From inside the book References to this book Bibliographic information. QR code for Power system protection and switchgear. Overview: The book offers a blend of application practices and theoretical concepts to comprehend the subject of power system protection. Power System Protection and Switchgear [Badri Ram] on echecs16.info this item; site Best Sellers Rank: #3,, in Books (See Top in Books).
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Page - Power System Protection, with particular reference to the Application of Junction Transistors to Distance Relays', Proceedings IEE, Paper No.. Tata McGraw-Hill Education · echecs16.info · Barnes&echecs16.info · Books-A- Million · IndieBound Power System Protection and Switchgear. By Badri Ram, D. N. Power System Protection and Switchgear. Front Cover · Badri Ram, D. N. Vishwakarma. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, Apr 1, Preview this book».
Available in all digital devices Snapshot About The Book Switchgear And Power System Protection Book Summary: This comprehensive introduction to system protection covers the underlying principles of operation of switchgear and several relay protective schemes used in power systems and elucidates their important requirements to provide the basis for design criteria. Besides, the book contains a detailed treatment of protective schemes used to encounter fault conditions that may occur individually in generators, motors, transformers, busbars, and distribution circuits. Protection against switching surges and lightning is also discussed. The final chapter on power system management provides a simple introduction to that important area in order to emphasize the importance of optimal economic operation of power systems in which protective schemes under fault conditions play a crucial role towards continuity of electrical supply with minimum damage to life, equipment and property. Key Features : Provides numerous solved examples and chapter-end exercises to reinforce understanding of concepts. Provides more than a hundred fill in the blanks questions with answers under the heading Test Your Knowledge at the end of the book to help students in preparing for the competitive examinations. Offers a long list of research papers and books under bibliography to acquaint the researchers with the developments in the field.
At a basic level, protection disconnects equipment which experiences an overload or a short to earth.
Some items in substations such as transformers might require additional protection based on temperature or gas pressure, among others. Generator sets[ edit ] In a power plant, the protective relays are intended to prevent damage to alternators or to the transformers in case of abnormal conditions of operation, due to internal failures, as well as insulating failures or regulation malfunctions.
Such failures are unusual, so the protective relays have to operate very rarely. If a protective relay fails to detect a fault, the resulting damage to the alternator or to the transformer might require costly equipment repairs or replacement, as well as income loss from the inability to produce and sell energy. Overload and back-up for distance overcurrent [ edit ] Overload protection requires a current transformer which simply measures the current in a circuit.
Instantaneous overcurrent requires that the current exceeds a predetermined level for the circuit breaker to operate. Time overcurrent protection operates based on a current vs time curve. Based on this curve, if the measured current exceeds a given level for the preset amount of time, the circuit breaker or fuse will operate.
Earth fault "ground fault" in the United States [ edit ] Earth fault protection also requires current transformers and senses an imbalance in a three-phase circuit. Normally the three phase currents are in balance, i. If one or two phases become connected to earth via a low impedance path, their magnitudes will increase dramatically, as will current imbalance.
If this imbalance exceeds a pre-determined value, a circuit breaker should operate. Restricted earth fault protection is a type of earth fault protection which looks for earth fault between two sets of current transformers  hence restricted to that zone. Distance impedance relay [ edit ] Distance protection detects both voltage and current.
A fault on a circuit will generally create a sag in the voltage level.
If the ratio of voltage to current measured at the relay terminals, which equates to an impedance, lands within a predetermined level the circuit breaker will operate.
This is useful for reasonably long lines, lines longer than 10 miles, because their operating characteristics are based on the line characteristics.
This means that when a fault appears on the line the impedance setting in the relay is compared to the apparent impedance of the line from the relay terminals to the fault. If the relay setting is determined to be below the apparent impedance it is determined that the fault is within the zone of protection.
When the transmission line length is too short, less than 10 miles, distance protection becomes more difficult to coordinate.
In these instances the best choice of protection is current differential protection. A circuit breaker or protection relay may fail to operate. In important systems, a failure of primary protection will usually result in the operation of back-up protection. Remote back-up protection will generally remove both the affected and unaffected items of plant to clear the fault. Local back-up protection will remove the affected items of the plant to clear the fault.
Low-voltage networks[ edit ] The low-voltage network generally relies upon fuses or low-voltage circuit breakers to remove both overload and earth faults.
Cybersecurity[ edit ] The bulk system which is a large interconnected electrical system including transmission and control system is experiencing new cybersecurity threats every day. Most of these attacks are aiming the control systems in the grids. Sukhamoy Das rated it it was ok Feb 08, Dharanikumar Dharanikumar rated it really liked it Aug 07, Tripti Kunj rated it it was amazing Apr 05, Sana rated it it was amazing Oct 13, Basant Adhikari rated it liked it Sep 24, Atul Narayan rated it it was amazing Apr 05, Shamsur Rahman rated it it was amazing Feb 14, Naresh Lathwal rated it really liked it May 21, Divya rated it it was ok Sep 13, Sasasa rated it it was amazing Jan 19, Ramya rated it it was amazing Nov 13, Niyati marked it as to-read Sep 03, Manish Pathak is currently reading it Sep 11, A S marked it as to-read Sep 18, Nikul marked it as to-read Sep 28, Asfak Ahamed marked it as to-read Dec 16, Saras is currently reading it Feb 24, Izaz Ali marked it as to-read Mar 20, Kashish Sethi added it May 19, Rachana Menthula added it Jun 04, Akshay marked it as to-read Sep 24, Uma marked it as to-read Oct 05, Ravi Varma marked it as to-read Oct 05, Rajat Gupta marked it as to-read Nov 07, Ashish Gupta marked it as to-read Dec 22, Ayush Soni marked it as to-read Mar 03, Bikasit Biplab marked it as to-read May 01, Hinaxi Patel marked it as to-read Jul 19, Vijay Pal marked it as to-read Jul 19, Chaitanya added it Aug 25, Vivek Kumar added it Sep 17, Ranjay Kumar marked it as to-read Sep 17, Yamini marked it as to-read Oct 15, Saurav marked it as to-read Nov 01, Venkat Prabha marked it as to-read Nov 05, Marian Suwono marked it as to-read Nov 11, Fazil Ghori marked it as to-read Dec 22, Usha Rani added it Jan 09, BEK marked it as to-read Feb 07, Shahriar Adib marked it as to-read Feb 15,