Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Mirror of Salvation: Speculum Humanae Salvationis. An Edition of British Library Blockbook G. (review) | It is difficult. A Medieval Mirror. Speculum Humanae Salvationis – Adrian Wilson & Joyce Lancaster Wilson. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS. Berkeley · Los. The Mirror of Salvation: Speculum Humanae Salvationis. An. Edition of British Library Blockbook G. (review). Martha W. Driver. The Catholic Historical.
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The Speculum Humanae Salvationis or Mirror of Human Salvation was a bestselling . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The origins of the. Speculum humanae salvationis, "The. Mirror of Human. Salvation", lie in a. Latin work from the beginning of the fourteenth century. Over the. Speculum humanae echecs16.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
As an Episcopal See, Utrecht, in the North, became a center for the illustration of books between and The debt of its artists to the Ghent-Bruges school of the Van Eycks, in terms of both style and composition, can be seen in the work of many of the Utrecht miniaturists. In this period, a different and vigorous Dutch style appeared, notably in the work of the Master of Catherine of Cleves, whose magnificent Book of Hours c. This artist is also credited with some of the miniatures in the fine Dutch Bible now in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich, dated fig. There, the scribes wrote the text continuously, leaving space for initials, but not for illustrations. These were painted on separate leaves and inserted into the text or, evidently in many cases, sent to Bruges, where the presence of the Burgundian court had established that city as a center of de luxe manuscript production. Vrelant and other Dutch artists appear in the official records as working for the court after the Bruges edict.
In their brief discussion of xylographic reproduction the terms 'xylography' and 'prototypography' are nowhere used , the editors say that the woodblocks were "moistened with dye" p. Very little is said about the role of blockbooks in the early history of printing; there is no mention of A. Stevenson's important discovery about watermarks in blockbooks, for example; and there is no discussion at all of the role that typographical images like those found in the Speculum play in the margins of Books of Hours, the best-selling book of the later Middle Ages.
In their introduction, the editors do say they hope their work will encourage readers to explore further the iconography in "Gothic" stained glass and sculpture, and in Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel p. Similar statements are made about the book's relevance to medieval history and theology. The Speculum itself is described throughout as a book "for teaching the common folk" pp.
The discussion of typology, that is, reading Old Testament stories as prefiguring the New, the central organizing device of the Speculum, is also explained at the most basic level. Turner, The Typology of the Codex Philadelphia, , p. Probably this was the exception, and one may assume that the sheets were usually cut into bi-folios before inscription.
In the workshops of the Brethren of the Common Life, binding was clearly part of the activity, and a number of bindings from these workshops in different locations have been identified. Fifteenth-century metal book fittings were excavated in —06 on the site of the Brussels house.
All the known bindings of the Brothers are panel-stamped, many with a small name, "nazaret," stamped by hand, which identified the Brussels community.
The dies and panels were engraved in metal, like coins or medallions, and stamped into the leather, not by hand but by a screw press. The patterns and designs were copied from engraved playing cards, or models possibly disseminated in pattern books. The evidence of the blockbooks in which condensed text is carved on the same block as a religious picture also points to their production, in multiple copies, in the centers of the Brethren of the Common Life.
The Exercitium super pater noster and the Spirituale pomerium could be attributed to the communities of Sept-Fontaines and Groenendael. These, and the other Netherlandish blockbooks, are discussed in our Chapter IV. The dates of their origins and their localizations are still controversial, but the communities of the Sisters and of the Brothers of the Common Life, with their dedication to educate and their exceptional tradition of producing and distributing books in the Low Countries in the fifteenth century, might well have been the centers for the creation and dissemination of this new means of popular communication.
Profound changes which affected the making of books had been taking place in the social, intellectual, and religious spheres since the end of the twelfth century. The instruction of laymen and the foundation of universities were taking place concurrently with the development of a wealthy and independent middle class.
The conditions under which books were written, copied, distributed, and read were being secularized, and the centers of intellectual life began to shift away from the monasteries and toward a new constituency of readers. Most of these were clerics who retained a bond with the ecclesiastical establishments, but they and their professors had need of many texts, reference works, and commentaries.
The pecia system of copying separate signatures was instituted in France, Italy, and Spain, but it was never adopted in the Low Countries. Professional scribes were available to execute contracts, letters, accounts, and documents on commission.
Probably few of these were capable of fine book work, but there may have been some that produced illuminated manuscripts. Books could be copied, of course, by anyone who could write, and the number of "occasional" scribes who made books for themselves as well as for others may well have been as great as the professional scriveners.
Paper did not, of course, replace parchment and vellum rapidly, and the difference in price at the outset was not great, but it promoted the specialization of vellum and parchment for use in official documents and de luxe books. The early papers were comparatively heavy and the surfaces did not lend themselves so happily to the pen or brush.
While small handwritten Latin Bibles on fine parchment were readily portable, the early printed Bibles on paper required two large volumes.
Typological exposition provides the context for a single leaf in Houghton Library MS Typ —but in surprising and idiosyncratic ways see figures 1 and 2. Mulhouse: E. Meininger, , 1: no. Jeffrey F. Thirteen additional couplets follow on the verso. Although the first letter of each verse has been accentuated with vertical strokes in the same ruddy orange pigment employed to create the large three-line initial I that opens the poem or this section of it , no attempt has been made to justify the lines, which form a ragged trailing edge to the right.
No traces of ruling or pricking remain. The drawing itself also represents a remarkable combination of freedom and restraint. Although the frame, which is doubled with an additional line on its interior edge so as to create a modest impression of depth, analogous to that of the cross, was drawn, at least in part, with a straight edge, the rest of the image employs a freehand technique consisting of an initial sketch in brown, perhaps using a quill, heightened with black strokes of a breadth that suggests that they were added using a thin brush.
The short jagged strokes employed to build up the figures at the center contrast dramatically with the freer calligraphy of the trees that frame the scene, whose foliage is formed by lines laid down over some of the tinted washes used to clarify constituent parts of the composition, a method of coloring that can be compared to that employed in many early woodcuts.
Cambridge, Mass. Hamburger 75 Figure 2. Text page, Augsburg, s. MS Typ , verso. After opening with an appeal to the Virgin couplets 1—2 on account of the seventh of her seven sorrows, these plaintive verses, which in general recall the well-established tradition of the Planctus Mariae, or the mourning of Mary at Golgatha, continue by defining the consummation of that sorrow as having taken place, just as we see in the Jeffrey F. Hamburger 77 accompanying illustration, at the foot of the cross couplet 3.
These couplets provide the background for the continuation of the narrative in couplets 7—8, which describe how, despite having been asked by Pilate for the body, Joseph removed the dead Christ from the Cross and placed him in the tomb.
In relation to these verses, the image can be seen, not as a particular moment in the narrative of the Passion, but rather as a condensation of several incidents, in addition to the deposition, entombment, and, of course, the crucifixion itself, by virtue of the scourge and flail that hang from the nails at the ends of the cross to the left and right, the sufferings of Christ prior to his death. Joseph R. Berrigan Athens, Ga.
This sign points forward in so far as it refers to the coming resurrection and, further still, the white raiment worn by the just as described in the Apocalypse e. These are they who are come out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and have made them white in the blood of the Lamb. The poem, at least as presented in the fragment, concludes with verses couplets 20—21 that describe the apocryphal incident of John the Evangelist taking the Virgin Mary home and tending to her after the burial of the savior.
Given their allegiance to the tradition of Planctus poetry, these verses could conceivably constitute a free-standing poem. Hamburger 79 In its original form, the Speculum humanae salvationis consisted of 4, lines of rhyming Latin prose with illustrations. Despite its Italian origins, the work enjoyed its greatest success in both art and literature north of the Alps. To these can be added eleven different translations into German.
Taken together, the Seven Sorrows and Joys provide an approximate encapsulation of most of the essential moments in the lives of Mary and Christ and, hence, in the history of salvation.
The parallel sets of seven invited representation in tabular or diagrammatic form, for which there was a long tradition in the earlier Middle Ages.
The events are presented successively, in narrative, not in tabular form. Lehrhaftes Sprechen in der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters, ed.
Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, , 9:cols. For the sake of economy, only those parts of the German poem that bear any relationship to the Latin are reproduced here side-by-side. Ich man dich magt erbarmerin Ave, Maria, mater Christi pia, coelestis imperatrix! Des siebenden grosses schmertzen Tu es, Virgo dia, tristium in hac via clemens dein consolatrix. Vnd hertzen laides vngemach Sextam tristitiam, Mater dulcissima, tunc habuisti, Das dir an deynen kind beschach Quando dilectum Filium tuum mortuum de cruce suscepisti, 3.
Do sich vollendet alles das Quando ipsum brachiis tuis, mitissima Virgo Maria, Vnd er an dem creutz erstorben Mortuum et lividum imposuit Joseph ab was Arimathia; 4. Joseph ain reicher gerechter man Quem olium crebo dulicter et laetanter vivum portaveras.
Den man gen got in forscht sach stan [. Do er in her ab genomen het Hunc, heu! Do wart erst dein iamer gros Novus luctus et novus gemitus in corde tuo oriebatur, Mit haissen zahern in begos Et tristitia tua semper magis ac magis accumulabatur. Die dir von augen gingen ab O, quantus erat, pia Mater, tuus luctus et ploratus! Du spracht o meyns alters stab O, qualis erat, dulcis Virgo, tuus planctus et uluatus! Jules Lutz and Paul Perdrizet, 2 vols. Mulhouse: Meininger, — ,