L'arte della guerra è un trattato di strategia militare attribuito, a seguito di una tradizione orale lunga almeno due secoli, al generale Sunzi (in cinese: 孫子;. L'arte della guerra è un trattato di strategia militare attribuito al generale Sun Tsu, vissuto in Cina probabilmente fra il VI e il V secolo a.C. Importante è stato il. Sono i maggiori critici militanti e studiosi italiani a raccontare ogni opera in 10 parole chiave: per penetrare fino al cuore dei capolavori di tutti i tempi. Edizioni.
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That Machiavelli was familiar with Policraticus at all has not been definitively proven.
This is not to say that comparisons between John and Machiavelli have never been made, however. His reading list has long been an area of debate, and Policraticus goes unmentioned in the major efforts. The tale is most cer- tainly apocryphal: In spite of this it is said that it was blessed Gregory who burned the library of profane writ- ings that there might be more ample room for the Holy Scriptures, and that their authority might be enhanced and their study more diligently pursued.
Later versions had Gregory destroying that arena itself; Giovanni Boccaccio added an anti-Greek tone; and so on. Berlin New York 27— 28; Q. Walker Reprint, London II. Whoever reads of the modes taken by Saint Gregory and by the other heads of the Christian religion will see with how much obstinacy they persecuted all the ancient memories, burning the works of the poets and the historians, harming images, and spoiling every other thing that might convey some sign of antiquity.
Follow the Author Surely he did not do so early on in his life. He read Justin, Biondo, and Livy in his teenage years, but political trea- tises in medieval Latin, even one as well known as Policraticus, would not have been a part of his regimen, especially considering that his father Bernardo never intended him to be a scholar.
Adriani had taught at the Studio Fiorentino, and Roberto Ridolfi has asserted that Machiavelli probably heard his lectures there, alt- hough this assertion has recently been challenged. Discourses on Livy, trans. Tarcoy Chicago II.
Casella Florence II. Grayson Chicago 3—4. First was the chancellor and humanist Coluccio Salutati d. Text, Translation, and Introductory Studies, ed. Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century repr. Their research counters the view of B. Moreover, he was not only acquainted with certain pas- sages but possibly the entire work.
In the eighteenth chapter Bayley correlates Policrati- cus to two passages in De militia, but in my opinion neither is a definitive borrowing from John of Salisbury. Tutte le opere, ed. Martelli Florence preface. Bayley, War and Society in Renaissance Florence: Both writers point to Cicero as the utmost authority on the specific matter of military oaths: I could prove the argument by six hundred witnesses if you wished, but would anyone believe them who refused to believe Cicero and Cato?
The oath was legitimized via its propagator, not its military utility or intrinsic qualities.
A slighter link is Roberto Valturio, who was also influenced by Bruni. The On the oath, see S. The pas- sage may not be authentically Ciceronian; see D.
The question is whether or not Valturio read it. L'arte della guerra 3 guarda il film italiano Policraticus was also known and used by many of the important Florentine literary figures writing in the Italian vernacular. He may have incorporated themes from it into his Divine Comedy, although this has been somewhat of a debate.
Rubin- stein, and C. Smyth Florence Petrarch also owned a composite manu- script containing both Frontinus and Vegetius; see C. Essays in Honour of Maurice Keen, ed. Moreover, Arte della guerra has a unique connection to the Orti Oricellari, for the dialogue is set in the garden itself, and the two main speakers are based on actual participants in these discussions: Fabrizio represents Machiavelli, and Cosimo represents the real Cosimo Rucellai.
Machiavelli himself wrote several sonnets and also plays, including Man- dragola. Outside of Florence, a number of Italian jurists knew and were influenced by Policraticus.
Paris de Pateo, also from Naples, carried this practice into the fifteenth century. Guilielmus de Pastrengo d.
On his treatment of Dante in particular, see L. In addi- tion, Machiavelli dedicated his Discorsi to Cosimo and another participant in the garden discussions, Zanobi Buondelmonti. Selections from the Renaissance Diaries of Marin Sanudo, ed. L Carroll Baltimore Law and Politics in the Middle Ages: There are two extant Florentine manu- scripts of Policraticus, one from the fourteenth century and the other undated.
Yes, in Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Lawrence of Arabia warns us that "with years of examples behind us we have no excuse, when fighting, for not fighting well" Yes, Clausewitz messed in the field, the day after Waterloo.
But Jomini sentenced that Russia would win the Crimean War; and to preserve his eternal principles he wished to stop the arms race as Joshua did the chariot of the sun. What Scharnhorst and Gneisenau asked him was not to discuss their ideas, but to educate to war the philosophes — a task that was very hard to accomplish with warlike and bloody tribe as they are And this was exactly what Clausewitz has done, even posthumously.
He moved from sagata to togata militia, jubilated by his colleagues and welcomed by the savants, starting with Johann Wilhelm von Archenholz. If in military literature Clausewitzians seem to be like Savonarolians in the Catholic pulpits, franc-penseurs unifluential upon establishments, they do have an edge as military historians.
The outillage intellectuel deriving from Vom Kriege works better when writing the history of a war than for fighting it.
Prospettive retrospettive, Jovene, Napoli, , pp. Clausewitz wird viel genannt, ist aber wenig gelesen. But this concept is a powerful key in the hands of historians. L'Arte della Guerra Classici Vol.
Military history and history of military thought are not the only fields Vom Kriege sowed. Philosophy and Political theory, Psychoanalysis and Germanistics are as well: It is for this reason that Italian essays on Clausewitz continue to be separate from the studies conducted by the international mainstream, which pertain especially to military history.
The Italian contribution may be likened to a muddy river, in which, however, specks of gold may be found. The reciprocal influence between tactics and fortification, f. Clausewitz, Gallimard, Paris, , I, pp. Luciano Canfora frames the early Greek literature on history and geography It means that they originate and circulate only in their own discipline, ignoring and being ignored by the rest.
However these are, if only, original lectures. No customer reviews Some are valuable as private notes marking progress in self- education, but often the author simply ends up popularizing Vom Kriege, believing that, being the first among his friends or colleagues, he is too in his own country, if not in his century. Much more about nineteenth-century Italian Clausewitzians one can find in other monumental books on the Italian military thought owed to our beloved friend Botti Il pensiero militare e navale italiano dalla rivoluzione francese alla prima guerra mondiale , 3 vols.
Bearing in mind that translation was not indispensable at the time, French being then well known not only in Piedmont33, but in all the Italy. Therefore, the fact that Clausewitz was almost ignored in Italy during the Risorgimento may not be imputed to a linguistic barrier; Vom Kriege was translated in French back to by Belgian Major Jean N.
In Carlo De Cristoforis , the next after Blanch among the most prominent military writers of Risorgimento, quoted Clausewitz seventeen times, while not including Vom Kriege in the list of books consulted approximately forty.
De Cristoforis, however, took nothing from Clausewitz, being rather obsessed by the principle of the mass, which he believed to have discovered first Andrea Zambelli La guerra, Estratto di una nuova istoria militare delle guerre della rivoluzione di Francia del Barone Jomini,. Tenente generale, ajutante di campo di S. Vita politica e militare di Napoleone, raccontata da lui medesimo al tribunale di Cesare, Alessandro e Federico, Livorno, tip.
Rivista Militare , and was interrupted by the death of Colonel Botti, who was able to translate and comment only the first three chapters.. The progress, in contemporary times, is that the Italian Military Libraries had directly wasted their books. The book includes pp.
In it was translated for the first time in English, and in Niccola Marselli , an Italian officer educated in the Hegelian clubs of Naples, discussed the Clausewitzian ideas about moral factors in depth.
Marselli, having abandoned idealism and converted to positivism, disagreed with the impossibility of creating a complete theory of war, and asserted his faith in a positive science of War Nevertheless Marselli criticized the doctrinarism of Jomini and admired Clausewitz to the point where he considered him to be a precursor of positivism. It took half century before a new Clausewitzian wave to come forth into the Italian culture.
And when that time came, it was the Axis time. In Colonel Emilio Canevari , a brillant officer from Viterbo who fell in disgrace during the Re-conquest of Lybia, began a new life as freelance journalist, publishing an anthology Marte of great captains and military writers with Giuseppe Prezzolini In he published an essay on Clausewitz and Modern War Clausewitz e la guerra odierna. It took four years, however, before a political detainee like Antonio Gramsci could read a notice of the book.
He commented in his notebook that Vom Kriege was not yet translated in Italian40, that the only book in circulation was that of Canevari, and that Admiral Sirianni, in a paper, 37 A. La romanzesca epopea risorgimentale del gen. Govone, Torino, Utet, One can only suppose that the book Canevari wrote also spurred the short intervention on Clausewitz written in the late by Benedetto Croce The philosopher, however, does not quote Canevari: Croce agrees with Roques about the influence Machiavelli had on Clausewitz, refusing the supposed Hegelian imprinting But it is impossible to summarize such an essay.
Croce wrote also 41 Passato e presente, Einaudi, Torino, , p.
Gramsci quoted Clausewitz also about the attack which exhausts itself progressing Note sul Machiavelli, sulla politica e sullo stato moderno, Einaudi, Torino, , p. On military entries of the Treccani encyclopedia, see Botti and Ilari, Il pensiero, cit.
The Clausewitzian essay was reprint in in Strategia globale No. Aron does not quote this essay in his Clausewitz of , but in his Memories p. Indeed, in December see La Vita Italiana Canevari polemicized against the attempt philosopher Julius Evola made to found the totalitarian state, mixing the Schmittian Begriff des Politischen and the total war Erich Ludendorff had theorized.
Moreover the editors of Princeton Makers of Modern Strategy commissioned the chapter on Clausewitz to a true specialist, the German Jewish historian Hans Rothfels These seminal Clausewitzian studies were part of the Western intellectual mobilization against the Axis. Da Sun Tzu a Clausewitz Introduzione De re militari - Viella ; Sarebbe un grave errore pensare che, nel corso dei secoli medievali, il modo di combattere sia rimasto sempre eguale a se stesso.
Vegezio, L'arte della guerra romana, intr.
Formisano, Milan, In theory one would have to read the entire book to locate all discussions of a single monument, Vegezio, Machiavelli e l'arte della guerra", QS 55 : and Id. Armi d'assedio storia romana - Wikiwand ; Le armi da assedio d'epoca romana rappresentarono una componente In origine l'arte dell'assedio consisteva nel raggiungere gli spalti grazie a scale, oltre Cesare nel suo Commentarii de bello Gallico e Vegezio: essa consisteva in una La sambuca era in sostanza una macchina da guerra ereditata dai Greci, con W , misconosciuto dagli studiosi di Vegezio ma che, secondo Texto completo: PDF Quesada Sanz F.
L'industrializzazione della guerra L'industrialisation de la guerre ; delle Alpi per il centenario della Grande guerra, quando a Guillerme venne fatto di Un lungo arco di tempo ; 27 ott Sull'arco e sulle tecniche da addestramento e da battaglia, non On a medal in the French King's collection, we read a similar Vegezio, de re militari, l.
Francesco Patrizi da Cherso on the Aim of Poetry. Gnomonics Bibliography - Gnomonica by Nicola Severino ; particular form thus: I had hoped to read, or at any rate examine, nearly all the the books and manuscripts I have mentioned but, XII, c.
Xenofonte, Vegezio, Cicerone Tullius apud Victorin. Vegezio Flavio Renato