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Kiffen und Kriminalität: Der Jugendrichter zieht Bilanz (German Edition) eBook: Andreas Müller, Carsten Tergast: echecs16.info: Kindle Store. Kiffen und Kriminalität: Der Jugendrichter zieht Bilanz (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Andreas Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Politics & Social Sciences . Download Kiffen und Kriminalität lies es Andreas. Müller kostenlos eBook PDF/ ePub/Mobi/Mp3/Txt, Ca. vier Millionen Menschen in Deutschland konsumieren.
Elke H. Damit muss endlich Schluss sein! Ich finde dies unverantwortlich. Wir haben bereits mit den legalen Suchtmitteln Alkohol und Tabak genug gesellschaftliche Probleme. Richtig ist: Der Wunsch vieler Schwerstkranker nach einer Behandlung mit Cannabis auf medizinischer Basis ist berechtigt.
Fig 1 shows the structure of a Liquid Crystal Display retrieved from Wikipedia. In a twisted nematic device still the most common liquid crystal device , the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist.
This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears grey. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black.
By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray.
This electric field also controls reduces the double refraction properties of the liquid crystal Collings and Hird, The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state.
Because of this, these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state. These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed.
The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy, however, because of small variations of thickness across the device. Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds.
If an electric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided either by applying an alternating current or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the applied field.
With both glass sheets transparent, the cell is known as transmittive type cell. When one glass is transparent and the other has a reflective coating, the cell is called reflective coating, the cell is called reflective type. The LCD does not produce any illumination of its own.
It, in fact, depends entirely on illumination falling on it from an external source for its visual effect. When field-effect display is energized, the energized areas of the LCD absorb the incident light and, hence give localized black display. When dynamic scattering display is energized, the molecules of energized area of display become turbulent and scatter light in all directions. Consequently, the activated areas take on a frosted glass appearance resulting in a silver display.
Of course, the unenergized areas remain translucent. As shown in fig 2 b , a digit on an LCD has a segment appearance. For example, if number 5 is required, the terminals 8, 2, 3, 6 and 5 would be energized so that only these regions would be activated while the other areas would remain clear. Fig 2 c shows the picture of an LCD used in portable instrument. George W. Heilmeier, then working in the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams achieved the switching of colours by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal.
Practical problems with this new electro-optical effect made Heilmeier continue to work on scattering effects in liquid crystals and finally the achievement of the first operational liquid crystal display based on what he called the dynamic scattering mode DSM.
Application of a voltage to a DSM display switches the initially clear transparent liquid crystal layer into a milky turbid state. Therefore, the transferability of results from American studies on the association of schizophrenia, substance abuse, and offending behavior to the European situation is limited.
Are there differences concerning the prevalence rates and patterns of substance abuse between offenders suffering from schizophrenia and non-offenders suffering from schizophrenia? Are there differences concerning the prevalence rates and patterns of substance abuse between offenders with schizophrenia and healthy offenders? Do the rates of substance abuse in these three groups differ from the rates in healthy controls?
Is there an association between substance abuse and patterns of criminal behavior independent of the mental status of the offenders? In order to assess the impact of the patterns of substances abuse on criminal behavior of male patients with schizophrenia, we used a case-control-study-design with four groups.
One hundred and three healthy male offenders OH , matched for age and severity of offense with the offenders suffering from schizophrenia. One hundred and three male non-offenders without major mental disorders or personality disorders NoH , matched for age with the other groups.
The protocol of the study was approved by the ethic commission of the Medical University Vienna.
All patients gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. We distinguished three types of harmful substance abuse:.
The assignment to social classes was done according to Kleining and Moore The pattern of criminal behavior was defined by three factors: Compared to the reference group NoH , both offender groups grew up in low social milieus. As to be expected, patients suffering from schizophrenia mostly were singles at the time of the interview NoS or at the time of the offense OS. Only 4.
However, high rates were also found in the non-offending patients suffering from schizophrenia NoS: NoH, healthy non-offenders; OH, healthy offenders; NoS, non-offenders suffering from schizophrenia; OS, offenders suffering from schizophrenia;.
Only 5 subjects of the NoH group reported periods of alcohol abuse, no single subject used illicit drugs beyond the experimental stage. In contrast, the other three groups showed statistically significantly higher rates for nearly all kinds of substance abuse. Especially the high rates of multiple substance abuse in both offending groups were striking.
Interestingly, the highest prevalence of only illicit drug abuse was found in the NoS group. While the illicit drug abuse in both groups of patients suffering from schizophrenia was limited to cannabis abuse, 7. By means of One-way ANOVA we found no association between the pattern of substance abuse and the severity of the index-offense. In both offender groups subjects without any substance abuse showed the lowest number of previous convictions.
In the OH group all kinds of substance abuse were associated with higher rates of previous convictions, in the OS group alcohol and multiple substance abuse—but not illicit drug abuse alone—was associated with higher rates of previous convictions. The association between psychoactive substance use and the age at first conviction was obvious in both groups. Illicit drug abuse alone or in combination with alcohol was related to earlier onset of criminal behavior.
This may be due to the fact that one of the inclusion criteria for the control group was the absence of a DSM-IV Axis I disorder and, especially, of any personality disorder. Non-offending patients with schizophrenia differ from the other groups by a relatively high prevalence of illicit drug abuse This is in line with previous findings of studies on the use of cannabis in schizophrenic patients 40 , 55 , During the last 20 years three main hypotheses were put forward to explain the increased cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia: Compared with the offenders suffering from schizophrenia, significantly fewer cases of multiple substance abuse were identified among the non-offenders suffering from schizophrenia In addition, the patterns of substance use varied to a large extent: While illicit substance abuse alone was not a strong predictor of illegal behavior, the combination of illicit drugs and alcohol appears to stimulate criminal behavior especially in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
This result is in line with studies pointing to an association between alcohol abuse and aggressive behavior in mentally ill as well as in healthy subjects 42 , 57 , According to Giancola and Parrott 44 , alcohol significantly strengthens the relation between stimulant drug use and aggression among men.
The increased aggressiveness under alcohol is probably caused by three interacting mechanisms Although our data did not suggest a link between cannabis use and criminal behavior in general, we must not underestimate other problematic consequences of cannabis abuse such as non-compliance, persistence of psychotic symptoms, and reinforcement of negative symptoms Our results lead to the conclusion that alcohol and illicit drugs have no influence on the severity of offenses.
However, we found a clear association between any kind of substance abuse and the frequency of criminal acting as well as a significant relationship between illicit drugs and an early start of the criminal career, independent of the mental health status of the subjects Our data suggest that the pattern of substance abuse by schizophrenic offenders shows more similarities to that of healthy offenders than to that of non-offenders with schizophrenia.
Independent of the mental state, dysfunctional family structures and substance abuse are associated with illegal conduct. However, our data must not be understood as an assertion that schizophrenia itself does not account for criminal behavior at all. Although certain psychotic features of schizophrenia, as for example threat-control-override symptoms are not very important for criminal behavior of psychotic patients in general, they are strongly associated with severe aggressive acts, such as severe bodily injury and homicide In accordance with the literature, high rates of substance abuse in general are associated with both, schizophrenia and offending behavior.
High rates of only illicit substance abuse—especially cannabis—are also found among patients suffering from schizophrenia without any history of offending behavior. However, the abuse of illicit substances combined with alcohol and the abuse of alcohol only are associated with high rates of criminal behavior among patients with schizophrenia.
In particular, the abuse of illicit drugs was found in a subgroup with an early onset of criminal behavior. The sample size of the study mentally disorders NGRI and 3 matched control groups allows to draw robust and differentiated conclusions concerning the impact of substance abuse on criminal behavior in offenders suffering from schizophrenia.
However, Eisner 50 stated that the associations between the single features of problematic conduct such as violent and illegal behavior, alcohol and illicit drug use, show substantial cultural variations. Therefore we have to take into account the globally different rates of criminality and substance abuse. Austria with its low rates of criminality and substance abuse except alcohol is in line with most of the other Western European countries. As a consequence, methodologically similar studies in other regions are necessary to investigate the variations of the impact of the culture-specific types of substance consumption on the criminal behavior of patients suffering from schizophrenia.
TS and HS planned the study and collected the data of the offender groups. TS did the statics and wrote the paper. KR collected the data of both non-offending groups.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Edited by: Reviewed by: Thomas Stompe ta. This article was submitted to Forensic Psychiatry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Mar 30; Accepted May The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: Introduction During the last 20 years various studies have confirmed a moderate though statistically significant association between schizophrenia and violence 1 — 9. However, the aforementioned association remains unclear for several reasons: Our study addresses the following questions: Materials and methods Sample In order to assess the impact of the patterns of substances abuse on criminal behavior of male patients with schizophrenia, we used a case-control-study-design with four groups.
We distinguished three types of harmful substance abuse: Alcohol Illicit Drugs Multiple substances abuse of alcohol, benzodiazepines or illicit drugs The assignment to social classes was done according to Kleining and Moore Open in a separate window. N previous convictions 2. Main findings In accordance with the literature, high rates of substance abuse in general are associated with both, schizophrenia and offending behavior. Strengths and limitations The sample size of the study mentally disorders NGRI and 3 matched control groups allows to draw robust and differentiated conclusions concerning the impact of substance abuse on criminal behavior in offenders suffering from schizophrenia.
Author contributions TS and HS planned the study and collected the data of the offender groups. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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