubly effaced.
If in the context of colonial production, the subaltern has no history and cannot speak, the subaltern as female is even more deeply in shadow Khan writes, male bondage outlaws blood bondage. This practice is not a cultural or traditional phenomenon it has very much an economic basis and material motives This bondage is strengthened in many ways remarks Khan, The system of patriarchy can function only with the cooperation of women. Therefore, women become the property of the relatives or her husband.
This in turn accelerates the gulf between women and their immediate family or the community. But he keeps her cloistered and does not allow her think independently or logically. Men of the family from each strata of society in these regions do not hesitate to soak their hands in the blood of their own female blood relatives Many sociologists and intellectuals think that this practice could be related to the ignorance of the masses, who articulate tradition as religion.
Other factors that contribute to constructing such attitudes are community and social pressures. It is owing to these pressures that men commit crimes against the women of their own families.
There are various discourse communities that one way or another influence the thinking of the protagonist and complicate the situation for women. It is important here to highlight the role the society plays.
The first three epochs, the archaic, the magic Per-perspectival and the mythic Un-perspectival were marked by a lack of perspective.
The third, beginning with the classical Greeks famously discovered perspective, articulated three-dimensional space and has been dominant in Western society since.
Since the paper is presently discussing these elements with reference to My Feudal Lord, therefore, it should be mentioned here that feudal culture is based on collectivistic aims. Therefore, when Durrani demands divorce from Khar, he resists.
Hence, the Pakistani patriarchy turns man into an unaccommodating, uncaring and exploitative being. Feudalism is also entrenched in certain conventions and traditions that sustain it. Eventually, it becomes quite difficult to dislodge this status quo the very sense of identification, interdependence, and community that Gusdorf dismisses from autobiographical selves are key elements in the development of a women identity, according to theorists Rowbotham and Chodorow cited in Friedman South Asian cultures believe that women should remain attached to the men at any cost.
I have to start anew. He stretched, took a deep breath and addressed me coolly: you have no identity of your own nobody knows you…. Women cannot live independently in collectivistic societies because they the society believe women have to be attached to a man whosoever, it be.
Suleri also supports this point. Society considers women great, when she endures man and practices self-negation. Men on the other hand treat woman and children as his belongings. This hegemonic discourse enters into a painful phase when the clerics, feudals and the influential start using religion against women.
They misinterpret and twist the facts to suit their needs. For his wife he had one criteria and for himself another. Keeping the above context in view, it is important to correct the above quoted words being referred to Prophet Muhammed PBUH. It is an extract of a plant called henna that could be applied on hair to change color. The above quoted lines by Khar are an example of mythic discourse. Khar here is articulating patriarchal values shared by the community that discourages deviant behavior of women and keep men empowered at all costs.
It is transmuted into another language and the context mythologized. The discourse of some clerics center on favoring patriarchy, anti-women behavior and representing men as an embodiment of perfection. Through such sacred discourses, the clerics with political motives try to justify social oppression of women. These patriarchal forces misuse Islam to match their agenda. Often in such social structures, that is in collectivistic societies, individuals are ignored, their rights subdued and expected to confirm to certain group norms.
Collectivism therefore, favors oppressed women. Not recognizing themselves in the reflection of cultural representations, women develop a dual consciousness ….. Since, South Asian cultures require complete domination of women therefore, women become quite vulnerable to customs and conventions of the society. Durrani states regretfully, Mustafa demanded custody of the children and ownership of all of her properties ….
My father expected these provisions with cavalier pronouncement, leave her penniless. She does not need anything from you. This points to the highly repressive laws which work against women. People whom I formerly respected turned their backs on me.
I shuddered at the realization of the position that a woman falls into after divorce….. Increasingly, I experienced a humiliating lack of confidence and self-esteem. Most of the time women comply with these traditions and hence become disciplined subjects, says Jasam Gramsci argues that the States seeks to cited in Khan disseminate their outlook world views as best as they can It can be concluded from the above discussion that the societies that are collective in nature require individual behavior to conform to established norms.
However, these resistances are not systematic and do not produce any discourse. Through her decision Durrani shows that she has the agency to resist the system, the society and her family. Khan also concludes in her work that women do have an agency despite their vulnerability and poverty However, women live in different context and conditions and negotiate accordingly.
The above lines assert that publically men are always in a position to dictate their terms and conditions for women to negotiate. Despite these odds Durrani sticks to her agenda of reform and her independent position is finally accepted into the society. Nowhere in her texts novel and autobiography does she complain that Islam discriminates on the basis of sex and gender. Therefore, the act of writing about her personal life is equal to breaking her silence because the society expects her to remain silent.
Durrani gives endless examples of an ideology based on culture which is the chief enemy of religion. She believes that certain alien ideological intrusions have distorted the true nature of Islam. This implies to all the women irrespective of any ethnic group.
The presence of truth leaves a bitter taste in those readers who want women to be dominated by Islam's misinterpreted clauses. The truth is not always sweet. The presence of autobiographical elements makes it intense. Eventually learning to manoeuvre their fights onto his territory she writes: The change in me was slow but sure.
I had evolved.
I was no longer the timid, docile, self-effacing little girl that he married. I was becoming a woman.
I felt that I had to be heard in order for him to realise when he was wrong.
I obeyed whatever he would impose on me but there was now a difference. It seemed that I performed under duress. I had developed a look which conveyed defiance and disagreement. Mustafa was caught on the wrong foot. He had to reassess his strategy and evolve new tactics to cope with my diffidence.
It is she who had been courageous enough to follow these confrontations in her life and the all these works are inspired by the struggle and hardships of her own life. She was so fed up with her husband that she even fought physically with him on some occasions. There are some incidents narrated by her in the book when equally leveled her husband in aggression and behavior which Gulam Mustafa Khar never thought before.
She has tolerated many physical assault by him earlier by once when he tried to beat her by pulling her by the hair and swings her around as he use to before using his favourite threat to break every bone in her body, she attack him back by flinging at him the utensil full of steaming food that she was cooking on the stove. Feeling humiliated and also burnt he raises his hand again to beat her but realizing this she pushed him back and threatened to kill him by the knife in her hand.
As she says in her own words, There was power and conviction in my tone. The days of appeasement were over. I had declared war. She was a mute spectator of all his domestic violence which he inflicted even in the presence of servants, and irrespective of the opinions of her friends and relatives. There are many reasons behind her transformation into a courageous person and decision maker, among them one of the reason is her education in English medium schools and her experience of living in London.
She has endeavored to chalk out a path that evicts the misinterpretation of Islam. The new women of the sub-continent are now following the trajectory of resistance and empowerment. Though bound in a patriarchal marital discourse these women are trying to free themselves by challenging the technologies of subjection. There is a wrong interpretation in the world which is clearly reflected in the novel that Islam encourages suppression and subjugation of women.
They also popularized that all the rules and regulations regarding the subjugation of women is written in Quran, the holy book of Muslims. But this is totally wrong and its misinterpretation.
The Holy Quran is addressed to all Muslims, and for the most part it does not differentiate between male and female. Women have the right to divorce, to inherit property, to conduct business and to have access to knowledge. In marriages, Islam insists on the free consent of both, the bride and groom.
So girls forced to marry strangers against their will could even be deemed illegal under religious laws.
The Act of banning girls from school is forbidden in Islam, which all the conservative organizations including Taliban should know. Islam on the other hand encourages all Muslims, irrespective of gender to seek knowledge from cradle to grave, from all possible sources. In the present paper, I have tried to reveal the daring effort of the novelist who has dared to raise her voice against the religious hypocrisy present in the society and how the women are being subjugated in the name of a religion which gives equal rights to women as compared to her male counterpart.
References 1. Durrani, Tehmina. Ghazzali, Imam. New Delhi: Islamic Book Service Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala.