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PDF | In this paper I present an overview of the spectrum of available online English language dictionaries, and then offer some general. PDF | On Jan 1, , Robert Lew and others published Online dictionaries of English. Our range of over dictionaries, thesauruses, and language reference works caters entries, OED Online offers unparalleled access to 'the greatest.
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There have been attempts at issuing periodicals in the Vlach variety, but they have failed in the long run. The visitors of several Vlach forums use their native vernaculars, most of whom transliterate them with the help of the Cyrillic alphabet, but there are no standards. In spite of the lack of documentation about the Vlach variety, the standardization of the Vlach language is currently taking place, a process accompanied by intense debates, partly due to the fragmentation of the Vlach community, and partly to the delicate political context2.
Further, the document claims that, despite the fact that the language of the Vlachs of Serbia is an idiom dialect which resulted from the Balkan Latinity, partly from Romanian and partly with influences from non-Romance languages, it is specific enough to be considered the mother tongue of the Vlachs. The authors of the Proposal… also mention the fact that the Vlach language is comprised of two dialects: As its authors suggest, the Vlach writing must be based on well known graphical solutions, namely on the equal use of the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, and must correspond to the linguistic and phonetic features of the Vlach language.
Thus, two systems of writing were adopted: The Cyrillic Vlach writing comprises 34 monographemes from the Serbian Cyrillic and one digrapheme, dz. The Latin Vlach writing comprises 31 monographemes and four digraphemes: Bucharest insisted that before getting the candidate country status, Serbia had to improve the situation of the Vlach minority. After the signing of a bilateral agreement at the ambassadorial level, providing for the better protection for the Vlach minority in Serbia, Serbia was granted full candidate country status on March 1st.
The Vlach on line dictionary VOD Concurrently with the official attempts at standardization of the Vlach language, another lexicographic project started in mid Thus, according to the ethnic instinct and ethnic consciousness, the Vlachs belong to the Romanian people, but according to the national consciousness, they are Serbs.
Or more picturesquely said, as the author of the Compendium The author thinks the specific ethnic mimicry of the Vlachs is the reason why the results of population censuses from Serbia are never precise as far as the number of Vlachs is concerned. Instead, he suggests a model of language reviving, with two main aims: As said in the Compendium…, he intended the VOD to be a useful learning tool for the Vlachs who get familiar with their dialects and with the Romanian language.
Figure 1. The homepage of the Vlach on-line dictionary http: VOD offers the possibility of changing the language interface: There are 17 available options: The first option, Listing, offers the visitors of the site the possibility to list the existing words by: Latin Vlach, Cyrillic Vlach, Serbian translation, their usage in proverbs, illustrated words, the name of the contributor who entered the word, the village where the word was collected, number of visits for one word, as well as a printable form of the dictionary.
The option Search, apart from offering the possibility to query the lexicon database by word, prefix, suffix, the Romanian or Serbian translation of the word, number of the word or geographical region, also comprises interactive maps which offer the visitors the possibility to query the lexicographic material by clicking on the regions on the map.
Interactive map of the regions inhabited by Vlachs and of the Vlach groups http: The Vlach on line Dictionary The author categorizes the Vlachs, according to the geographical areas of North-Eastern Serbia they inhabit, into three main groups: The linguistic groups presented on the map are: Figure 3.
Detailed interactive map of the Negotinska krajina and Timok regions http: Lexicographic material collected in or connected to the village of Radujevac http: Another interesting feature is the Pronunciation option, which offers the visitor the possibility to listen to the phonetic reproduction of lexemes or of entire folk texts.
These last characters were introduced in the newly formed Vlach alphabet out of the need to cover all the Vlach sounds, which do not exist in the Serbian pronunciation, or in the Romanian standard, being characteristic only to some dialects see, for example, the palatalized consonants. On the home page of VOD there is also presented the last entry in the dictionary, as well as number of entries compiled so far. Each entry is introduced in Vlach, translated into Romanian and Serbian, explained in Vlach and in Serbian, exemplified through samples of free speech or as it appears in folk creations, according to the following model: The Vlach on line Dictionary Rudna Glava, zapis: The documentation database for VOD is represented by samples of free speech from the members of the community, registered users, who exemplify different entries in the dictionary with lexemes from their own local dialect, and by a corpus of audio recordings, made during ethnological field researchers and belonging to the initiator and administrator of the site.
Figure 5. Example of entry in VOD, palenta http: The Vlach on line Dictionary visit of a visitor. By December 1st , the dictionary comprised entries, and by the beginning of February , it reached 1, entries.
After this date, VOD stagnated, probably due to the political situation, thus in the beginning of March , VOD had almost the same number of entries, like in the beginning of February.
Figure 6 presents the ethnolinguistic map of North-Eastern Serbia with the localities where the language material for VOD was collected, and it reflects the exact situation on December 1st The figure in brackets, following the name of the locality, indicates the number of words collected in that particular place. Figure 6. Discussion and conclusions The main aims of VOD are lexical acquisition it should enable the members of the community to introduce words in it and language revitalization it is meant to revive the Vlach variant and to transform it into a language widely spoken, not restricted to the family circle.
Even if dictionaries of endangered or unwritten languages or dialects are sometimes necessarily simplistic, mere word lists Garret In other words, this means that VOD is more than a descriptive lexicon — it is meant to be, even if not at a rhetorical level, a prescriptive tool for future language standardization. In many traditional lexicographical projects, there is a sharp distinction between scholarly researchers, whose findings determine the content of a grammar or a dictionary, and the users of the dictionary.
With VOD, things are quite different: Here, the stakeholders are, in their vast majority, community members who wish to take issue with definitions of plant or animal terms, based on the usage in their own families. Another issue which must be addressed is that of the use of both Latin and Cyrillic alphabets for writing the Vlach variety. If you want to participate creating a dictionary from the text, please write to us. Sanskrit vocabulary, synonyms and homonyms.
Sanskrit-Pashto dictionary. A list of Sanskrit dictionary related links is compiled at multilingualbooks. It also has extensive tools and information to learn Sanskrit.
The site just gives information on center's comprehensive publications. The homepage has links to get English or Hindi equivalents for typed words. The subjects are divided in about 40 major sections. This may be most comprehensive for such equivalence. Type an English word, select a varient in drop down menu, and search. Try words Accuracy, test, commercial etc and see teh details for each.
The words are given in tabular format with selectable starting letter. They contain Sanskrit words for technical and scientific vocabulary for several disciplines. This is advertisement revenue driven site.
Other related dictionaries Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati etc are available at shabdanjali at shabdakosh. For details on these dictionaries copyright, availability, updates, contacts, permission to use etc , please see the Hindi Dictionary Readme file.
It needs registration, signing with name, place, mobile phone number or such. The BharatiyaBhasha multilingual dictionary consisting of nearly common words in 14 different languages is available for download. There are quite a few tools developed at Technology Development for Indian Languages. It is sponsored by Government of India. Contact TDIL for more information. Must see the categories to get the details.
It is a free tool available without any restricttions. This is part of collection of marathiwebsites. Search iwht words Hindi kosha Hindustani Hindoostanee et cetera. A webinterface to Hindi and Marathi dictionaries is available. The searchable utilities include tutorials, wordnet group, most frequent words in Indian languages, Devanagari keyboard, Marathi and Hindi Corpora try the word kushala et cetera. The site is reviewed at Desh Dunia blogspot in Hindi. The shabdkosh. The Hindi words and translations are clickable and display synonyms.
There are language quizzes and games available for learning hindi as a fun way to practice and improve vocabulary. Many more are forthcoming.
These dictionaries are entered by contractors and the work to create searchable database is ongoing. Urdu-Devanagari transliterated word list. Zdenek Broz dicts at centrum. The interfaces are organized in interconnecting manner with many world languages. In addition to online searching, it has plugins for online webrowser searches e. As a commercial tilt to the project, the downlodable files for dictionaries with Basic, Advance, and Advance with audio options are available at price. See the sitemap.
Among them is the search utility for English-Sanskrit and Sanskrit-English vocabulary words and translations.