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Kozinets () Netnography - Doing Ethnographic Research Online (1) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Of course, this. guide to doing ethnographic work on online communities in the field of consumer and marketing research. As the author de- fines it, “netnography” is a form of ethnographic research, adopting . /volumes/8/3/ [June 1, ]. Delia D. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online-Info, Free Book . If you want Chapter 1 all to yourself, you can download a pdf of it by just clicking here.

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PDF | On Jan 1, , Robert V Kozinets and others published Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online by KOZINETS, ROBERT V | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | On Mar 1, , CAMILLA VÁSQUEZ and. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online by KOZINETS, ROBERT V Atkinson sets the sults of research in—and methods of—foreign stage for the.

Shelves: text-non-fiction , sociology , 5-stars , read , academic , research , published The book was well-organized, aiming to address what netnography is about and the necessary considerations one needs to weigh before engaging in netnography. Definitely a go-to text for me as an undergrad working on her thesis. Kozinets also included a list of helpful resources related to the various topics at the end of each chapter which I think is a plus. Describing our struggle with consent forms in "Asking permission in public from the public". Explaining Netnography as "The new, thrilling area of human interconnection". A variation on ethnography in which the community studied is an online community.

The glossary summarizes terms and concepts used in the book and in the field of online community studies, as well as the occasional unavoidable acronym.

This chapter will now provide some further elab oration upon the need for the separate ethnographic approach termed netnography. The debate benefited from the insights of a number of commenters, especially those of Jerry Lombardi, an applied anthropologist with considerable marketing research experience.

Although Jerry initially questioned the need for yet another neologism, eventually he wrote about the utility of the term netnography in eloquent and historically-grounded terms. If we were having this discussion in at the Royal Society, I might be questioning why we need that new-fangled term, ethnography, when, say, comparative moral philosophy or manners and customs of the savages still work perfectly well.

Let us try those on our business clients! The worlds of research and intellectual innovation are strewn with neologisms that mightve sounded odd or wrong when brand-new: cybernetics, psycholinguistics, software. So yes, new mappings of reality sometimes call for new names, and sometimes the names take a while to settle in.

There are a few key considerations we can think about when asking whether we need a special new designation. The first and foremost is whether we are talking about something that is actually, significantly, different. In this particular case, we need to ask of the conduct of cultural research in the contemporary world of the Internet and other ICT: is it really different?

This book suggests that it is. Chapter 4 explains in greater detail these differences, but the key assertion here is that the online social experiences are significantly different from face-to-face social experiences, and the experience of ethnographi cally studying them is meaningfully different.

Kozinets () Netnography - Doing Ethnographic Research Online (1) | Ethnography | Anthropology

As later chapters will also explain, there are at least three differences in ethnographic approach. First, entering the online culture or community is distinct.

Doing research pdf ethnographic netnography online

It diverges from face toface entre in terms of accessibility, approach, and the span of potential inclu sion. Participation can mean something different in person than online. So does the term observation. Secondly, gathering cultural data and analysing it has partic ular challenges as well as opportunities that are new.

The idea of inscription of fieldnotes is radically altered. The amounts of data can be different. The ability to apply particular analytic tools and techniques changes when the data are already in digital form.

The way the data need to be treated can be different. Finally, there are few, if any, ethical procedures for inperson fieldwork that translate easily to the online medium. The abstract guidelines of informed consent are open to wide degrees of interpretation.

If we can agree that these are significant differences, then we should also agree that it may be useful to provide ethnography with a different designation. That name certainly does not have to be netnography. The term ethnography has been applied to online communities and culture for well over a decade. Over this time, different researchers have used different terms to describe what it was they were doing. Shelley Correll simply called her study of a bulletin board system an ethnography, perhaps signalling that the method remained unchanged whether you used it to study Trobriand Islanders or lesbians interacting through an online bulletin board.

Annette Markham and Nancy Baym also used the term although Markham and Baym appear to have opted for the more general term quali tative research. The implication, perhaps, is that ethnography is already known as a flexible and adaptable approach. Ethnography is ethnography, prefixing it with digital, online, network, Internet, or web is entirely optional.

In her important and influential book, Christine Hine called her online community study a virtual ethnography, with the virtual intended to signal an effort that is necessarily partial and inauthentic because it only focuses on the online aspect of the social experience, rather than the entire experience.

In recent years, I have seen many new names given to the method of online ethnography, including webnography, digital ethnography, and cyberanthropology. More neologisms can and no doubt will be invented. Although certain procedures need to be decided on a contingent basis, and extreme detail in some matters is beyond its scope, this book is specifically aimed at filling that gap.

It is also important to note that qualitative research is blessed with an evergrowing range of techniques all related to one another and thus to ethnography. These include but are certainly not limited to such innovations as the extended case method, discourse analysis, structural ethnography, holistic ethnography, auto ethnography, ethnomethodology reflective phenomenology, and participatory action research see Miles and Huberman ;Tesch When an approach is, arguably, significantly different from existing approaches, it gains a new name and becomes, in effect, a discipline, field, or school in and of itself.

In my view, the pragmatic and applied approach to ethnography followed by corporate anthropologists is significantly different from the approach of academic anthro pologists and thus merits its own guidelines and perhaps the coining of its own distinct name see Sunderland and Denny We need not coin these names. But we have already been doing so. Scholars producing ethnographies of online cultures and communities are rapidly minting their own names for their idiosyncratic methods.

Yet, when we read a webnography, network ethnography, or a digital ethnography, for example, what do we know about its preferred approach or its standards of evaluation? What do we know about the way it combines online data with in-person data?

Should these papers be judged in the same way or differently from other works that label themselves as online ethnographies or virtual ethnographies?

How many different terms do we need? In consumer and marketing research, we have generally adopted the use of the single term netnography to refer to the approach of ethnography applied to the study of online cultures and communities.

Most of this type of work written after the term was coined in uses the guidelines and techniques that have been published about the netnographic approach. Different scholars have suggested adap tations, for instance, of netnographys ethical standards. Some other scholars have opted to use those adaptations, and cited the adaptive work.

Others have not. On the whole, the system has worked quite well. This successful development of procedures and standards has led to a situation where the toptier journals are all receptive to netnographic submissions. They know which reviewers to send it to, what citations to look for, how to evaluate it. If the method is reputable, then the reviewers and editors can concentrate on the utility and novelty of the theoretical findings.

That is the role played by methodological standards in the conduct of normal science. Standards and procedures are set and, as terms regarding them fall into common usage, these standards make evaluation and understanding clearer.

Social scientists build an approach that, while maintaining the inherent flexibility and adaptability of ethnography, also has a similar sense of procedural tradition and standards of quality. For the new field of online community and culture studies, having a set of common standards will confer stability, consistency, and legitimacy. Rather than con fusing those who are interested in the topic with a fallen Tower of Babel of a dozen or more different names for a perhapssimilar approach, following one technique, one set of guidelines or explaining how one is deviating from it, improving upon it, and where this contributes to our methodological understanding will provide muchneeded clarity and consistency.

If we wanted to compare different studies, we would know that, if they used closely related methods, their findings are probably comparable. Along the way. She details a number of ways that sociability and dissent are managed in the community. My hands take the most punishment. Her study demonstrates and also explains the ability of people interacting online to use language in order to create a genuine sense of online com munity. I clench my teeth. She also lists and explains various acronyms and computer commands she had to master in order to navigate this early online environment.

It is a profoundly textual journey. Markham theorizes about the practices. Speech routines. In Ljfe Online the result of her own intense experiences as a heavy Internet user University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee professor Annette Markham also offers a detailed ethnographic account of linguistic practices and collective formations man ifesting through CMC. The term consumption is intended to be interpreted with considerable flexibility.

In a virtual world such as Second Life. Danet examines the convergence of playfulness. There is an apparent developmental progres sion from lurker to newbie to regular. Her ethnography suggests that the online community experience is mediated by impressions of real-world locations as well as by the unique contingencies of computer—mediated communications.

Each of these valuable books is noteworthy for its thorough breakdowns and descriptions of the developing systems of meanings and practices that we can observe as online community members build and share their cultures. We may be able to better understand membership identification and participation by studying these two non-independent factors. Her rich visual examples. Based on her observations in this site. The first considers the relationship between the person and the central consumption activity that they are engaging in.

Another idea is that the members of online communities have two main elements bringing them together. How deep. Social networking sites operate under the assumption that affiliations are already pre—existing.

Netnographer and consumer researcher Kristine deVaick Virtual worlds like Second Life are structured so that social intercourse is the primary pursuit and objective. In that case. Blogs can be a bit more impersonal in their communal forms. This category of consumption interest centrality is correlated and interrelated with consumption proficiency.

There is not an online communal form that we will deal with or mention in this book where deep and meaningful personal relationships cannot be built. It is also important to note that these two factors will often be interrelated. If she has broadband Internet access. Are these people considered to be merely somewhat—interesting strangers. The second factor concerns the actual social relationships of this particular online community itself.

Because the activity is so important to them. This is a measure not only of self-identification. In its basic form. They are the fraternizers of these communities. Newbies lack strong social ties to the group. Devotees reverse this emphasis: Newbies are the first of the four types. Minglers come next. Insiders are those who have strong social ties to the online — — The top—left diagonal depicts the interactor reaching into the community from other communities that are highly engaged with the consumption activity usually from in-person venues.

Generally speaking. Participation can move from a factual and informational type of exchange to one. We cannot actively observe their participation. The final diagonal is at the bottom-right of the diagram. The lurker has the potential. The point of the networker is to build ties between different online communities.

Lurkers feed into the community. The other two diagonals reflect interrelationships with other kinds of communi ties. The diagonal dimension indicates various relationships. Makers are active builders of online communities and their related social spaces. This contact might come from another community that is totally unrelated in terms of content.

At the other extreme are those who have developed their social and consumptionfocused skills and connections to such a high level that they become central to the community or even form new communities of their own.

Or it could come from a related community that seeks to link up and exchange ideas with. This diagonal stretches out from the top-right corner.

At the lower left diagonal is the much-recognized category of the Lurker. Particular virtual worlds. Online locations that are known to have and create very strong social ties between members.

They can also vary from those that are oriented strictly around a particular activity. As we have already noted. Social networking sites SNS interest groups. I have seen more of these online communities grow from website forums. With all due respect and I do mean this sincerely. Another is the open source software community. A good example of a Building community would be the Niketalk forum devoted to in—depth discussions. The mode of interaction in these types of communities is informational as well as relational.

A third type of online community would be the online gatherings where the sharing of information. Transformation is most often actively pursued by insiders. They reveal the enormous diversity of online groups. These categories mingle and for many participants become recreational and even. They reveal how our human relationships. Social networking sites. Many newsgroups. Ethnographies of online communities and cultures are informing us about how these online formations affect notions of self.

The modes of interaction on these communities are predominantly informational. Although blogs. Studies such as this one underscore the utility perhaps even necessity of studies of online gatherings to help reveal additional nuances to our understanding of existing cultures and communities.

Studying the role of the Internet in the lives of a group of technologically proficient. They tell us about the promotion of cultural transformation. Many of these ethnographic investigations. We lurk in. It is somewhat surprising that more anthropologists have not conducted online ethno graphies.

He further elaborates that there is a surprisingly complex and dynamic relationship between skinhead culture online and notions of race and racism. Williams and Copes They reveal tensions between commercial orientations and power structures online and the communal forms that they promote. Online communities are widespread phenomena.

She relates cyberculture to the postmodern notion of the fragmented. In one anthropological investigation. In their study of an edgy. Campbell studies skinhead culture online. When we go online. The computer. There are a number of important theoretical and practical implications to the fact that participants can use these sites to engage in voice and resistance efforts out side of the formal boundaries of various types of organizations such as human resource departments or labour unions.

Because of online communities and ICT. They describe a paradox in which the Internet is both liberating and constraining in the lives of those partaking in this particular community of practice. Kozinets and Sherry also studied these tensions between communities and the commercial organizations of wider society in the setting of the Burning Man festival and its all—year—round online community.

Gossett and Kilker undertook a study of counter institutional websites.

Online pdf research doing ethnographic netnography

They do this in an anonymous and supportive envi ronment that offers them a reduced fear of retribution or termination from their jobs. Another important theme is that of the interrelationship between commercial and marketing institutions and the communities that they foster. Kozinets identified several core tensions between the stigmatized Star Trek and media fan communities. In this respect cyberspace is no longer distinct and separate from the real world. Kanayama asserts that elderly Japanese people beneficially partake in online community interactions with one another in a variety of ways and use diverse linguistic formats such as emoticons and haiku.

It is part of everyday life. She also recounts the interesting combination of realistic and fantastic elements that allow for rich and playful online communication to arise.

Online communities even appear to be changing the nature of work and work relationships. They assert that these sites enable and empower individuals to publicly and anonymously voice their work-based frustrations. Whitty also explores the widely reputed aspect of disembodiment online. Demonstrating that the use and importance of online communities are not limited to the young or middle—aged.

She suggests that. Her study. Carter advances the argument that some people are investing as much time and effort in online relation ships as they are in their other relationships.

In her study of relationships and friendships online. Along these lines. This factor creates. He depicts gay Internet portals openly courting the gay community online with promises of inclu sion and an authentic communal experience.

Robert McDougal suggests. He suggests that. It is also the case that online community participation seems to weaken the influence of existing local cultures and their embedded practices. Bolanle Olaniran A salient point is raised by Olaniran He notes that: The communication implication is that members must develop a new set of norms that is unique to their particular group.

An early study concludes that environmental organizations became more politically active because of the Internet and online communities Zeiwietro Olaniran The longer—term implications of this delocalizing trend for local communities and traditional ways of life are far from clear. Campbell and Carlson This will help you evaluate these approaches before we proceed to the chapters that introduce.

European Management Journal. Annette N. The Social Net: Human Behavior hi cyberspace. The following chapter overviews and compares various research methods used to understand the social world of online communities and cultures. Communication Research.

Ethnographic inves tigations teach us about the varieties of strategies and practices used to create a communal sense and also teach us about the varieties and substance of online community participation.

Thousand Oaks. Interpersonal Processes in Electronic Groups. Joseph B. Nancy K. Log On: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space. Recent developments in ethnographic online research reveal how much online communities are changing notions of the self.

Walnut Creek. Robert V. Oxford University Press. In contemporary academia. Question-centered guidelines help the researcher integrate these approaches with one another and with netnography. The focus and research domain of each method is compared. This is unfortu nate. Creswell Many methods are complementary with netnography. Collecting and analysing those data. My general advice to scholars is to read in an area of scholarship that interests you.

The method you choose to do your research should depend upon the nature and scope of your question. These techniques can also help to tell other researchers who will come later what are the most interesting constructs and relationships.

Despite what anyone might tell you. The guiding advice here is that your research method should be directly related to provide data and analysis capable of answering the research question that you want to investigate. Consider that the conversational data flowing through the Internet are composed of various numerical bits riding wires between various distant servers.

Sudweeks and Simoff It is this matching process between approaches and questions that should interest netnographic researchers. The explanations that follow. Creswell complicates the neat division between qualitative and quantitative research. Ask your self: As thinking becomes more developed about some of these topics.

It can only be better at studying a particular phenomenon or at answering particular types of research questions. In a new or constantly changing field such as Internet studies. It attaches itself to and incorporates a vast variety of different research techniques and approaches. Surveys have been useful for providing an initial overview of the area of online communities, from which we have been able to discern largescale patterns.

Once researchers have determined adequate categorizations and clas sifications, surveys can assist in understanding how popular and even how valid these categorizations might be. Surveys can also be used after online interviews in order to confirm or verify particular kinds of local understanding. How many people read blogs? How many use online communities to learn about a hobby? How often do people check with their online communities? All of these questions require survey research.

The application of surveys using web-pages or other online formats is called the online survey method. Online survey methods have grown rapidly in the last decade Andrews et al. From practically a standing start, online surveys have become the major method for investigating a wide variety of social questions. Online surveys are an excellent way to gain a particular kind of understanding about online communities and culture.

There are two kinds of online surveys salient to this discussion. The first are surveys that deal with online commu nity topics, and reveal to us aspects of online community and culture. The second are sur veys that deal with other topics not directly related to online communities or cultures, but which study topics using or among members of an online community.

Let us talk about the latter, more general, type of online survey first. Whereas the traditional mail or telephone survey excluded a lot of potential researchers from large— scale data collection Couper , online surveys are far more accessible and easyto-use. For example, the online service SurveyMonkey. The service is also currently free to use for students or others doing small-scale samples. It has been very popular with students in my courses. Research by Watt even demonstrates that the cost per respondent can decrease dramatically as the online sample size increases, something that does not happen with any other form of survey.

In terms of accu racy, research thus far indicates that the results of online surveys seem not to differ significantly from the results of postal surveys, but offer strong advantages in distrib ution and turnaround time Andrews et al.

Online surveys are unique. They have distinct characteristics such as their technological features, the particular demographic characteristics of the groups they survey on the Internet, and the particular patterns of respondent responses. The Pew Internet Reports are valuable sets of data that help us to under stand the rapidly changing world of online activity They are the results of survey research. Many researchers interested in the overall complexion of the Internet and its online cultures and communities employ these data.

They use them in order to understand the frequency, popularity and changes in the activities of people as they interact and communicate online, use blogs, and utilize social technology tools. These survey—based studies also illuminate interesting patterns of usage by different demo graphic groups, such as men and women, different ethnic groups and races, and different ages and generational cohorts.

Similarly, repeat surveys of online panels such as The Digital Futures Project are useful as tracking studies enabling us to discern changing general patterns in online community usage.

The Spectator category encompasses 48 per cent of online adult Americans, two-thirds ofJapanese online adults and those in large Chinese cities, and 37 per cent of online adult Europeans Li and Bernoff , p.

According to Forrester Research, 18 per cent of the adult online population in the United States, 10 per cent of European adults online, and an amazing 38 per cent of South Koreans online are Creators, the backbones of many online communities Li and Bernoff , pp. These survey—derived global statistics reinforce the widespread nature of online community participation.

Surveys about the world of online culture and communities provide answers to questions about adoption, usage patterns, usage preferences, and demographics. Online surveys are therefore good for research on online cultures and communities in which you want to: Online and other surveys can help answer research questions about online cultures and communities such as: How many people around the world participate in online communities? Do men participate in online communities more than women?

What are the most popular online community activities?

Netnography doing ethnographic research online

How many people in Finland log on to a virtual world daily? How much time do teenagers spend using e—mail versus social networking sites? How many people plan to meet someone they met through an online community in the next year? Surveys are not particularly appropriate for research that must: That, however, is a big difference. In the physical world, the topic of interviewing is so intertwined with the conduct of ethnography that the two are virtually inseparable.

So it is with netnog raphy and online interviewing. The online interview has become a staple of online ethnographic research, present as part of the method from the very beginnings of work in this field e.

Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online

In this chapter, 1 will overview the conduct of online depth inter views. Although, as we will see in the next few chapters, it is possible to conduct a purely observational netnography, the recommended participant—observational stance very often dictates an interview component online or off. Bruckman , p. Although I agree that synchronous, text—based, chat interviews tend to offer a very thin and often rather rushed and superficial interaction, I believe that other online means such as e—mail, and of course online audio and audio visual connections, are extremely valuable see Kivits Chapter 6, which examines netnographic data collection methods, will feature a detailed discussion and set of guidelines to help plan and conduct interviews.

Online interviews have traditionally been hindered by the lack of individual identifiers and body language. Who, exactly, am I speaking to? Barring some way to contextualize the social and cultural data beyond the self—evident fact of the online encounter, the data can be difficult to interpret. In Chapters 6 and 7, we will discuss these issues and provide some strategies for dealing with them. Conducting an interview through your computer means that your communi cations are going to be shaped by the medium you use.

Studies seeking to under stand the subjective impact of Internet connectivity can also collect documents from research participants. These documents often take the form of diaries or jour nals in which participants record day—to—day or even hour-by—hour events, reflec tions, or impressions of experiences. For example, Andrusyszyn and Davie describe the interactive journal—writing study they undertook online. The online format of journal writing or diary keeping has several inherent advantages.

Participants can be reminded or prompted automatically for their entries. Entries can be automatically saved. As well, participants can enter their journals in a form that is easier to read than handwriting, and in computer—readable text form. Many of the advantages of online interviewing can also pertain to the data arising from online diaries or journals.

Depending on your research focus, you may or may not need the sort of detailed, open—ended, descriptive, reflexive personal understanding that can be gained from journals or depth interviews. As with in—person ethnography, a simple in situ conversation, or a quick exchange of information, might suffice to inform your research question. As with research in general, the recommended type of interview is going to be determined by the type of data that are required.

For the type of nuanced cultural understandings of online social groups that are usually sought in a. Online depth interviews are appropriate for research on online cultures and communities in which you must: Depth interviews allow netnographic researchers to broaden their understanding of what they observe online. Online interviews can help answer research questions about online cultures and communities such as: What are the most common metaphors that people in Norway use to understand online culture?

What impact do the stories that people hear in online communities have on the way that they connect with their spouse? Interviews are not necessarily useful when you want to: Most online ethnographers in cultural studies. In this way. Members of the focus group might see each other. The group could be moderated in order to prevent one or two people from dominating the session as often happens in the face—to—face settings.

Online focus group interviews have become popular in the last five years. Gaiser considered some of the opportunities for method ological innovation with online focus groups. In addition it could be quite similar to a series of personal depth interviews conducted in sequential or even parallel fashion. Focus groups are a popular form of qualitative research used to gather opinions and perspectives rapidly as an input for industrial or governmental decision-making.

Software is now readily available for online focus group interviews.. Kozinets a. Cherny The dynamic group interactions of a focus group create challenges for moderators as well as interesting research findings. A majority of research studies using focus group techniques have used asynchro nous methods. The ability to conduct question-and-answer sessions in asynchronous fashion with the group is. The online medium also offers the focus group moderator new flexibility.

Jenkins The focus group conducted through teleconferencing software has been heralded as one of the major trends in focus group development Greenbaum and the procedures for conducting them have been honed by a number of commercial marketing research companies.

Other important conclusions about synchronous focus group interviews are that: Hughes and Lang offer a range of useful methodological guidelines for online focus groups.

These patterns are quite familiar. It may be at this point that these methods begin to shade subtly one into the other. Baym The online focus group session can be staggered in time.

In an early exposition. An asynchronous posting of a set of questions to a group is also a common technique in netnography. METHODS and 5 the method requires technologically literate and keyboard-skilled participants who may not always be available or appropriate Hughes and Lang Examples of ties would include sharing information.

In a netnography. This understanding would be based upon significant quantities of qualitative data gathered from a focus group comprised of specific. A group of people who are connected by particular social relationships.

Wellman This data collection can happen quickly. Netnography tends to be more concerned with the naturally occurring interactions of online groups rather than those of artificial groups that are assembled by researchers for the purpose of some particular investigation.

In social network analysis there are two main units of analysis: A network is composed of a set of actors connected by a set of relational ties. They can be used to learn about the norms.

Unlike online depth interviews. The actors. Mann and Stewart There is. There are many opportunities for synergies between the structural analysis of social networks and the more meaning—centered analysis of netnography.

Social networking analysts seek to describe networks of relations as fully as possible. Netnographers also consider those resources. Carton et al. The fol lowing offers a necessarily brief overview to the adaptation and integration of social networking techniques into netnography. Netnographers need not adopt social network analysis techniques in their studies.

The interested researcher should. Over the last 30 years. Social network analysis thus deals in relational data and. Wellman et al. Wellman has been one of the key figures. Examining a computer network that connects people together as a social network. Its unit of analysis is the relationship.

Social network analysis is structural. Public profiles of individuals or their pseudonyms. This provides a representation of the overall structure of relations. One approach is to survey either an entire group.

These questions can also be automated. Although incomplete. These questions can be limited to certain groups. In studies of whole networks. It is certainly possible for software to collect the data about everyone that a person contacts online. Unrestricted studies can reveal the different communities and cultural groups from which particular people draw particular cultural and informational resources.

We could also conceivably study the online coffee connoisseur community as one whole network. The second descriptive approach.

Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online-Info, Free Book Chapters, and More

Because the consideration of group boundaries is so critical. Multiplex ties are more supportive. Two actors could have a tie based on a single relationship such as belonging to the same American Idol—discussing mailing list. There are several different kinds of centrality. In general. A central actor in this context is truly in the middle of things. Eigenvector centrality measures how much a node is connected to other nodes that are also tightly connected to one another. One important measure to netnography is centrality.

This pair could also have a multiplex relationship based within a number of differ ent relationships. Relations refer to the resources that are exchanged.

There is a range of interesting units of analysis used in social network analysis. An example might be people who are regular visitors to the same blog. It focuses on measuring how many other actors a particular actor is in direct contact with.

It is worth noting that these judgements tend to depend upon the cultural situation of social actors whether information is important or trivial is a cultural determination of value. Social network analysis helps us learn about how social networks manifest through computer network connectivity.

The more influence an actor has over the flow of information. Multiplexity is one of the properties of social ties. Figenvector centrality is more concerned with power and influence than popularity. To understand the relationships created by these ties. The strength of ties can be operationalized depending on the type of community.

Peers may communicate more or less frequently. Degree centrality looks at the most popular active actors in a network. Haythornthwaite The automated capture of data can raise concerns about data manage ment. Online commu nities and community networks can also help weak ties grow into strong ties. Other uses include managing social activism and grassroots campaigns. Online communities appear to be able to help tip latent ties into weak ones. Can you believe there is anything else? You must have a serious trust problem, then.

Because there is. I just got the email today from Harriet Baulcombe at Sage. In the last couple of months we have incorporated Google books into our website, so from just before publication onwards, visitors to the site have the option to search inside the book in addition to downloading a pdf of a selected sample chapter. You can already see an example on our website.

As soon as the book is released, at the end of January, we will switch the restriction back on. Yep, lucky, lucky you. You will get a chance to read Netnography: The Book online before it is released. On Google Books. What could be cooler uh, probably a lot of things…? The book is due to be released at the end of January, and at the point, the free Google Books access to the book will end.

Oh, sad, sad day. But by then, you will be hopelessly addicted to it. Wildly dependent on it. Blog this, Facebook and Tweet it. Tell the world, people, tell the world!

Okay, enough incredible news. Get busy.