PDF | Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of. PDF | Photosynthesis sustains virtually all life on planet Earth providing the oxygen The process of photosynthesis in plants is based on two reactions that are .. within a chlorophyll molecule residing in PSII or PSI to a higher energy level;. Definition of Photosynthesis. “Photosynthesis is a process used by plants in which energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into.
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for starch it was clear that photosynthesis occurred only in the green parts of the leaves in the presence of light. PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS. Notes For Class 11 Chapter 13 Photosynthesis In Higher Plants Download in pdf. Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in higher plants. Photosynthesis – It is an anabolic process taking place in green plants, where in carbon dioxide and water .
Download revision notes for Photosynthesis in higher plants class 11 Notes Biology and score high in exams. These are the Photosynthesis in higher plants class 11 Notes Biology prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter in minutes. Revising notes in exam days is on of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. Photosynthesis is a physico-chemical process by which green plants use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds.
Special cells, known as bundle-sheath cells, surround the vascular bundles. These cells have a large number of chloroplasts. They are thick-walled and have no intercellular spaces.
They are also impervious to gaseous exchange. Can you discuss why? Ans : The productivity of a plant is measured by the rate at which it photosynthesises. The amount of carbon dioxide present in a plant is directly proportional to the rate of photosynthesis.
This prevents photorespiration and increases the rate of photosynthesis. It is present in the bundle-sheath cells surrounding the vascular bundles.
It is converted into the four-carbon compound oxaloacetic acid OAA. OAA is further converted into malic acid. This prevents the enzyme RuBisCo from acting as an oxygenase. Then why do plants have chlorophyll b and other accessory pigments? Ans : Chlorophyll-a molecules act as antenna molecules.
They get excited by absorbing light and emit electrons during cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylations. They form the reaction centres for both photosystems I and II. Chlorophyll-b and other photosynthetic pigments such as carotenoids and xanthophylls act as accessory pigments.
Their role is to absorb energy and transfer it to chlorophyll-a.
Carotenoids and xanthophylls also protect the chlorophyll molecule from photo-oxidation. Therefore, chlorophyll-a is essential for photosynthesis.
If any plant were to lack chlorophyll-a and contain a high concentration of chlorophyll-b, then this plant would not undergo photosynthesis. Which pigment do you think is more stable? Ans : Since leaves require light to perform photosynthesis, the colour of a leaf kept in the dark changes from a darker to a lighter shade of green. Sometimes, it also turns yellow.
The production of the chlorophyll pigment essential for photosynthesis is directly proportional to the amount of light available. In the absence of light, the production of chlorophyll-a molecules stops and they get broken slowly.
Within a leaf, photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells which contain the chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are the actual sites for photosynthesis. The thylakoids in chloroplast contain most of pigments required for capturing solar energy to initiate photosynthesis. Biosynthetic phase dark reaction is carried in stroma.
Bright or blue green in chromatograph. Major pigment, act as reaction centre, involved in trapping and converting light into chemical energy. Chlorophyll b: Yellow green Xanthophyll: Yellow Carotenoids: Yellow to yellow-orange In the blue and red regions of spectrum shows higher rate of photosynthesis.
The reaction centre chlorophyll a is different in both the photosystems. Photosystem I PSI: Process of photosynthesis: It includes two phases - Photochemical phase and biosynthetic phase.
It is light independent phase, synthesis of food material sugars. Cyclic photophosphorylation: Two photosystems work in series? These two photosystems are connected through an electron transport chain Z. Non-cyclic photophosphorylation: Only PSI works, the electron circulates within the photosystem. Hence only ATP molecules are synthesised.
The electron transport Z-Scheme: In PS II, reaction centre chlo.
These electrons are taken up by the electron acceptor that passes them to an electron transport system ETS consisting of cytochromes. The movement of electron is down hill. Then, the electron pass to PSI and move down hill further.
The splitting of water: It is linked to PS II. Water splits into H , O and electrons. Chemiosmotic Hypothesis: Chemiosmotic hypothesis explain the mechanism of ATP synthesis in chloroplast. In photosynthesis, ATP synthesis is linked to development of a proton gradient across a membrane. The electrons are accumulated inside of membrane of thylakoids in lumen. ATPase has a channel that allows diffusion of protons back across the membrane.
The cyclic path of sugar formation is called Calvin cycle on the name of Melvin Calvin, the discoverer of this pathway. Calvin cycle proceeds in three stages: The CO acceptor ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate is formed again.
The C 4 pathway: C plants have special type of leaf anatomy, they tolerate higher temperatures. In this pathway, oxaloacetic acid OAA is the first stable product formed.