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INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM BY DR HAMIDULLAH PDF

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SYSTEM. OF. ISLAM. ٭AN INTRODUCTION٭. Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah The economic policy of Islam has also been explained in the. Quran, in most. By: Dr MuhammadHamidullah. Urdu Translation of this book has been published with the name Dae e Islam. Download / Read PDF File. Introduction to Islam [Muhammad Dr. Hamidullah] on echecs16.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM There has been a wide .


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Introduction to Islam,By: Dr MuhammadHamidullah. Series No. 1/a. INTRODUCTION. TO ISLAM. By. DR. M. HAMIDULLAH. NI. אאוארא. SH. MUHAMMAD ASHRAF. PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS & EXPORTERS. There has been a wide demand for a correspondence course on Islam. Tn response to this, a modest effort has been made with the help of several collaborator.

Life and Works of Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah was a prolific author whose imposing life in the field of writing was characteristically distinguished from other personalities and who devoted his life to religious and academic works and inspired many scholars for serving the cause of Islam. In modern times, it is also surprising enough for every scholar who observes the circumstances in which Dr. Hamidullah lived on one hand and the large number of valuable works produced by him about different subjects on the other hand with high academic standards. He has almost covered the whole range of Islamic studies in his writings and tried to explore true picture of Islam and its fundamental sciences. Although the dimensions of his works spread over all these spheres- theology, the holy Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh, Islamic History and culture, ethics, politics, economics but hadith, Fiqh, Sirah and Islamic History were his favorite subjects.

And here was-bern a descendant of the Babylonian Abraham, and the Egyptian Hagar. ReliGION 8. From the point of view of religion, Arabia was idolatrous; only a few. The Meccans did possess the notion of the One God, but they believed also that idols had tbe power to intercede witb Him, 4. They had preserved the rite of the pilgrimage to the House of the One God, the Ka'bah, an instltution set up under dlvlneinsplration by their ancestor Abraham, yet the two thousand years that separated them from Abraham had caused to degenerate this piJgrimage into the spectacle of a commercial fair and an occasion of senseless idolatry wbich far from producing any good..

SocIETY In spite of the comparative poverty in natural resources. Mecca was the most developed of the three points of the triangle, or the three, Mecca alone had a city-state, governed "by a council of ten hereditary chiefs who enjoyed a clear division of powers.

There were also ministers in charge of military affairs like custodianship of the flag, leadership of the cavalry, etc. As well reputed caravan-leaders. They also provided escorts to foreigners when they passed through their country as well 8S the territory of allied tribes in Arabia cf.. Ibn Habib, Muhabbar. Although not interested much in the preservation of ideas and records in writing, they passionately cultivated arts and letters like poetry, oratory discourses and folk tales.

Women were generally well treated, they enjoyed the privilege of possessing property in their own right, they gave their consent. They could remarry.

It was inthe midst of such conditions and environments. All biographers state that the infant propbct Bucked Qnly ODe breast or his foater-mother, leaving the other for the sustenance of his foster-brother, When the child was brought back home, his mother. Aminah, took him to his maternal uncles at Madinab to visit the tomb ofcAbdullab. During tho return journey, ho lost bis mother who died a sudden death. At Mecca, another bereavement awaited himJ in the death of his affectionate grandfather.

SUbjected to such privations. No other travel. Ibn Qutaibah, Ma'arif.. It is possible that Muhammad helped him in this enterprise also. By the time he was twenty-five. Muhammad had become well known in the cityfor the integrity of his disposition and the honesty of bls character. A rich widow, Khadijah, took him in ber employ and consigned to him her gocda to be taken for sale to Syria.

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Later, we see him sometimes in the fair of Hubashah Yemen , and at least once in the country of the tAbd al-Qais Bahrain-Oman , as mentioned by Ibn Hanbal. Pakistan , or Persia, of the East and tbe West assembled every. Foreign traders often brought their goods to Mecca for sale. One day a certain Yemenite of the tribe of Zubaid improvised a satirical poem against some Meccans who bad refused to pay him the price of what he had sold, and others who had not supported his claim or had failed to come to his help when he was victlmised.

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Zubair, uncleand chief of tbe tribe of the Prophet" felt great remorse on hear.. Young Muhammad became an enthusiastic member of the organisation. Later in life he used to say: This is substantiated by all his biographers. It may be stated that there were a few others in Mecca, who bad likewise revolted against the senseless practice of paganism, although con About the year 60S of the Christian era, the draperies on the outer wall of the Ka'bah took fire, The building was affected and could not bear the brunt of the torrential rains that followed.

The reconstruction of the Ka'bah was thereupon undertaken. Each citizen contributed according to his mesns; and only the gifts of honest gains were accepted.. Everybody participated in the work of construction. To identify the place whence the ritual of circumambulation began, there had been set a black stone in the wall of the Ka'bah, dating probably from the time of Abraham himself. It chanced that. Muhammad just then turned up there for wort: He was popularly known by the appeJlation of al-Amin the honest.

Muhammad placed a sheet of cloth on tbe ground" put tbe stone OD it and asked the chiefs of all the tribes, in the city to. Ilft together the cloth. Tben he himself placed the Stone in its proper place, in one of the angles of the buildiogJ and everybody was satisfied.

It is from this moment that we find Muhammad becoming more and more absorbed in spiritual meditations Like his grandfather, he used to retire during the whole month of Ramadan. The cave is called "Ghar-i-Hira' or the 'cave of research. There he prayed, meditated, and shared his meagre provisions with the travellers who happened to pass by.

He was forty years old, and it was the fifth consecutive year since his annual retreats, when one night towards the end of the month of Ramadan, an angel came to visit him, and announced that Ood had chosen him as His messenger to all mankind, Tbe angel taught him the mode of ablutions; the way of worshipping God and tbe conduct of prayar, He commueicated to bim the following Divine message: She consoled him, laying 1 t F or the.

The Prophet must have felt at first a shock. The DeWS of the first vision had spread and at the pause the sceptics in the city had begun to mock at him and cut bitter jokes. Tbey went so rlr as to say that God had forsaken him. During these years of waiting, the Prophet had given himself up 'more and more to prayers and to spiritual practices'.

The revelations were then resumed, and God assured him that He had not at all forsaken him; on the contrary it was He Who had guided him to the right path; therefore be should take care of the orphans and the destitute, and proclaim the bounty of God on him cr. This was in reality an order to preach. Later revelations, came in full wakefulness. The Prophet began by preaching his mission secretly first among his intimate friends. He invited men to'charity and beneficencc.

He took necessary step" to preserve through. This opposition degenerated in the course of time into physical torture of the Prophet and of those who had embraced his religion. These were, stretched on burning sands, cauterized with red hot iron and imprisoned with chains on their feet.

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Some of them. Dozens of Muslims profited by his advice, though not all. These secret flights led to further persecution of those who remained behind. The Prophet Muhammad called his religion Hlslarn," i.

Its distinctive features arc two: Every member of the tribe, Muslim and non-Muslim rejected the demand. Ibn Hisham , Thereupon the city decided on a complete boycott of the tribe: Nobody was to talk to them or have commercial or matrimonial relations with them.

Tbe group of Arab tribes, called Ahabisbt inhabiting the suburbs, who wert allies of the Meccans, also joined in the boycott.. An uncle of the Prophet, Abu Lahab, however left his tribesmen and participated in the boycott along with the pagans.

After three dirl Ylars, durin. At the same time, tbe document promulgating the pact of boycott which had been hUDg in the temple, wu found, as Muhammad had predtcted, eaten by white ants, thatspared nothing but the words God aod Muhammad. Another uncle of the Prophet, Abu-Lahab, who was au inveterate enemy of Islam. IbD Hisham, Slrah.

He sawiD a vision that he was reeeived'on heaven by God, and was witness of the marvels of the celestial regions. Islamic wor.. It may be recalled that in the last part of Muslim service of worship, the faithful employ as a symbol of their being in the very presence of God, not concrete objects as others do at the time of communion, but the very words of greeting exchanged between the Prophet.

Mubammad and God on the occasion of the former's mi'raj: I; The Christian term "comm union" implies participation in the Divinity. Finding it pretentious, Muslims use the term "ascension" tow.

The Prophet Muhammad tried to persuade one tribe after another to afford him shelter and allow bim to carry on his mission of reform. The contingents of fifteen tribes, whom he approached in succession, refused to do so more or less brutally, but he did not despair. Finally he met half a dozen inhabitants of Madlaah who being neighbour of the Jews and the Chrlstlans, had some notion of prophets and Divine messages.

They knew also that these "people of tbe Books" were awaiting the arrival of a prophet-sa last comforter. So these Madinans decided not to lose the opportunity ,of obtaining an advance over others, and forthwith embraced Islam, promising further to provide additional adherents. The following year a dozen new Madinans took the oath of allegiance to him and requested him to provide with a missioaary teacher..

The work of the missionary.. Mus'ab, proved very successful and be led a contingent of seventy These invited the Prophet and his Meccan companions to migrate to their town, and promised to shelter the Prophet and to treat him and his companions as their own kith and kin. Secretly and in small groups, the greater part of the Muslims emigrated to Madinah.. Upon this the pagans. It became now impossible for him to remain at home. It is wortby of mention, tb,at in spite of their hostility to his mission, the pagans had unbounded confidence in his probity, so much so tbat many of them used to deposit their savings with him, The Prophet Muhammad DOW entrusted all these deposits to "Ali, a cousin of his with instructlonsto return in due course to tbe rightful owners.

He then left the town secretly in the company of his faithful friend, Abu-Bakr.

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After several-adventures, they succeeded in reaching Madinab in safety. This happened in , whence starts the Hijrah calendar.

For the better rehabilitation of the displaced immigrants. The Iamiliee of each pair of the contractual brothers worked together to earn their Iivellhood..

Further he thought that the development of the man as a whole would be better achieved if he co.. The administration of justice became henceforward the concern of the central organization of the community of the citizens.

The document laid down principles of defence and foreign policy; it organized a system of social insurance, called ma'aqil, in cases of too heavy obligations. It recognized that the Prophet Muhammad would have the final word in all differences. It recognized also explicitly liberty of religion..

Muhammad journeyed several times with a view to win the neighbouring tribes and to conclude with them treaties of alliance and mutual help. With their help, be decided to bring to bear economic pressure on the Meccan pagans, who had confiscated the property of the Muslim evacuees and also caused innumerable damage.

A few months later, in the year 2 H. After a bloody encounter at Uhud, the enemy re.. The mercenaries in the Meccan army did Dot want to take too much risk.. About the time of'tne victory of Bade, one of their leaders, Ka'b ibn al-Asbraf; proceeded to Mecca to give assurance of his alliance with the pagans, and to incite tbem - to a war of revenge. After the battle of Uhud, the tribe or the same chieftain plotted to assassinate the Prophet by throwing on him a mill..

In spite of all this, the only demand the Prophet made of the men 01 this trib-e was to quit the M-adinan region, taking with them all their properties.

The exiled not only contacted the Meccans, but also the tribes of the North, South and East of Madinah. The Muslims prepared for a siege, and dug a ditch.

Although the defection of the 1ews still remaining inside Madinah at a later stage upset all strategy, yet with a sagacious diplomacy, the Prophet succeeded in breaking upthe alliance, andthe different enemy groups retired one after the other.

Alcoholic drinks, gambling and -games 'of chance were at this. The Prophet tried once more to reconcile the Meccans and proceeded to Mecca" The barring of the route of their Northern cara.. Thereupon the two contracting parties promised at Hudaibiyah in the suburbs of Mecca, not only the maintenance, of peace, but also the observance of ne utrality in their conflicts with third parties.

He addressed missionary letters to the foreign rulers of Byzantium, Iran, Abyssinia and other lands. A Muslim ambassador was assassinated in Sytia.. Palestine; and instead of punishing the culprit, the emperor Heracli us rushed with his armies to protect him against the punitive expedition sent by the Prophet battle of Mu'tab. The pagans of Mecca hoping to profit by the Muslim difficulties I violated the terms of their treaty. Upon this, the Prophet blmself led an army, ten tho usand strong, and surprised Mecca which he occupied in a bloodless manner.

As a benevolent conqueror, he caused the vanquished people to assemble, reminded t'hem of their ill deeds.. He asked them: Muslim property confiscated by the pagans, This produced a great psychological change of hearts instantaneously. When a Meccan chief advanced with a fullsome heart towards the Prophet, after.

The Islamization of Mecca, which was accomplished in a. With some difficulty the enemy was dispersed in the valley of Hunain, but the Muslims preferred to raise the siege of nearby Ta'if and use pacific means to break the resistance of this region.

Less than a year later, a delegation from Ta'if came to Madinah offering submission. But it requested exemption from prayer, taxes and military service, and the continuance of the liberty to adultery and fornication and alcoholic drinks. It demanded even the conservation of the temple of the idol al-Lat at Ta'if. You need not demolish the temple with your own hands: This act of the Prophet shows what concessions could be given to new. The conversion of the Ta'Ifites was so whole-hearted that in a short while, they themselves renounced the contracted exemptions, and we find tbe Prophet nominating a tax collector in their locality as in otber Islamic regions.

With these few incisions, the wbole continent of Arabia" with. During these ten years of disinterested struggle, all the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and the southern regions of Iraq and Palestine had voluntarily embraced r Islam. Some Chrlstianv.

Jewish and Pacsi groups remained attached to their creeds, and they were granted liberty of conscience as well as judicial and juridical autonomy. In the year 10 H,; when the Prophet went "to Mecca for Hajj pilgrimage , he met , Muslims there, who had come from diffe.. He addressed to them his celebrated sermon, in which he gave a resume of his teach..

The Quran and the conduct of the Prophet were to serve as the bases of law and a healthy criterion in every aspect of human life. He bequeathed to pcsterity, a religion of pure monotheism; he created a well.. In the matter of the revenues of the State, the Quran fixed the principles of budgeting.

The revenues were declared to be in no wise the private property of the head of the State, Above all, the Prophet Muhammad set a noble example' and fully practised all that he taught to others. Muslims have to believe in them", since the Qurao speaks tf them. Hut if they look to us as extraordlnary.. God honours them therewith: Again, the life of the Prophet Muha. And 90 on and so forth; and they have fiHed entire volumes, But the QllI'an himseU has to1d us to take heed of the teacbing and the practice of the Prophet.

A good Must:. They are intended only for the intetlectuatty under-developed, -. The miracles of a prophet arc intended for the mer.. In the commonplace material things of daily life" the evils of falsehood are obvious and acknowledged by all. Of course in:. An honest and reasonable man would experience no difficulty in judging whether a certain teaching is just and acceptable, or not. In matters of dogmas however what often bappens is that one judges first the person of tbe teacher prior to his precepts.

If he is found trust.. In such cases, the fact of the authenticity of his words lind of his teachings, particularly when Ihe teacher has died, becomes III the more imperative. It will be pathetic if, by some misfortune, one were to lose the original text of the revelation; the substitute could never be in entire conformity with what is lost, Tbe Brahmanists, Buddhists, Jews; Parsis, and Christians may compare the method employed or the.

Who wrote their books 1 Who transmitted them from generation to generation? Has the transmission been of the original texts or only their translations? Have not fratricidal wars caused damage to the copies of the texts? Are there no internal contradictions or lacunae to which references are found elsewhere? These are some of the questions that every honest seeker of truth must pose and demand satisfactory replies. But neither of these two means is infallible when taken separarely.

It ia a matter of daily experience that when one writes something and then revises it, one finds more or less inadvertent mistakes, omission of letters or even 'of words, repetition of statements, use of words other than those intended, grammatical mistakes.

The same is true of the faculty of memory" Those who have the obligation or habitude to learn by heart some text and to recite it later, especially wben it involves long passages, know that sometimes their memory fails during the recitation: The teachings of Islam are based primarily on what the. He himself dictated certain texts to his scribes, which we call the Quran; others were compiled by his companions, mostly on their private initiative, and these we call the -Hadith.

On each such occasion, be indicated the precise place of tbe new revelation in the text of tiU.. One eanaot admire too much, this precaution and care taken for accuracy, when one takes into consi.. It is reasonable to believe that the earliest revelations re..

These early portions were neither long nor numerous, There was no risk that the Prophet would forget them; since he recited them often in hi. Mission 8. Even at suck an early date there -existed written copies of certain chapters of the Quran, and as Ibn Hisbam reports. We do not know precisely tbe time since wbeD the practice of writing down the Quran began, yet there is littIe doubt that during the remaining eighteen years of the life of the Prophet.

The Prophet received the revelations in fragments. The revelations continued during the whole missionary life of Muhammad, thirteen years at Mecca and ten at Madinab. The Prophet concluded thereupon that be was going soon to depart his life, Whatever the spiritual meaning of his angelic aid to the Prophet, his Ccmpanions attended these public recitations called 'ardah, and the celebrated last presentation: Thus the Prophet used to revise in the fasting month verses and chapters and put them in their proper sequence.

This was necessary, because oftbe continuity of new revelations. Sometimes a whole chapter was revealed at a stretcb, at others fragments of the same chapter came continually, and this posed no problema. Tbe same was not the case if several chapters began simultaneously to be revealed in fragments suwor dhawa: In this last case one bad perforce to Dote them provisionally and separately on handy materials.

It is also known. This service of Tarawlh continues to be observed with great devotion to this our day. When tbo Prophet breathed his last, a rebellion was afoot in certain parts of the countcye Ia quelling it, several peopJe fell who knew the Quran by heart, The caliph Abu..

Bakr felt the urgency of codifying the Quran and the task was accomplished a few months after the death of the Prophet. Abu-Bakr charged this same gentleman with the task of preparing a fair copy of tbe entire text in the form of a book. Taere were then in Madinah several hafizes those who knew the wholeQuran by heart and Zaid was one. At the direction of the caliph, the people ofMadinah brought to Zaid copies of the various fragments of the.

Quran which they possessed. The sources declare authoritativeJy that only two verses were such 8S had a single. It was kept in his own custody by tbe ealipb Abu.. Bakr, and after him by his successor 'Umar. In the meanwhile the study of the Quran was encouraged everywhere in the Muslim empire.

Caliph 'Umar felt the need of sending authentic copies of tbe text to the pro.. One of his lieutenants having returned from far off Armenia, reported that he had found conflicting copies of the Quran, and that there were some times even quarrels among the different teachers of the Book on this account.

Wben the task was completed the caliph caused a public reading of the new "edition" beCore the experts pre.. He ordered the destruction of copies which in any way deviated from the text thus officially established. It is concei vable that the great military conquests of the early. Muslims persuaded some hypocritical spirits to proclaim their outward conversion to Islam, for material motives, and to try to do it barm in a clandestine manner.

They could have fabricated versions of the Quran with interpolations. The crocodile tears shed at the order of the caliph 'Uthman, regarding the destruction of unauthenticated copies of the Quran, could have been only by such hypocrites, It is reported that the Prophet sometimes abrogated certain verses that had been communicated to the people previously..

The copies made tater, on the basil of these annotated texts could sometimes have caused coafuslou in tbe matter of the text and the glols. Moreover, there existed different dialects iD different regions, and tbe Prophet had allowed the Muslims of such regions to recite in accordance with their dialects. This was just an emergeDt measure of 'Brace and clemency. By tbe time of the caliph 'Utbman.

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The Czarist government of RUssia bad pubIished thiB latter with a facsimile reproduction; and We see that there is complete identity between these copies and the text otherwise in use" The same is true of other ex: The caliphs and other heads. A happy coincidence haa furt,her. Muslims have been accustomed to read a work in the presence of its author or one of bis authorised pupils. Tbose who recited the Ouran by heart or simply read the written text, also acted in the same manner.

The habit has continued down to our own day, with this remarkable feature that every master iDdicates in detail in the certificate given by him not ooly tbe fact tbat the rcnderiDI of hi. The writer or these lioes studied tho Quran. Hasao asb.. The Dumber of hajizea is now counted in tbe world by hundreds of thousands and millions of copies of tbe text are found in all parts of the globe, And what deserve.

The original of the Quran was in Arabic.. Tranalatlons have been made in. It is to be remembered however that it is in the original Arabic language that tho text has come down to us, and there has been no need of retranslating into Arabic from lome later translation.

A text in the original language, a codification under the auspices of the Prophet himself. B continued preservation. As stated previously.. God is above all bounds of language.

We may in explanation employ the metaphor, that the prophets are bulbs, and the revelation the electric current; with the contact of tbe current, the bulb gives a light according to its voltage and colour. Tbe mother-tongue of a prophet is the colour of the bulb. The power of the bulb. The mystics have well explained that it is a travell ing of man towards God by means and through the word of God, the word of God being the higb road, even as the electric current is the road for light.

This is not an empty verbosity, In fact the Prophet Muhammad hag strongly recommended that one should read the whole of the Quran once a week. Tbis has led to its division into seven parts called manzils. Further the Quran bas chapters, called surats, each of which has a number of verses.

In Arabic manztt means a station after the day's journey; surat means a walled enclosure, a room; and the root Qwa, from which the word aayat is derived, means to go to bed. Station, room. The traveller undertaking a long spiritual journey has to halt in a station after the day's journey, requires a room and a bed to take rest before the further march the next day in this eternal journey towards the Eternal and Limitless!

Further, it seeks to guide man in all walks of life: It contains directions for the conduct of the head of a State, as well as a simple commoner, of the rich as well as of the poor, for peace as well as for war, for spiritual culture as for commerce and material well-being, The Quran seeks primarily to develop the personality of the individual: For this purpose, the Quran t only gives commands, but also tries to convince.

It appeals to the reason of man, and it relates stories, parables and metaphors. It describes the attributes of God, Who is one, Creator of ail" Knower, Powerful, capable of resuscitating us after death and taking account of our worldly behaviour, Just, Merciful.

It contains also the mode of praising God, of pointing out which are the best prayers, what the duties of man are with regard to God, to his fellow.. The Quran speaks or the best rules relating to soc tal life. It is a collection of revelations sent occasion by occasion - and thIS fact must be recalled ta the beginner - and one should therefore read it again and again in order to better grasp the meaning.

The diction and style of the Quran are magnificent and appropriate to its Divine quality. Its recitation moves the spirit of even thole who just listen to itt without understanding it. In passing. The challenge bas remained unanswered to this day. This tacit approval implies the permissibility of the conduct in question of the public. The Quran has reminded dozens of times the juridical importance of the Hadith: Tbus whatever the Holy Messenger commanded, it was, in the eyes of the community, the will of his Divine sender.

There have been cases when the Prophet, not having received a revelation. This internal process of the formation of the Hadith came only post eoetum to the knowledge of the communi t Y J and had no practical conseq uences. The' Quran is often succinct; it is in the practice ,of the Prophet that one must look for the method of application. An illustration in point is: The Quran has said only: Tbe Prophet also could not describe everything merely by words.

That is why one day be told the faithful ;'" 'Look at me, see how I worship, and follow me. The importance of the Hadith is increased for the Muslims by the fact that the Prophet Muhammad not only taught, but also took the opportunity of putting his teachings into practice in all the important affairs of Ilfe.

He lived for twenty-three years after rhis appointment aa the messenger of God, He endowed his community with a religion, which he scrupulously practised himself. He founded a State. He married" and left a model of family life.

His practice was therefore not mere private conduct, but a deailed interpretation and application of his teachings, 71" Muhammad, as a man, was careful in his actions and modest. As a messenger of God, he took all necessary and possible steps for the communication, as well as the preservation of the Divine message, the Quran.

Had he taken the samesteps for the preservation of his own sayings, he would have been ecnsidered by some as an egoist.. For this reason, the story of the Hadith is quite different from that of the Quran. There is a part of the Hadith, the very nature of.. There are some other documents likewile written by him before the Hijrah, but when he left his native town to settle in Madinah and found invested in himself the State authority, tbe number and the subject-matter of his Jetter.

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Shortly after his arrival in Medinah, be succeeded in establishingtbere a city-state" composed both of the Muslim and non-Muslim inhabitants; and he-endowed that State with a written constitution, in which he mentioned in a. This document has come down to us. The Prophet also delimited in writing the frontiers of this citystate. About the same time, be ordered a written census of the entire Muslim population, and al-Bukhari says, the returns showed 1. Moreover there were treaties of alliance and of peace, con..

Sometimes two copies of the treaty were prepared and each party kept one. Letters-patent were awarded extending protection to the submitting chieftains, and confirming their previous proprietary rights on land, water sources, etc" With the extension of the 1 slamic State, there was naturally certain amount of correspondence with provincial governors for communicating new Jaws and other administrative dispositions, for revising certain judicial or admini-strative decisions emanating from private initiative of officials.

There were also missionary letters sent to different sovereigns inviting them to embrace Islam t such as those despatched to the tribal chieftains in Arabia, emperors of Byzantium and Iran, Negus of Abyssinia and others.. For every military expedition, volunteers were raised; and written lists were maintainted.

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Captured booty was listed in detail to enable an equitable distribution among the members of the expeditionary force. The liberation as well as download and sale of slaves also seems to have been made by written documents. At least three such documents, emanating from the Prophet himself, have come down to us. An interesting incident may here be mentioned. On the day of the capture of Mecca in the year 8 H.

Tho Prophet had prescribed that every Muslim should celebrate his worship in Arabic. Certain Persians embraced Islam; and they did not want to put off prayer till the time they should have committed to memory the Arabic texts or chapters of the Quran.

With the approval of the Prophet. Salman al.. Farsi, a Muslim of Persian origin knowins: Tbey employed it lill they learned the Arabic text by heart. Works incorporating these kinds of documents of the time of the Prophet cover several hundreds of pages.. This was the famous SujJah which served as dormitory during the night and as lecture hall during the day for all those who wanted to profit by this facility.

In the year 2 H. These and other arrangements contributed to the rapid increase of literacy among the Muslims. It is Dot surprising that the companions of the Prophet grew ever more interested iD the preservation by writing of the pronouncements of their supreme guide.

Like every new and sincere convert, their devotion and enthusiasm were great. A typical example is tbe foHowing: When 'Umar worked; his companion visited the Prophet and reported to 'Umar in the evening all that he had seen or heard in the preseuce of the Pro. Thus both of them were abreast of what was passing around the Prophet, e. As to the written compilation of the Hadith, during the lifetime of the Prophet.

Tirmidhi reports: The Prophet rep ied: Take the ai d of thy ri ght ha nd i. A large number of sources al.. Tirmidhi, Abu-Dawud, etc. One day his com He replied! To be surer.. Even when thou art happy and satisfied. The Prophet said: Nothing that comes out of this mouth is ever a He,' "Abdallah gave his compilation, the name of "Sahifa Sadiqah" the book of truth. For severalgenerations it was ta ught and transmitted as an independent work; it was later incorporated into the larger collections of the Hadith compiled by Ibn Hanbal and others.

Ad-Darimi and Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam report: Once this same 'Abdallah had his pupils around him and somebody asked: Which of the two cities will be captured first, Rome or Constantinople?

He replied: The city of the descendants of Heraclius, ,,. This narration definitely proves that the companions of the Prophet were interested even during his lifetime in writing down b is very words. More important is the case. One of the rare Madinaos who could read -and write wben only ten years old" he was presented by his devoted parents to the Prophet as his personal attendant.

Anaa did not quit the company of tbe Prophet till he died. Remaining night and day in his house, Anas had the opportunity of seeing the Prophet and hearing from him that which was not practicable for others, It is Anas who reports the saying of the Prophet: If we insisted-anotber version;. The case is cited by numerous classical authorities" such as ar Ramhurmuzi d.. Khatib al-Baghdadi d. It was natural that tbe interest in the biography of tbe Prophet should have increased after his death.

His Companions left for the benefit of their children and relatives, accounts of what tbey knew of the Prophet. The new converts had a thirst for the sources of their religion. Death was diminishing daily the num her of those who knew Hadith 'at ,first hand; and this was an added incentive to those who survived, to pay closer attention to the preservation of their memoirs.

A large number of works were thus compiled on the say Of course that refers to the first hand knowledge. The Prophet Muhammad called his religion Hlslarn," i. IsIaX: was to be the religion of the m rsses and not merely of the elect. Every member of the tribe, Muslim and non-Muslim rejected the demand. Ibn Hisham , Thereupon the city decided on a complete boycott of the tribe: Nobody was to talk to them or have commercial or matrimonial relations with them.

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Tbe group of Arab tribes, called Ahabisbt inhabiting the suburbs, who wert allies of the Meccans, also joined in the boycott.. An uncle of the Prophet, Abu Lahab, however left his tribesmen and participated in the boycott along with the pagans.

After three dirl Ylars, durin. At the same time, tbe document promulgating the pact of boycott which had been hUDg in the temple, wu found, as Muhammad had predtcted, eaten by white ants, thatspared nothing but the words God aod Muhammad. Another uncle of the Prophet, Abu-Lahab, who was au inveterate enemy of Islam.

IbD Hisham, Slrah. Islamic wor.. It may be recalled that in the last part of Muslim service of worship, the faithful employ as a symbol of their being in the very presence of God, not concrete objects as others do at the time of communion, but the very words of greeting exchanged between the Prophet. Mubammad and God on the occasion of the former's mi'raj : "The blessed and pure greetings for God I-Peace be with thee; 0 Prophet, as well as tho mercy and blessing or God I-Peace be with us and with all the well-behaving servants of God!

I; The Christian term "comm union" implies participation in the Divinity. Finding it pretentious, Muslims use the term "ascension" tow. The Prophet Muhammad tried to persuade one tribe after another to afford him shelter and allow bim to carry on his mission of reform. The contingents of fifteen tribes, whom he approached in succession, refused to do so more or less brutally, but he did not despair. Finally he met half a dozen inhabitants of Madlaah who being neighbour of the Jews and the Chrlstlans, had some notion of prophets and Divine messages.

They knew also that these "people of tbe Books" were awaiting the arrival of a prophet-sa last comforter. So these Madinans decided not to lose the opportunity ,of obtaining an advance over others, and forthwith embraced Islam, promising further to provide additional adherents.

The following year a dozen new Madinans took the oath of allegiance to him and requested him to provide with a missioaary teacher.. The work of the missionary.. Mus'ab, proved very successful and be led a contingent of seventy These invited the Prophet and his Meccan companions to migrate to their town, and promised to shelter the Prophet and to treat him and his companions as their own kith and kin.

Secretly and in small groups, the greater part of the Muslims emigrated to Madinah.. Upon this the pagans. It became now impossible for him to remain at home.

It is wortby of mention, tb,at in spite of their hostility to his mission, the pagans had unbounded confidence in his probity, so much so tbat many of them used to deposit their savings with him, The Prophet Muhammad DOW entrusted all these deposits to "Ali, a cousin of his with instructlonsto return in due course to tbe rightful owners.

He then left the town secretly in the company of his faithful friend, Abu-Bakr. After several-adventures, they succeeded in reaching Madinab in safety. This happened in , whence starts the Hijrah calendar. For the better rehabilitation of the displaced immigrants.

The Iamiliee of each pair of the contractual brothers worked together to earn their Iivellhood.. Further he thought that the development of the man as a whole would be better achieved if he co.. The administration of justice became henceforward the concern of the central organization of the community of the citizens.

The document laid down principles of defence and foreign policy; it organized a system of social insurance, called ma'aqil, in cases of too heavy obligations. It recognized that the Prophet Muhammad would have the final word in all differences. It recognized also explicitly liberty of religion.. Muhammad journeyed several times with a view to win the neighbouring tribes and to conclude with them treaties of alliance and mutual help. With their help, be decided to bring to bear economic pressure on the Meccan pagans, who had confiscated the property of the Muslim evacuees and also caused innumerable damage.

A few months later, in the year 2 H. After a bloody encounter at Uhud, the enemy re.. The mercenaries in the Meccan army did Dot want to take too much risk.. About the time of'tne victory of Bade, one of their leaders, Ka'b ibn al-Asbraf; proceeded to Mecca to give assurance of his alliance with the pagans, and to incite tbem - to a war of revenge.

After the battle of Uhud, the tribe or the same chieftain plotted to assassinate the Prophet by throwing on him a mill.. In spite of all this, the only demand the Prophet made of the men 01 this trib-e was to quit the M-adinan region, taking with them all their properties. The exiled not only contacted the Meccans, but also the tribes of the North, South and East of Madinah. The Muslims prepared for a siege, and dug a ditch. Although the defection of the 1ews still remaining inside Madinah at a later stage upset all strategy, yet with a sagacious diplomacy, the Prophet succeeded in breaking upthe alliance, andthe different enemy groups retired one after the other.

Alcoholic drinks, gambling and -games 'of chance were at this. The Prophet tried once more to reconcile the Meccans and proceeded to Mecca" The barring of the route of their Northern cara..

Thereupon the two contracting parties promised at Hudaibiyah in the suburbs of Mecca, not only the maintenance, of peace, but also the observance of ne utrality in their conflicts with third parties. He addressed missionary letters to the foreign rulers of Byzantium, Iran, Abyssinia and other lands. A Muslim ambassador was assassinated in Sytia..

Palestine; and instead of punishing the culprit, the emperor Heracli us rushed with his armies to protect him against the punitive expedition sent by the Prophet battle of Mu'tab.

The pagans of Mecca hoping to profit by the Muslim difficulties I violated the terms of their treaty. Upon this, the Prophet blmself led an army, ten tho usand strong, and surprised Mecca which he occupied in a bloodless manner. As a benevolent conqueror, he caused the vanquished people to assemble, reminded t'hem of their ill deeds.. Muslim property confiscated by the pagans, This produced a great psychological change of hearts instantaneously.

When a Meccan chief advanced with a fullsome heart towards the Prophet, after. The Islamization of Mecca, which was accomplished in a.

With some difficulty the enemy was dispersed in the valley of Hunain, but the Muslims preferred to raise the siege of nearby Ta'if and use pacific means to break the resistance of this region.

Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah - Introduction to Islam

Concept of God 3. If one should judge from the relics of the past already brought to light of the homo sapiens, one finds that man has always been conscious of the existence of a Supreme Being, the Master and Creator of all. Methods and approaches may have differed, but the people of every epoch have left proofs of their attempts to obey God. Communication with the Omnipresent yet invisible God has also been recognized as possible in connection with a small fraction of men with noble and exalted spirits.

Whether this communication assumed the nature of an incarnation of the Divinity or simply resolved itself into a medium of reception of Divine messages through inspiration or revelation , the purpose in each case was the guidance of the people. It was but natural that the interpretations and explanations of certain systems should have proved more vital and convincing than others.

Every system of metaphysical thought develops its own terminology.