Get this from a library! Stratigraphy of Pakistan. [S M Ibrahim Shah;]. Stratigraphy of Pakistan, GSP Memoirs vol 22_ S. M. Ibrahim Shah ().pdf. Document Cover. Stratigraphy of Pakistan, GSP Memoirs vol 22_. WORKSHOP ON STRATIGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN Ibrahim Shah, Director, Geological Survey of. The Workshop aspect of stratigraphy of Pakistan (see prog-.
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Station 3 At station 3, there was Baghanwala formation. This formation is the last member of Jehlum group. Main lithology of this formation is blood-red shales and flaggy sandstones; with salt pseudomorphs fig.
Sandstone is thick bedded while shale is thin bedded. The upper contact of the Baghanwala Formation with the overlying Tobra Formation is unconformable which can be easily seen on Khewra-Choa Saidan Shah road fig.
Environment of deposition of Baghanwala Formation is Lagoonal environment.
Figure 7: Salt pseudomorphs in Baghanwala Formation coin is for scale. Figure 8: Unconformable contact between Tobra Conglomerate and Baghanwala Formation, camera facing north geological hammer is for scale. Khewra Sandstone is the first member of Jehlum group and is of Early Cambrian in age. Main lithology of Khewra Sandstone is Shale and purple sandstones. Environment of deposition of Khewra Sandstone is deltaic environment.
There were climbing ripple marks in Khewra Sandstone fig. Main lithology of this formation is red gypseous marl with rock salt, gypsum-dolomite above; occasional oil shale.
Marl is bright reddish in color. Environment of deposition of Salt Range Formation is evaporitic environment. Main lithology of Kussak Formation is gray-purplish shales and glauconitic sandstones. Lower contact with underlying Khewra Sandstone is conformable and upper contact with overlying Jutana Formation is also conformable.
Its environment of deposition is marine environment. Station 6 At station 6, there was Khewra Trap in Khewra Gorge which is the product of only igneous activity in the entire Salt range fig.
It is a thin flow of an ultrapotassic rock silica-under-saturated rock and is purple reddish, brown, orange to buff, rarely dark green color.
Characteristic feature is that it consists of highly decomposed radiating needles of light colored Pyroxene mineral.
Its origin is crustal thinning due to normal faulting. Figure Type locality of Khewra Trap, camera facing south-east man is for scale. Western Salt Range Zaluch Nala The different areas that we visited in Zaluch Nala of the western salt range are marked in the following satellite image on the basis of GPS data taken in the field. Figure Satellite image of the study areas stations that were visited in Zaluch Nala.
The upper contact of this formation is with Dandot formation but in Zaluch Nala, Dandot formation is missing so the upper contact is unconformable.
Figure Tobra Conglomerate of Zaluch Nala, camera facing north coin is for scale. Station 2 At station 1, there was Warchha Sandstone fig. The second member of this group i. Dandot formation is missing in the Zaluch Nala. Warchha Sandstone is of Early Permian and is the third member of the Nilawahan group. Main lithology of this formation is sandstone which is medium to coarse grained and mostly thick bedded and massive. Sandstone is of red to maroon and light in color.
The sandstone is arkosic. The formation is locally speckled which caused the previous workers to call it as "Speckled sandstone". Cross bedding in Warchha Sandstone fig. Environment of deposition of this formation is fluvial flood plain. The upper contact of this formation is with overlying Sardhai Formation which is conformable. Such examples encourage differentiating and naming of some formations within the group but this can only be done after detailed survey and the establishment of the sequence in Hachi package.
The llachi group contains quartzite layers. The tuffs are interlayered with quartzites and slates. Lava is intcrlaycred with the metasediments. In general. The tuffs and volcanic breccias are light grey in colour and are present at different stratigraphic levels interlayered with lava and metasediments. Volcanic dolerites.
Tuffs and volcanic breccias are widespread throughout the group and the best exposure of them is present at llachi Hill. The upper contact with Taguwali phyllite and slates is also obscure.
The slates interbedded with tuffs seem to have been derived from volcanic. The phenocrysts of feldspars are set in groundmass of oligoclase orthoclase and quartz. The lower contact of this unit is not exposed anywhere. The composition of the rock is rhyolitic. The volcanic breccias are course-grained with abundant rock fragments and large phenocrysts of feldspars and quartz set in fine matrix.
Its age. It is ascertained. Lithologically the group in general is composed of quartzitc. At the base of volcanogenic b more than 90 m thick. The base of the group is not exposed and the top is unconformable. Its thickness is m at the type locality. Exposures in Hundawali Hill represent dark grey massive rock.. In Shahkot area. It is exposed in Chandra Hill E Its upper contact with the Asianwala quartzite is gradational. It is cross-bedded and ripple marked. Taguwali formation: The name has been assigned after a small place Taguwali.
In the upper part of the formation. The middle part is composed of slate with little shine on the surface. At the type locality. The formation extends to Chiniot. Phyllite is light silver-grey. The lower contact is gradational and passes into Taguwali slates. The type locality and type section of this unit is on southern part of Kirana Hill at grid reference E Alam.
On the basis of above results. In Chiniot-Rabwah area. G The type section is designated at the main Kirana Hill. The quartzite is generally coarse-grained. According to Alam Kirana group: This review divides the rocks of Kirana group mentioned before by Kazmi and Shah [unpublished] and These two units are in succession and have no connection to other formations or groups in the area.
The two Vindians. Grid reference.
The lower contact with Hachi group is nowhere clear. The age of the formation is Precambrian. In Chiniot area. Ahmad et al. At places.. The interbedded slates are light grey in colour and occur as thin layers in-between the thick beds of quartzite. The thickness measured in the type section at. The exposures of quartzite at Sangla Hill are of medium to coarse grained. Sangla Hill and Shahkot areas.
Alam Asianwala quartzite: This unit is named after the canal rest house Asianwala located at 11 km on the Sargodha-Faisalabad Road. The rocks of these units are exposed only in isolated ". Based on regional trend and structure the isolated exposures of this unit are thought to be lying above the rocks of Kirana group.. The middle part of the formation is composed of quartzites. The formation is unfossiliferous. Sharaban group: According to Alam new Sharaban group has been proposed comprising of two units: Alam recorded "an algal like slung structure.
These quartzites occur in beds varying from 1 to 13 m. Lithologically the formation is predominantly conglomerate of rusty brown colour with minor 0. According to Alam op cit. These conglomerates are similar to Sharaban conglomerate and are composed of pebbles of quartzites. Quartzites are the main lithology of the formation which arc dull rusty brown. Lava flows of greenish-grey colour arc present within the quartzite beds.
The type locality is designated at the Sharaban Hill jvhere the outcrop of this formation is shown in the form of isolated low-lying exposure. This assumption places this unit above the Asianwala quartzite with Late Proterozoic age. The pebbles are flattened. They are calcareous in nature sometimes cross-bedded. Sharaban conglomerate: Sharaban conglomerate is named and described by Alam Hadda quartzitc: It has been named and described by Alam The upper contact of the unit is terminated by alluvium.
Conglomerates in minor quantities occur in the upper part of the formation. Atthe type locality. These two units have not been included in Kirana group. The lower part of the formation is represented by quartzites of light grey colour. Its upper contact with Sharaban conglomerate is gradational.
Some parts arc being mined as hematite ore for use as pigment. The formation has been named after the canal rest house Hadda located about 20 km ESE of Sargodha and about 10 km north-east of Sharaban I lill. The quartzites and slates pebbles are similar to the rocks exposed in the area and the origin of limestone pebbles is not known. No fossil or any trace of organic remains has been found in this unit.
The lower contact of the Sharaban conglomerate passes into Hadda quartzites. It is about 5 m thick. A highly weathered igneous body known as "Khewra Trap" has been reported from the upper part of the formation. It consists of highly decomposed radiating needles of a light-coloured mineral.
Thick-bedded salt shows various shades of pink colour and well-developed laminations and colour bandings up to a meter thick. The quartzite is fine-grained. The pebbles are flattened due to stress and are arranged with their long axis parallel to the bedding. The limestone pebbles.
The exposed thickness of the unit is estimated to be m. Probably a large part of the Indus Basin is occupied by this formation. The gypsum is white to light grey in colour. As indicated by the lithology. The red-coloured marl consists chiefly of clay. The limestone pebbles are light grey fine-rained. The general size of the pebbles is in the range of cm diameter. The formation is bedded and individual beds are 5 to 10 m thick.
Khewra Gorge in the eastern Salt Range has been designated as the type section. Thin beds of rusty brown quartzite are intercalated with the conglomerate. Salt Range Formation: Wynne named and described the formation as 'Saline Series'.
The lower part of the Salt Range Formation is composed of red-coloured gypseous marl with thick seams of salt beds of gypsum. Shah also stated that this conglomerate unit is the youngest in the area. The Khewra Trap". The exact relation of this unit with Kirana group is not known Alam. Gee called the same unit as the 'Punjab Saline Series'. Minor amounts of potassium and magnesium sulphates are found in association with the shale beds.
The clastic material was transported from Peninsular India and deposited under oxidizing conditions. The overlying Khewra Sandstone is probably of Early Cambrian age. It has been found by drilling that the thickness is more than m at Dhariala. Billianwala Salt Member: Ferruginous red marl with thick seams of salt more than m. The dolomite is usually light colour.
In the subsurface. Details of this controversy are beyond the scope of this report. The formation has been rei 33 i 1. Attock-Cherat Range: Hussain ct al. The age of the Salt Range Formation. Attock-Cherat Range and southern Hazara Fig. Sahiwal Marl Member: The Salt Range Formation is therefore. They described the Precambrian rocks from the Attock-Cherat Range as following. More recently Schindcwolf and Seilacher in Teichert. Schindcwolf and Seilacher Sahni Asrarullah op. They suspected that the Tertiary fossils reported from this formation by Sahni that were due to contamination.
Bhandar Kas Gypsum Member: Massive gypsum with minor beds of dolomite and clay. Axial Belt Northern Sector: Gee has very reasonably differed with the interpretation of a Tertiary age of the formation. Manki Formation: The formation represents evaporite sedimentation. The contact with the overlying Khewra Sandstone is generally normal and conformable.
The base of the Salt Range Formation is only known from the Karampur well. It is associated with dofomitic shale. The age of the formation as described by Mussain et al. Shekhai Formation: This formation. Doleritc dykes and sills are commonly found in this block.
Dolcritc intrusions are present. The entire northern block of the Attock-Chcrat Range. Hussain et al. The Manki Formation has a gradational contact with the overlying Shahkot Formation. The formation in this block is mainly dark-grey to black sericitic slate and phyllite with subordinate lenses of ycllowish-grcy limestone and quartzite. Cretaceous on the basis of fossils in the limestone that he considered to be interbedded within the formation. The thickness according to Tahirkheli is about 75 m..
Uch Khattak Formation: The formation as described by Tahirkheli is composed of thin-bedded to massive. It has locally gradational contact with Manki Formation. It is lithologically similar to Precambrian Hazara Formation.
Oakhncr Formation: The formation comprises predominantly of rubbly and stromatolitic limestone with grey to buff argillaceous laminations. Near Khairabad. Hussain ct sfl. The limestone is brecciatcd in the middle and upper parts.
According to them. Ilussain ct al. Limestone near the top of the formation. Tahirkheli considered the age of this sequence to be Middle Jurassic. It is the Oldest formation in the area.
Shahkot Formation: The formation consists of light brownish-grey limestone and interbedded dark. ITussain et al. A thin cover of Jurassic. The Hazara Formation is equivalent to the Dogra Slates'. Calkins et al. Unlike the northern block. Latif a has reported fossils similar to Protobolclla in the Hazara Formation showing that it may be early Palaeozoic in age. At Hassanabdal. Prior to these names. The thickness of the Dakhner Formation is more than m 1 lussain ct al.
Some thick-bedded. Tanawal and little igneous rock were described about three decades ago. Latif correlated the Hazara Formation with the Salt Range Formation based on evaporite facies found in both the formations. Marks and Ali regarded the formation as a turbiditc deposit. The Hazara Formation consists of slate..
This age determination places the formation ' ' in the Prccambrian. Calkins ct al. Limestone beds with maximum thickness of m and a sequence of calcareous " phyllite and gypsum ranging from 30 to m thick are found in southern-most Hazara and Azad Kashmir Calkins etal.
Crawford and Davies analyzed three samples of low grade. Paleogene and Miocene rocks unconformably overlies the Dakhner Formation. Originally in this area only Salkhala.
Latif named this formation "Ilazara Group". Hazara Formatioo: Marks and Ali have given several names to this formation including "Slate scries of Hazara" by Middlemiss and "Hazara Slates Formation".
Slate and phyllite are green to dark green and black. On this basis. Waagen and Wynne described them as "Attock Slates". Himalayan Tectonostratigraphic Basin'. This situation was due to inaccessibility and lack of mapping in this area and only roadside reconnaissance work was available.
Detailed research work began in late seventies and. The formation is to m thick in the Kashmir area. Marble is found throughout the formation. One of these fold structures in Swabi-Rustam area. The overlying Kundal unit in its lower part m thick predominantly consists of fine mud alternating commonly with silt layers. Offield and Abdullah in Calkins et al. The lower contact of the Salkhala Formation is nowhere exposed in the Swabi- Rustam area.
During the course of the mapping of Swabi-Rustam area. Ghazanfar et al. Just north of Salkhala Village across the Neelum River. The age of Salkhala Formation derived from the super positional order and correlation is considered 36 i. Graphitic schist is locally present. In Hazara area. The Gandaf unit consists of graphitic and pelitic schists. Khan S. Stauffer made a detailed study of the rock unit in the Gilgit-Hispar Valley.
At the type locality the Salkhala Formation is overlain by "Dogra Slate" known in this volume as equivalent to Hazara Formation. Salkhala Scries' to a sequence of schist. The formation includes quartzite. R et al. The formation has an intrusive contact with the Kailas Batholith. Near Balakot the formation thins out to only a few hundred meters. The core is occupied by the Salkhala Formation. Salkhala Formation: Wadia in Pascoc. Basement gneisses on which the Salkhala Formation overlies are not exposed in this area.
The formation occupies a large area extending from Kashmir to Gilgit. The two alternating layers on mm scale yield spectacular lamination. In the upper part.
The "Dogra Slate" is.
According to Calkins et al. Tanol is considered here a synonym of Tanawal and it is interesting to note that exposures of Tanol at Mansehra are older not younger than Hazara Formation Chaudhry and Ghazanfar Marks and Ali estimated the thickness as m.
Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah the lower contact of Tanawal Formation with the Hazara Formation is marked by only a lithologic change from slate to quartzite which in places is gradational. Wynne b described the rocks of this formation as "Tanol group Middlcmiss called them "Tanol quartzite" and believed that they formed the lower part of the over lying Infra-Trias' see Abbottabad Formation. In these areas granite. Sharda group of rocks is characterized by ubiquitous development of generally large size garnet.
Marks and Ali and Latif named them "Tanol formation". Sharda group: The Sharda group Fig. The group is divisible into two formations namely the Sharda formation and the Gamot formation.
In the light of a new find of Cambrian fossils in the Abbottabad Formation the age of the Tanawal Formation may also be Cambrian or Precambrian. The contact between the Abbottabad Formation and the Tanawal Formation in this area is marked by an unconformity.
The thickness of the Tanawal Formation is dificult to measure due to structural complications. At quite a few places. The unit is well exposed in the south and southeastern margin of the Mansehra Granite' and in a narrow belt to the northwest along the western flanks of the Balakot syntaxis. To the South of the 'Mansehra Granite'.
In the area of the Manschra Granite" and northward the grade of metamorphism in the Tanawal Formation is higher than in the south. Calkins et al.. In northeastern part of southern Hazara. The Tanawal Formation is devoid of fossils.
Chaudhry and Ghazanfar is widespread in the Neelum and Kaghan valleys.
As already stated. Both the Sharda formation and the Gamot formation contain graphitic bands but the proportion and number The fault is marked by the presence of cataciastics.
On the othpr hand. While north of Loath in the Neelum Valley a sequence of a calc-pelitic material is named by Ghazanfar et al. According to Ghazanfar etal. As opposed to the above sequence. Kundal Shahi-Nagdar schists and of the Athmuqam. Gamot and Tarli Domel. Kundal Shahi. From south to north.
The Gramot formation is generally non-calcareous. The above definition applies only to the calc-pelite facies of the Kashmir section. Sharda group as described by Ghazanfar et al. This group of rocks " extends over vast areas north and northwest of Dorian.
Nagdar schists and Athmuqam biotite chlorite phyllites. Analyzing the Wadia's description. It is comprised of garnet mica schist and gneisses.
ShardagroupofKaghanVallcy aftcrGhazanfarctal. Amphibolites Migmatitcs and Granite gneisses including: Saif-ul-Maluk granite gneiss Dadarmigmatites Badun granite gneiss Jalkhad granite gneiss Gittidas granite gneiss Lulu Sarfeldspathised porphyroblastic Gneiss Mixed unit including: Naran gametiferous calc-pelites Burawai gamctifcrous calc-pelites Dhak graphitic gneisses in Jalkhad Nar Bans pelitic gneisses - - 40 I.
The marbles are generally light grey to medium-grey in colour with white bands. Sharda gneisses: Schistosity at places is developed but commonly the rock is massive gneissosc. The Sharda metagneisses arc medium bluish grey on fresh surface and light earthy brown on weathered surface.
These are gamet-mica schists and gneisses with rocks from schistose to gneissic and porphyroblastic to poikioblastic and calcareous quartz mica gneisses. The pctrographic studies indicate an original composition varying from calcareous pelites argillaceous carbonates with occasional sandstone bands.
Changan marbles: It is present near Changan. ShTdrda formation: Sharda formation is named and described by Ghazanfar ct al. Bans pelitic gneisses: This lithology occurs in the area of Dharir near Rakhan. The unit is best exposed here. Dumri calc-pelites: West of Sobhai Mahli between Bans and Batakundi. Dhak graphitic gneisses: This unit is composed of dark-grey to black graphitic gneiss associated with feldspathised pelitic gneiss showing tourmaline needles and at places.
Dabukan marble is present at Dunga Katha. Other lithologies like pelitic gneiss. It also extends on the left bank below Dumri Maidan at Batakundi and mainly comprises of white pale yellow marbles intercalated with light grey to greyish brown pelites. They are white light grey. There are two main outcrops. Dabukan Katha and Dadar Nar north of Reori. Bans and Dila. The amphibolite bands are fine to medium-grained. It occurs as a small band on both sides ofJalkhad Nar near Dhak village.
Their texture is gneissic and porphyroblastic and they are composed of calcite garnet. It comprises ofpelitic gneisses with subordinate psammites and occasional bands of marble. Greco et al. Sharda group at Kaghan Valley is exposed on the roadside from Batal to Babusar. The interbedded marble bands constitute a subordinate lithology. Naran garnetiferous calc-pelites: The calc-pelitic gneisses are generally light grey and light brownish grey on fresh surface and dark brownish grey or yellowish brown on the weathered surface.
They considered it Precambrian. In higher areas of Khaba Nar. Dabukan marble: It is a distinctive white. They are generally medium-bedded and. They are banded and show differential weathering with the micaceous and schistose layers appearing as ribs on the weathered surface.
Garnetiferous calc-pelltic gneisses: Gametiferous calc-pelitic gneisses. Babun granite gneiss: Leucocratic microgranite gneiss and granite occurs near the contact with Lulusar fcldspathised porphyroblastic gneiss at Babun.
They have divided this mixed unit into Purbinar and Basal units. They may contain sillimanite. Wear and Jobra. Under the Mixed Unit. Tatti Gali and Oadar Nar. These arc migmatites formed by anatexis of meta-pelites.
The granite is fine-grained and leucocratic. These are generally small and occur associated with granite gneisses and migmatite horizons. Agmites and restites are also common.
Purbinar mixed unit: This unit occurs in the upper reaches of Purbinar. These bodies are sheet like and conformable as well as folded with the metamorphic rocks. Saif-ul-Maluk granite gneiss: Gittidas granite gneiss: Granite and gneisses with amphibolite bands and patches make the principal lithology of this unit. It is. The granites arc generally light grey and the gneiss shows shades of brown.