Exercise 5. Write in Shorthand. He paid Joe COpe to take the boat. Take the cocoa to the page on the boat. Take the page to the oak. He towed the boat to the . echecs16.info echecs16.info It is the widest collection of steno books, reviews, documents. a fuller grasp of Pitman's Shorthand system if he now studies. MODERN COURSE IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. In this book, the rules are explained at greater.
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Find Book. LESSON LESSON-1A. LESSON-1B. Lesson-1C. LESSON LESSON Lesson LESSON LESSON LESSON LESSON LESSON- 9. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have NATIONAL SHORTHAND SCHOOL (BOOKS) Pitman's Shorthand Online Tutorial. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page
The reason they have attachments is that, as the system developed in its early days, more strokes were required than were available from the straight lines at various angles and segments of a circle. Therefore various unused combinations were made use of, e. Ray was given initial hooks to make Way and Yay, which were originally shown by the small semi-circle and the downstrokes that we now use for Rer and Ler; the combination S-CHR, not occurring in English, was used instead for downward Hay, the H sound originally being represented by only the aspirate dot and the upstroke that is now used for Yay. Sometimes choice is made for vowel indication. This is the sound in "measure". Initial hook for "instr" Halve and thicken for Nd.
Putting them in at every opportunity is not a helpful habit if you wish to attain good shorthand speed — the two are incompatible. I would suggest breaking the words up — this gives the advantage that you can place both parts in position to indicate the vowel.
If you think you might have to read back. This is also relevant for many words where it is not settled in usage whether it is one word. It is up to you how much to vocalise. Adding or omitting unattached vowels is a choice that is left to the writer. If you always write in all the vowels. Phrasing is an extremely useful tool. If the outlines are the same. The vowels will help you read it back. Some scientific words are differentiated only by the vowel e. Such outlines should also be as full as possible and not make use of short forms.
Each pen lift approximates to writing a stroke. You should make lists of such vocabularies in your line of work and decide where you need to consistently insert the vowels.
In the heat of rapid dictation. Dear-Sirs Thank-you for-your-letter that-we-have- re ceived yest erday - ev en ing yours-si n cerely Tick "the" is always joined and therefore it always makes a mini-phrase. Context does not help with proper names. Phrasing is generally for sets of words that are frequently found together.
You know it is not the dictionary outline. Compile your own lists as you come across them. It is normal nowadays to just use the word "outline" to cover any shorthand ink line. As long as the. Understanding requires intelligence but no great effort and is infinitely better than memorising. They are also necessary to insure the system against the inevitable distortion of handwritten outlines versus the drawn perfection on the textbook pages.
The ink line forming the phrase was called a "phraseogram" in the early days of shorthand. Producing the minimum number of rules or the slimmest possible textbook is not a priority in New Era.
The system is geared to having the best possible outlines for high-speed writing and reliability. The basic outline-choice scenario: The rules are really just a way of describing how the outline choices were made. Seeing a page thick with rules can be very daunting.
When writing shorthand. For the learner. Some textbooks advise knowing all the rules and applying them perfectly in order to write good and fast shorthand. If you need to make up an outline during dictation. Shorthand outlines are visual and further learning and consolidation should concentrate on that. To aspiring high-speeders they are a never-ending toolbox for further creative abbreviation.
If you have an understanding of why the choices of outline were originally made. They enable you to spot a bad combination simply by instant mental comparison with known good outlines.
Perusing the rules is for when you are sitting in your armchair at home. Every shorthand writer does this when correcting a dubious outline that has been dashed off.
When you are out and about using what you have assimilated. You do not need to know all the niceties of the theory when first learning. Until the publishers see fit to reprint Pitman's Shorthand dictionaries and bring them up to date. Z-Z - Ses poses persist Circle Sw. Other than Circle Ses. In this respect the Circle S differs from the R and L hooks which generally represent a compound consonant e. When used medially. Circle S is written: When this occurs. PL and PR.
The outline gives no indication of this. L Hook: Do not let your small hooks grow in size and get confused with the larger hooks Shun.
Circle S. Both are thus indicated. Davey Davey's A medial Circle S does not indicate a hook purely by its direction. Dave Dave's. In many cases a medial hook can be shown as well. On a straight stroke.
Joe's John's N: Should such a combination appear in a new word or name. The presence of the stroke N lets you know there is a vowel. Medial circles use the direction that is most convenient. The stroke can then be vocalised. Top of page When not to use Use the stroke Ess or Zee when: Jews Jewess. More examples of NS verses NZ: The shorthand has partly solved this problem in a similar manner. Shorthand does not always preserve the basic outline when forming derivatives.
The circle is used to represent both in order to preserve the general shape of the outline and to allow its consistent use for plurals and genitives: The longhand has solved the problem.
Suggestion for advanced writers: You cannot adopt any such method if you wish to teach shorthand! An initial Z sound has to use the stroke. As always. Such idiosyncracies should be strictly limited by necessity.
Two initial S sounds should be shown with the full stroke Ess followed by Circle S. Circle Ses is never used at the beginning of an outline. This makes an easier outline and logical derivatives. Circle S plus stroke Ess is generally preferred. Do not be misled by words like those below. The outlines are distinctive with Circle Ses. The derivatives will generally keep the stroke Ess. It would be good practice to omit the singular vowel. As the words are generally spelled identically.
This method is useful for many pairs of words where the nouns and verbs have different syllables accented. When written medially it is impractical for it to be followed by a hooked stroke. My personal suggestion is to replace the vowel — the position of the cross lets you know what the vowel might be. You should ensure that the cross does not look like a diphthong or diphone: See Theory Vowels page for how to vocalise Circle Ses.
In brief. Circle Sway can be combined with R hook to straight strokes. The vowel that follows it is placed against the stroke.
When used with stroke Ell. People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them. Someone who is swayed might be a swayee? If you lived in the town of Swaye. Top of page When not to use: Use Circle S on stroke Way: If such a word arose. Swahili In some words the S and W.
Do not be tempted. Use Circle S and medial semicircle W where it is not convenient to use stroke Way: Homeswell Harmsworth Do not be misled by longhand spelling: See Theory 2 Vowels page for vowel placement for strokes that have loops.
Write on the same side as Circle S: Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle S. If the stroke is halved. Ensure it is closed so that it does not look like a hook. Dot "con-" can precede the loop: A medial stee loop never crosses the outline. The R Hook is used in these cases because the vowel before the R sound is indeterminate: There is no vowel between the N sound and the ST: There is always a vowel sound between initial Stee loop and the stroke.
Stee loop is not used: If there is a vowel before the last S. The hooked form is used because the vowel is unaccented: If there is a vowel before an initial ST or after a final ST: Kwa or Gwa Cannot be written on a Shun Hook: It is not used on halved or doubled strokes. Placement and use Write on the same side as Circle S: This is a large loop. Ensure the loop is closed that it is does not look like Shun Hook.
Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle Ses. The following are not doubled strokes. There is no vowel between the N and the Ster: I have based this on "ancestor" yester but yesterday contraction. Gloucester Gloucestershire. These unused combinations may be employed when creating hook may serve to represent a whole word e. Shel etc.
Hooks are used to indicate the sounds of R. Attempting to lear alone is not advised and will lead to errors in their use. Shun for "association". Where alternative forms ar Thee. They are similar size to C up. Bee bray blow bone rubber able Tee tray ton bottle utter Dee draw done paddle adder. Chay satchel chain pitcher Jay cudgel badger Jane Kay crow clay cane Note the stroke starts acre on the line.
L is a large hook inside the beginning of the stroke. As hooks are never written outside the curve, the difference has to be shown by having a larger hook:. Sher is always written downwards and Shel always upwards, so they can never be mistaken for each other:. There appears to be no word that contains ZH-L with an slurred vowel, but should one occur, it would never be written upwards, as it is a thick stroke. That combination of sounds would probably is best written using the full stroke Ell.
Vowels are always placed outside the hook. This is never shown and the outline is fully correct without it. With the R hook, this is generally the "-er" sound equivalent to 2nd place light dot , hence the 2nd position of the outline.
See Intervening Vowels on Theory 2 Vowels page for fuller explanation:. Such vowels are indicated somewhat differently from normal, by circles and intersected dashes, and their placement. In many words the second syllable starts with a consonant. As no vowel needs to be written between the syllables, using the hook results in a briefer outline:. Care with "per-" needs to be taken, because there are many similar words starting with "pre-" and "pro-". Some combinations of consonants never occur in English without a vowel inbetween, so the hook may safely be used to obtain a briefer outline, as it will not clash with any other words:.
Unlike Circle S, the presence of a hook in the middle of a stroke does not affect the correct placement of a third place vowel against the second of the 2 strokes. This is because, although the hook is written between the strokes, the R or L that it represents is spoken after the stroke, i.
Reversing is used:. The reversal is not a mirror image, either vertically or horizontally, but the "mirror" is along the stroke's own angle of formation. They cannot clash with Ar Rer Ess Zee because of the presence of the hook — see zither below which has both strokes together.
Thel does not take right curve form. Most words with that combination use stroke Ell see below. No known examples of the voiced THel.
Derivatives that add another stroke retain the form if possible: If all else is equal, the right curve is preferable, because it then matches the R hooks on straight strokes, thus helping overall legibility:. This matches with the L hook on straight strokes. Distinguishing outlines: This includes those with a "dot con-". Derivatives There is normally an effort to preserve original forms in derivatives. Top of page Suffixes -ful and -fully The suffix "-ful" and "-fully" are normally written the same as the single words: For "inflationism" and "inflationist" a non-dictionary right-curve would be more legible.
Any contraction decided upon must not clash with "revaluation". In some cases using the hooked stroke gives a better outline and the final vowel inserted if thought necessary: Some dialects in UK pronounce a hard G in words like these but this is not taken into account in Pitman's Shorthand: Gay or Kay with L Hook is used: A slight exaggeration of the size of the hook is unavoidable if the hook is to be seen at all.
The pen should flow into the hook smoothly with no undue effort at making a sharp angle. Do not curl the end of the hook round in an attempt to make it look like the normal full hook: Such expedients will keep the outline readable: On no account should the pen be lifted from the paper. It is safe to elongate the Circle S. In most cases the hook is easily accommodated: This allows you to see how the word breaks into its natural syllables.
An R or L sound after them will use strokes. Gwa cannot take an initial R or L hook because because they already have an initial attachment. An R or L sound after them will use other strokes.
F and V are the least common sounds of all the hooks and. Rer do not take an initial R or L hook. The hook signifies either F or V and context is required to ascertain which one is meant. Their initially hooked forms are "borrowed" by F V Ith Thee as a reversed form. An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N.
Syllables generally have their own stroke. In practice you will omit most vowels and the remaining consonant structure of the outline generally lets you know where the syllables break and where the vowels are: This mostly occurs in past tenses with the suffix "-ted" and "-ded": If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction.
Note compound words: The stroke is read first. Top of page Halving and doubling The stroke is read first. A third-place light dot vowel would be appropriate. It is easier to remember if you think of the hooked stroke as being halved or doubled: Dan dance dances danced dove doves. This also applies to words that are not derivatives but share the same consonant structure.
The instances of such phrases are few but the usefulness gained is worthwhile. Where the syllable after the N F or V is unaccented. This goes against the rule for the order in which the elements are read — the rule is always observed within a word. Derivatives Derivatives will not always retain the N hook of the primitive outline. Dan Danny. Dave Davey cough coffee.
Thus the existence of a final vowel is indicated without actually writing it: Ben Benny. Bev bevy tune tuna. In these cases using stroke En is the only option and therefore does not indicate a following vowel: N hook is used: After a curved stroke. Stee or Ster loop after the N sound. As such words are not plurals. As the direction of a medial circle is decided by convenience only.
NZ sound: These need extra care to write clearly and it is helpful to exaggerate the length of the hook and the flattened circle see also explanation of R Hooks in middle of outline which have a similar formation: Using stroke N in such cases does not necessarily signify a following vowel: Ing to show that there is a vowel before the Ell. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the L hook on curved strokes: Inside curves As with other hooks to curves.
It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the hooks in Kwa and Gwa. Balancing the outline takes precedence over rules b and c: If the attachments at each end were on the same side. The Shun Hook can be written on either side of a straight stroke. The hook is written on the opposite side of the preceding vowel.
The end of the hook is level with the end of the stroke: Dee or Jay. To "convert" them all would create clashes.
Its representation in phrases is however normal theory that you will find in instruction books although the Circle S in the phrases is representing the first S sound i. The Circle S may end up slightly flattened into a small loop but should be kept small. The Shun Hook to should not be allowed to sprawl.
Imagine these pairs written less than neatly and without vowels: The S sound seems to be preferred when there are two SH's in the word. For the SH-NT sound. Note that the halvings above only represent D.
T sound often slurring to CH: The following words use the Shun Hook despite the triphone. This occurs naturally in English when there is no vowel between e. There are a great number of such short words in English and as these outlines contain minimal information when unvocalised. Top of page c Final hook If there is a final hook. The T or D is spoken after the hook sound: It might be easier to remember thus: This allows many past tenses to be formed without changing the form.
Top of page Words of more than one syllable a General rule is that halving can represent either T or D. The more strokes or attachments that an outline has.
As a rule outlines with similar sounds have similar outlines and do not show differences based on what part of speech it is although some clashes do need to be dealt with by having distinguishing outlines: Some to provide distinguishing pairs: You cannot just add stroke Dee to the end of the existing outline. Some because. Ray halved for T is never used standing alone. If hooked. The two outlines "cowhide" and "go-ahead" seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.
Retain the form in derivatives wherever possible: Top of page Extra care with straight strokes: If written perfectly. As the examples above are different parts of speech.
If you write extremely small outlines. They are always written downwards. Stroke Eld cannot have any attachments if standing alone. Stee Loop or W-sign. Ard is able to take an initial Sway Circle. Ing may be halved if hooked for R. The lightly sounded K sound that comes inbetween the two is omitted: Ing plus T or D needs to have the full stroke added. They can do this because.
Keeping both words in their normal form is more legible: The three places of the vowels are closer together along the stroke.
Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke. I am unable to b Either word of the compound ends in T or D The compound word as a whole is treated the same as a word of more than one syllable. One of the words may end up halved. Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato First up or downstroke of outline is halved The first up or downstroke is the one that is placed in position to match the vowel. Do not raise the outline up further to get other strokes off the line: Any downstrokes following it may end up going through the line.
Note that the hook is being used to indicate another complete word. In such cases inserting the last vowel should be considered. If no clear angle can be made.
Use full strokes: The lack of somewhere to put a vowel sign would imply that there is no vowel to place. This generally occurs where a medial T or D sound is followed by a Circle S. Exceptions are made on an individual basis to gain a more facile outline. Note that it is the last stroke that is halved. In everyday shorthand the vowels are omitted and so the disjoined strokes can be written closer to the rest of the outline: There is no choice but to use a halved stroke En.
Medial hook to produce a join: The past tense is shown also with each example: Compare with: This also allows derivatives to match. Vocalisation is often easier. This is especially important as context cannot help. This improves legibility. Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal. Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution. Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle. Doubled strokes are not quite so straightforward as normal length strokes to place in position: Downstrokes all go through the line.
This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning — there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end. Doubling is not used when the vowel is an accented one. It is possible to start first position outlines higher up. Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position i.
Top of page Straight Strokes A doubled plain straight stroke looks identical to two of the same stroke in succession see below. As its vowel is slurred. A final circle S can also be added to any of the outlines and is spoken last of all: The plurals use a hooked stroke.
Top of page rector director recruiter tractor stricter instructor propagator instigator allocator alligator electoral ejector projector objector banqueter nectar indicator protector protractor.
No thickening is needed for the D sound. Unlike straight strokes. But ladder leader alder alderman elder elderly But lather leather loather Lowther Top of page If the Ell has attachments or preceding strokes.
As there is never a vowel after it. There are thus two versions for the same sound: As it is a short form. Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. As the latter are less common. Top of page Two straight strokes A doubled straight stroke is the same shape as two of the same stroke in succession.
Top of page In Phrases Doubling can be used in phrases for "there their other dear". I am sure there is. I think there is. When not to use No attachments: If a straight stroke has none of the required attachments.
Peter repeater butter rebutter bitter arbiter biter backbiter cutter hedgecutter stonecutter daughter granddaughter brother stepbrother leather washleather cheater windcheater gather ingather. Strokes of unequal length must have a clear angle of join. The initial circle at the beginning of Hay does not count as an attachment as it is an integral part of the stroke: Do not use when the syllable has an accented vowel — the full strokes are needed in order to have somewhere to write the vowel sign: Top of page.
Top of page Exceptions natural central eccentric interpret tartaric cylindrical to match cylinder cylindriform Top of page Triphones: Final vowel: Do not use when a final vowel follows — full strokes are needed to provide somewhere to write the vowel.
Generally not used for -ture: If there is no R sound in the syllable. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand. Harry Harrow hurry hairy hero harass Harris Harrison horizon horizontal heron Huron heresy heretic. Take care that "hydraulic" and "hydro-electric" are not read for each other. Only a few words use this: Use when the H sound is the only consonant in the word: Highbury highflyer high-priest highroad highway high-seas.
Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke. The circle part of the Hay is written anticlockwise diagram below: It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it. The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray. Upward Hay is generally used before Ray. Harvey harvest harvester hurl hurled harsh. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone.
The form offered here. This rule is the same as that for the use of Circle S versus stroke Ess. This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H — if there were a vowel before the H.
Vocalisation should be considered. Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke: You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase: If you omit the vowel sign. Blackheath loophole pinhole manorhouse This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e. Note the exact placement of the Dot Hay: The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke.
It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised. The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless. The list is not exhaustive: The stroke Hay still goes through the line because the first sounded vowel is a third place one.
This hook is only used for inh. These two outlines have been corrected 14 April hetero. Most use halved downward Hay: Highland but Holland hoe hoer one who hoes but hoar. Tick Hay cannot be used: The use of such an abrupt change of direction is always kept to an absolute minimum in the rules of Pitman's Shorthand. Compare the following: Bohemia beseech.
Whichever method is used to write the Hay. An additional stroke in the outline makes it clear which direction the strokes were written: See also note on Theory 10 Halving "extra care straight strokes" Top of page When not to use Silent longhand H is not represented in Pitman's Shorthand: Stroke Way Initial semicircle. The outline uses whichever method produces the easiest outline to write and read.
As stroke Way has an initial hook as part of its basic form. In the first two. The order of reading is like a Circle S: Sometimes called "abbreviated W". As the R is thus omitted.
A vowel on that side counts as coming after the Ar: It represents the W sound plus the following vowel sound. Harrell The initial semicircle may be followed by a diphthong.
If in doubt. This is the same direction as the short forms "what" "would" which are both dash vowels. This is the same direction as the short forms "with" "when" which are both dot vowels. For the compound words. The medial semicircle is occasionally called the "W diphthong" in some older books. As it requires some thought to decide when it is safe to use the medial semicircle instead of stroke Way. The resultant outline must be unambiguous even when the semicircle is not written in.
I have given the root word in the "compare" line. Norwich pronounced "norrij" betwixt PA memoir reservoir boudoir abattoir. In compound words the semicircle stays with its own word, which means that a first or second place vowel may end up moving forward to the next stroke. This allows the outline to reflect the words that the compound word is made from, making the outline more legible:. Several of the TW outlines using the medial semicircle need distinguishing from similar outlines and so it would be safer to always insert the semicircle in those:.
The longhand convention of writing the letters "Wh" for the sound of HW should be ignored when forming shorthand outlines. Shorthand instruction books describe the strokes Hway and Hwel as representing "WH" and "WHL" which is referring to longhand and not to the sounds.
It is better to associate the strokes with the sounds they represent, and treat the longhand spelling as a separate matter entirely. Even though many people do not pronounce the H, you should still learn the different forms because of their usefulness in providing distinguishing outlines and because the longhand still needs to be spelled correctly regardless of popular pronunciation. Outlines should be consistent and not change to reflect people's differing pronunciation.
This is not an additional hook to give an additional sound. It is therefore best to learn the stroke as a whole without mentally taking it apart into its constituent sounds. Strokes Wel Hwel These are basically the upward Ell stroke with an initial hook.
The hook, representing the W or HW sound, is read first:. These two strokes are therefore not compound consonants. These two hooks add their sound to the Ell in the same way that Circle S adds its consonant before a stroke i.
Wel and Hwel cannot clash with a downward Ell plus N hook or Shun hook because the latter are never written alone — they follow a stroke and so the direction they were written in is always clear:. These strokes include the W sound and are best learned as a whole stroke to represent the compound consonant. A first place vowel goes outside the hook, same as for normal size hooks:. There are a few words that make better outlines by using the medial semicircle for the KW sound, and with most of them it is seldom necessary to write in the semicircle:.
If a vowel comes before the W or HW sounds, then strokes Way or Hway must be used, as you cannot write a vowel to a hook:. If the word starts with a vowel, then stroke Way must be used, because you cannot write a vowel to the semicircle. Seeing stroke Way where you might expect to see the initial semicircle lets you know that there may be a vowel before it, thus improving legibility when vowels signs are omitted: The aim is to keep related words looking similar, and have distinctive outlines for words that may have the same consonant structure but a different spread of vowels or different derivation.
This is not a top priority rule, but a useful one that increases the legibility of unvocalised shorthand and applies right across Pitman's Shorthand, not just the W forms:. Pondering word derivations and outline choices is out of the question during dictation, but as long as your outline reflects the sounds spoken, you will be able to transcribe correctly. Whichever form of W is used in the basic outline, this may change to one of the other methods when the word becomes part of a phrase or compound word.
The main consideration is the ease of the join, producing a speedy and reliable outline, but the resultant outline must be easy to read back, even when vowels and unattached signs are omitted.
It is seldom necessary to insert any of the unattached semicircles when writing phrases, but they are shown in some of the examples, so that you know where the signs belong. The verb "will" in phrases is represented by a plain upward Ell and the semicircle is not necessary — it is always very clear what is meant and to insert it would defeat the purpose of the phrase. I will. The phrase "men and women" is common enough to remain unvocalised.
They also need to have a semicircle at all times. When "will" is used as a noun. We can trust Worthy to do the job. We arrived last week. His last weak excuse was not accepted. Making an awkward join. In the second of each of the sentences below. Writing a longer outline or two outlines is far preferable to hesitating and losing the next few words. I saw the cat-walk. This person is trustworthy. Even in longhand there is often a question over whether to write something as two words.
I saw the cat walk. Top of page Distinguishing outlines for place names. It behaved like the W semicircle — sometimes joined initially to certain strokes. In those cases it does not come under any of the above headings. Prior to the Centenary version of Pitman's Shorthand in Cornhill Cornwall Names and place names are best vocalised whenever possible.
Short Form Why This sign is unlike any other. Longhand often uses the letter W to indicate a long vowel. Alp alpine lapse elapse leap lupin Paul pale ball bill lab label elbow tall tally tile tale towel latte lattice lettuce lad led dale dull idle idol ideal like lake lick slick silk sulk elastic kale keel coal cool log leg.
Continue curve An initial or final Ell is written downwards in order to continue the motion of the preceding curved stroke. With certain strokes. To continue the direction of curve of the preceding or next stroke. An initial downwards Ell cannot take an initial circle or loop. Make a legible join with the next stroke in the outline. Note the placing of the vowel signs against the Ell: This may necessitate ignoring the rule of similar motion.
Some of the words naturally fall into pairs e. In such cases it is behaving similarly to stroke Chay. Vowel indication only occurs in cases where both directions of Ell are equally convenient. It also has he added advantage that the outlines are less likely to be confused with all the "in-" and "un-" words: This does not produce an ideal join to the Ell shallow angle. Jay is allowed.
Presumably the thickness of Jay helps readability despite the poor join compare with "unlatch" below. Such a join is avoided where possible by using Hook L. Los Alamos adolescence convalescence opalescence coalescence Halesowen halcyon hallucination. Los Angeles.
Top of page d More instances of maintaining similar motion elusive elusively illusive lascivious lucific fossil facile fussily fizzle faceless voiceless nervously fusil fusel-oil vassal vessel vaseline vacillation vastly mischievously conversely aversely adversely Eversley everlasting thistle Methuselah Thessalonians thusly. Ell used in phrases for "will" is normally upwards.
Special outlines London Londoner Londonderry but generally thus: Landon Linton After small Shun Hook. Clear join with preceding or next stroke Downwards Ell does not always make a good join with the following stroke.
For compactness: With some of the words beginning "-un" this has the incidental advantage of retaining the outlines they are derived from: Vowel indication. For initial and final Ell. Vowel indication never occurs medially — medial Ell is chosen only for convenience and to a lesser degree to show derivatives.
When the Ell is attached to another stroke. Downward Ell standing alone never takes a hook. Val vale vole vowel compare volley villa viola Evelyn level Lovell revulsion compare lovely Clovelly revolution scale skull skill scowl scholastic compare scaly Scully Note that the SK above has no vowel between.
If there is a vowel between. Normal upwards Ell is used. This seems to happen when there is a long vowel preceding: Only an extra final dot is needed: Note also short form coldly.
Such words generally do not come in pairs like "full fully" and so similar motion is the only issue: It is always helpful to insert the final vowel sign if the outline itself does not show whether there is a final vowel or not. A small number of words with halved strokes take a downward Ell to achieve similar motion with the preceding curve.
Top of page Derivatives Some derivative outlines may change the direction of the stroke Ell. Keeping derivatives similar to the original is useful but is never done at the expense of a flowing and reliable outline: Distinguishing outlines fatal futile.
In those cases the Ell is repeated. This means that the negative is still obvious even when no vowels are written in: This section on negatives points up the necessity for shorthand writers to have a good grasp of how English words are formed and their meanings.
These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page. Top of page Joined vowel signs Some initial vowel signs are joined to the stroke Ell: It is it is only used where a downward Ell would normally be used. No vowel may come after the stroke. The short form includes the L sound. No vowel sign is required for the unaccented vowel within it. This is the same liberty that is being taken when the first place "I" diphthong is joined to the end of the stroke e.
The vowel in stroke Ler is unaccented. No vowel comes between the L and D sounds. The stroke Ld is always written downwards. With the derivatives. When there is only one stroke in the outline: Vowel before. It is helpful to insert the 2nd vowel for these: Tee Dee: When the R is followed by another stroke: Note righting.
Kway Gway: Pee Bee: Eff Vee: Download the free PDF version of all the necessary books to get started learning how to read the symbols. The actual textbooks, however, are invaluable for teaching the correct size and placement and being able to trace the symbols while learning.
Plan to devote two hours every day to learning stenography at home. This would be the same amount of time as a student taking the class at school, one hour of class time and one hour of practice at home.
It will take about 10 months to learn Gregg Shorthand if two hours every day is devoted to study and practice. Start your home study with the Gregg Shorthand textbook and the Fundamental Drills workbook. The Anniversary edition is good for general office dictation while the Simplified edition is designed for court reporting. The Fundamental Drills workbook coordinates with the Anniversary edition.
Decide which direction you will be writing if you are left-handed. The speed is faster when writing from right to left because the hand is moving away from the body. Stay with whichever form you choose so your notes always will be readable. Refer to the Most Useful Shorthand Forms book when you have difficulty reading some of the shorthand symbols.
This book is a shortened version of the Gregg Shorthand Dictionary. Both are excellent references that stenographers use throughout their careers. Read the Gregg Shorthand Fables to increase your reading speed and understanding of stenography.