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Before my presentation of Bhagavad-gétä As It Is, almost all the English editions of .. We shall find, therefore, in this Bhagavad-gétä that the complete whole is. The Bhagavad Gita: the original Sanskrit and an English translation /. Lars Martin Fosse. .. complete editions of the Mahabharata itself. As noted earlier, it. Bhagavad Gita the great devotional book of Hinduism. Gita is a most important spiritual classics. Download Bhagavad Gita as a PDF and audio podcast here.
Contents[ edit ] For each verse, the book in complete editions includes the Devanagari script, a Latin transliteration, word-for-word Sanskrit - English meanings, and English translation. In the narrative, Lord Krishna has descended to earth to aid Arjuna in his battle against Kauravas and their army. Lord Krishna assumes the role of Arjuna's chariot driver and aids him in the battle and reveals to Arjuna several divine truths about human existence in the material plane, the true nature of the supreme personality of God, and the method of eternal progression and release from the earthly cycles of death and rebirth through the practice of bhakti yoga. The narrative teaches that achieving Krishna consciousness and attaining the inner realization that all life is a manifestation of the eternal energy of Krishna will release an individual soul from the cycles of reincarnation and death and rebirth. The narrative culminates with Krishna revealing to Arjuna his universal form which encompasses all life and material existence. One notable event in the narrative is when Arjuna gazes at the opposing army of demons and sees his relatives fighting for the demonic army, he is filled with grief and remorse that he must kill his own flesh and blood.
According to Upadhyaya, the Gita states that none of these paths to spiritual realization are "intrinsically superior or inferior", rather they "converge in one and lead to the same goal". Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23—40, that is 6. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with verses has not been found.
Since Shankara's time, the " verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin.
The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war". He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield.
The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts.
Arjuna, one of the Pandavas Krishna, Arjuna's charioteer and guru who was actually an incarnation of Vishnu Sanjaya, counselor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra secondary narrator Dhritarashtra, Kuru king Sanjaya's audience Chapters[ edit ] Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters section 25 to 42  [web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata.
Because of differences in recensions , the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same.
Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga. Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war.
With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel.
Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". He sees family and friends on the enemy side.
Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. Top: Bengali script ; Bottom: Gurmukhi script.
The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person Self , universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts.
This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action karma , since abstention from work is also an action.
Every man or woman is bound by activity. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad.
Whatever the result, it does not affect them. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. Arjuna questions how Krishna could do this, when those sages lived so long ago, and Krishna was born more recently. He unsuccessfully planned several foul plots to kill the Paandavs and take away their kingdom.
He unlawfully took possession of the entire kingdom of the Paandavs and refused to give back even an acre of land without a war. All mediation by Lord Krishna and others failed.
They had only two choices: Fight for their right as a matter of duty or run away from war and accept defeat in the name of peace and nonviolence.
Arjuna, one of the five Paandava brothers, faced the dilemma in the battlefield whether to fight, or run away from war for the sake of peace.
Every human being faces dilemmas, big and small, in their everyday life when performing their duties. This discourse was narrated to the blind king, Dhritaraashtr, by his charioteer, Sanjaya, as an eyewitness war report.
Whatever a person does or thinks ought to be done for the glory and satisfaction of the Maker.
No effort or cost is necessary for this process. Do your duty as a service to the Lord and humanity, and see God alone in everything in a spiritual frame of mind. One should always remember that all works are done by the energy of nature and that he or she is not the doer but only an instrument.
One must strive for excellence in all undertakings but maintain equanimity in success and failure, gain and loss, and pain and pleasure. A scripture, being the voice of transcendence, cannot be translated. Language is incapable and translations are defective to clearly impart the knowledge of the Absolute.
In this rendering, an attempt has been made to keep the style as close as possible to the original Sanskrit poetry and yet make it easy to read and understand. An attempt has been made to improve the clarity by adding words or phrases, within parenthesis, in the English translation of the verses. A glossary and index have been included.
One hundred and thirty-three key verses are printed in pink for the convenience of beginners. We suggest all our readers to ponder, contemplate, and act upon these verses. According to the scriptures, no sin, however heinous, can affect one who reads, ponders, and practices the teachings of Gita any more than water affects the lotus leaf. The Lord Himself resides where Gita is kept, read, chanted, or taught.
The Gita is the knowledge Supreme and the sound embodiment of the Absolute and the Eternal. One who reads, ponders, and practices the teachings of Gita with faith and devotion will attain Moksha or Nirvana by the grace of God.
This book is dedicated to all the gurus whose blessings, grace, and teachings have been invaluable. It is offered to the greatest Guru, Lord Krishna, with love and devotion.