Maria Christine N. Halili 1'/w.d & [);ott1b. Specifically, this mod~t cont:ril> utionlo thestudy ofthe nation's history haq iffi mission of. Philippine History [Maria Christine N. Halili] on echecs16.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Philippine History traces. All about Philippine History by Maria Christine N. Halili. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers.
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Philippine History- Halili - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online . book on philippine history. book on philippine history Philippine History- Halili. February 7, | Author : Kristine Mae Lopez Valenzuela | Category: N/A. Unformatted text preview: Philippine History By Maria Christine N. Halili Chapter I Knowing Philippine History 1. Understanding History It is by the possession.
This preview shows page 1 out of pages. Unformatted text preview: Understanding History It is by the possession and transmission of a culture that man differs from other animals, and the first culture began with the habitual use of tools and articulate speech Pulmer, ed. For some writers like Nick Joaquin, history as culture is not merely a chronological reconstruction of the past nor an analytical interpretation of past events, but a process of creation or a formation of culture, specifically a "national culture. It generally presents the known past. What is unknown is yet to be retrieved. The recording and analysis of experiences of a society comprise the totality of a people's history.
Some of them are best kept in their original sites like caves that were used for habitation in the past.
While, items such as potsherds small fragments of pottery , devices made of stone, metal, bones, and teeth covered with hard enamel can most likely survive and be presently known and retrieved through the untiring efforts of the archaeologists.
In the struggle of dauntless Filipinos to regain the lost rights and freedom during the Spanish era, the propagandists and revolutionaries responded to colonial oppression by resisting. The challenge was posed by the colonial subjugation of the Filipinos, generally characterized by injustice and corruption.
The response was defiance to the prevailing rule. Man's actions are not just involuntary movements especially when time allows him to plan his next action. These responses pass through the process of reasoning and analysis.
Often, he deals with other people to discuss on how to answer a certain situation. Associated with the aforementioned premises, the exchange theory of Alvin Scaff may be carefully thought about.
His exchange theory refers to the systematic statement of principles that govern the exchange of goods tangible goods like property or money and intangible goods like peace or prestige between individuals, between groups, between organizations, and even between nations. This is based on the idea of reciprocity. Alliances of people, communities as well as nations are rooted in the idea of interchange. There are some motivational forces found in the society affecting the actions of people involved in the situation.
A case in point is the barter system, used in business transactions because there was no currency during those days. Aside from domestic trading existing among the barangays and the islands, the early Filipinos also engaged in foreign trade with China, Japan, Siam now Thailand , Borneo, Sumatra, Cambodia, and other islands of old Malaysia.
Another example in relation to this theory, Mrs.
Corazon 'Cory' Aquino, wife of the slain opposition leader, was chosen as 4 the presidential standard bearer amidst high expectations that she would free all political prisoners, abolish censorship of the media, and institute legal proceedings to recover ill-gotten wealth taken by corrupt public servants once elected into office. For Georg Wilhelm Hegel , an idea is the moving force of History.
However, man has tasks to do so that events may happen. Hegel's role of historical man follows a principle, which he called Weltgiest or world spirit, which embodies ideals like patriotism, heroism, and unity.
Since historical individuals are ideals and man follows his ideal, this thought, which is guided by a particular ideal becomes what Hegel called as Geisteswissenchaften or the world of Spirit of thought.
This area of thought is the thesis. This combines with a particular situation or matter called Naturwissenchaften, the antithesis or the complete opposite of the Geisteswissenchaften. By the combination of thesis and antithesis, man achieves the synthesis, which is the historical reality. Applying this theory in history, there were guerilla fighters in World War II who were guided by their sense of duty and responsibility to lead the people during the warfare.
The situation was the Japanese invasion. The combination of their thoughts like patriotism and heroism resulted to their historical acts, manifested through their deeds and exploits in the battles that were fought against the Japanese forces during the war era.
In understanding history, another theory to be considered is the materialist concept of history or economic theory by Karl Marx, another German philosopher. He asserts that the prevailing economic system determines the form of societal organization and the political and intellectual history of the epoch, which thus attribute actions and events in history to economic motives. For him, human interrelations depend on the material conditions of their production.
The struggle to maintain life is the most enduring motivation for any human activity. To cite an instance, the intensification of inter-island contacts and the increasing specialization in craftsmanship by early dwellers were brought about by economic consideration. Centuries of trade and personal relations with Southeast Asian neighbors led to the enrichment of Filipino life and culture.
As more dwellers traded with foreign merchants, influences in the field of commerce, science, religion, language, and the arts became more evident as they were transmitted to other members of the society. Another example is the Spanish colonial era. It has been said that the three primary motives for vast exploration of lands were for God, gold, and glory, but the main incentive was for economic reasons. Colonies are the important sources of raw materials and opportunities for investment. Spain was at the height of its power in the 16th century since it exercised political and economic control in its several colonies.
Another approach to historical studies is the method of historiography developed by Fernand Braudel , considered the father of historical structuralism. According to Braudel, human actions are not only based on human decisions but also on 'structures' that may be natural like topography and natural resources or man-made like existing laws and technological devices.
For example, men build houses for shelter. Even if they want to construct high-rise condominiums in the area, the builders have to consider the availability of resources, the budget of the clients, and the building site, to narrje a few.
Furthermore, the introduction of new technology literally transforms societies and thereby, history. In the Braudelian approach, to achieve "total history" is to integrate all aspects of man's past. This involves the study of history in its total view made possible by examining the circumstances underlying such political, economic, social, and cultural events. The group in Spain included the Filipino propagandists Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. Pardo de Tavera, Gregorio Sancianco y Gozon, and among others.
For Rizal, history offers the key to national identity and the basis for future development. In his writings, he used history to show a uniquely Filipino culture, one which evolved through centuries of contact with other Asians. He edited Dr. No library descriptions found. Quick Links site. site Kindle 0 editions. Audible 0 editions. CD Audiobook 0 editions. Project Gutenberg 0 editions. Google Books — Loading Local Book Search.
Popular covers None. Is this you? Become a LibraryThing Author. Bishop Bernardo Ustariz of Vigan issued an interdict against Silang and his followers. He exhorted the Ilocanos to withdraw support for the rebels' cause. In retaliation, Silang imprisoned all of the latter's followers. Fearing that Anda was planning to march to llocos, Silang decided to seek the protection of the British.
Shortly thereafter, he accepted the Bri tish offer of friendship to fight against the Spaniards. However, Silang's leadership ended with an assassin's bullet.
Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who wished to take revenge on Silang and Pedro Becbec, a trusted aide of Silang conspired to kill the rebel leader in exchange of a large monetary reward. Vicos shot Silang in the latter's house. Gabriela Silang, Diego's wife, continued the fight. Nicolas Carino, Silang's uncle, temporarily took command of the forces.
He and Gabriela attacked the town of Santa in Ilocos Sur and won over the government forces. After the battle, Gabriela went to the forests of Abra and recruited the Tingguians Itnegs. Another battle was fought at Cabugao, but this time the rebels were beaten.
Carino perished in action. Gabriela and her warriors fled to Abra and organized a new army of Ilocanos and Tingguians. With her newly reorganized battalion, Gabriela marched towards Vigan. She rode on a fast horse and led her troops into the combat. The loyal archers of the Spanish government repulsed her attack. Once more, she went back to the mountains of Abra with her followers.
Don Manuel de Arza, lieutenant governor of Northern Luzon and his Cagayan warriors followed her trail. With the aid of Apayaos and Kalingas, they captured her and her surviving followers. The local inhabitants wanted the abolition of the tribute and the removal of loaquin Gamboa, alcalde mayor of the province for irregularities in tax collection. The rebellion began on November 3, at the town of Binalatongan under the leadership of Juan de la Cruz Palaris. From Binalatongan, the spirit of insurrection spread to other towns of the province.
Palaris urged the people to fight since the Spaniards were very weak because of their defeat at the hands of the British in Manila. For over a year, he succeeded in driving the Spaniards and friars out of the rebel towns. The Dominican friars tried to pacify the rebels, but failed.
Palaris was publicly hanged. Basi Revolt Cause: Wine Monopoly of Due to the wine monopoly of the government, the Ilocanos were prohibited to drink homemade basi wine fermented from sugarcane. They were compelled to download wine from government stores. On September 16, , the Ilocanos of Piddig, Ilocos Norte, rose in arms in defense of their favorite wine, basi.
The rebellion spread to the neighboring towns, Badoc and Santo Domingo. However, on September 28, , the alcalde mayor together with a strong force of regular troops attacked them at San lldefonso and quelled the revolt. This democratic constitution granted human rights to both Spaniards and Filipinos. It was promulgated by the Spanish Cortes Parliament and approved and signed by delegates of Spain and her colonies including the Philippines.
One of its signatories was Ventura de los Reyes, a Filipino. Upon knowing that this constitution was abolished on May 4, by the despotic ruler King Ferdinand VII, an explosion of violence in the country against the principales took place.
The masses suspected that the principales were behind this, since they had been presumed aiding the Spanish authorities to perpetuate in power. The Ilocanos plundered the houses of rich Spaniards and pro-Spanish natives. They also looted the churches and killed some friars and officials. The Spanish government rushed infantry and cavalry forces to the rebellious towns in the Ilocandia.
The revolt ended on March 6, with the surviving leaders of the rebellion severely punished. Revolt of the Bayot Brothers Cause: Feeling of Distrust between the Peninsulares and the Creoles The insulares in the Philippines, as well as the Creoles in other colonies of Spain resented the extra privileges given to the peninsulares. The feeling of distrust and antagonism between the peninsulares and the Creoles became intense in the early decades of the 19th century.
Inspired by the achievements of the Creole liberators in Latin America from to and influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution , the three Bayot brothers - Manuel, Jose, and Joaquin - sons of Colonel Francisco Bayot, a prominent creole of Manila, conspired with other Creole officers of the Battalion Real Principe, to overthrow the government, which was dominated by the peninsulares.
The plot was to be carried out on April 17, at dawn. A few days before April 17, the plan of the Bayot conspiracy was discovered. Governor Mariano de Folgueras alerted the Queen's Regiment and surrounded the barracks of suspected rebels with loyal troops and 15 cannons. The Bayot brothers were imprisoned after a trial.
He was not accepted on the ground that he was an itidio native. At that time, all religious orders were closed to indios. Joseph , a nationalist fellowship, which fostered the practice of Christian virtues. Hermano Pule sought the recognition of his religious brotherhood.
Undaunted by the intolerance of the government authorities, he carried on his religious movement at Barrio Isabang of Mount Banahaw, then later moved his camp at Alitao, at the foot of Mount Cristobal. His brotherhood attracted thousands of followers in Tayabas, Laguna, and Batangas. On November 1,, Lt. Joaquin Huet, a veteran Spanish combat commander, launched a massive assault in Alitao, killing hundreds of defenseless old men, women, and children. Hermano Pule was captured the following evening at Barrio Ibanga and was executed on November 4, The Spanish soldiers paraded his chopped body from Tayabas to nearby Lucban, his birthplace.
Enraged by the merciless killing in Alitao, the non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the Tayabas Regiment secretly planned to rise in arms under the leadership of Sergeant Irineo Samaniego.
After a few hours of fighting at Fort Santiago, Samaniego and his men were routed, captured and shot to death at Bagumbayan at sundown of January 21, Muslim Wars The Spaniards made attempts to subdue the inhabitants of Mindanao by deploying its military forces in the South.
The Muslims on the other hand, valiantly resisted and repulsed the colonizers. They retaliated by raiding territories under Spanish rule with varying degrees of intensity. The war between the Muslim Filipinos and the Spaniards aided by Christian Filipinos lasted for more than years. The Muslim wars were brought about by the following reasons: the Spanish invasion of Mindanao and Sulu, preservation of Islam, and the love of adventure arising from the spoils of wars. In , the Spanish colonizers tried to seize Jolo and force the sultanate into submission.
He ordered the pacification of the place and the payment ot tribute by the inhabitants to the colonial government. However, Sulu fell into Spanish hands. Pearls were given as tribute to the Spaniards. The Muslims, haughtily referred to by the Spaniards as Mows, avenged by plundering coastal towns under Spanish dominion.
Sirungan and Salikala prepared a stronger force of 70 vessels and 4, warriors, a year. This time, they were repulsed with heavy losses at Arevalo, lloilo province by 1, Visayan warriors and 70 Spanish arquebusiers under the command of Don Juan Garcia de Sierra, a Spanish alcalde mayor who died in the fight.
To embark its operations over Muslim Mindanao, the Spaniards built fortified stations in particular areas. On June 23, , Father Melchor de Vera along with 1, Visayans began the building of the stone fort in the province. This fort was named Fort Pilar in honor of Nuestra Senora del Pilar, the patroness of Zamboanga , which helped the government forces in their campaign against the belligerent natives.
The Spaniards tried to conquer Maguindanao but were thwarted by native resistance. Kudarat retreated to a hill called Ilihan. Corcuera's troops assaulted the place and finally captured it after a bloody encounter. Defeated by the Spaniards, Kudarat was able to escape together with his brave wife, carrying a baby. On May 24, Governor Corcuera returned to Manila and was given a conqueror's welcome - with music, religious festivals, and a moro-moro performance a stage play about the contending Christians and Muslims with the former emerging as victors.
The fighting Moros intensified their efforts to continue the battle against the Spaniards. After nursing his bullet wound in one arm, Sultan Kudarat later mounted raids on Spanish settlements in Luzon and the Visayas and inspired fellow Muslims never to submit to the Spanish colonizers. The Muslims also assaulted the Spanish outposts in Mindanao and Sulu. In , the Tausugs finally liberated Jolo from the Spanish forces. On January 2,, he and his family, together with some faithful followers arrived in Manila.
The sultan was royally received by Bishop Juan de Arrechedera, the acting governor general. On April 28 of the same year, he was baptized by the Dominican fathers at Paniqui, Tarlac. His son, Israel, and his daughter Fatima were likewise converted to Christianity and given education in Manila.
The sultan left Manila for Jolo and stopped at Zamboanga. The Spanish commander in Zamboanga claimed to have intercepted a letter from Alimud Din I to a sultan in Mindanao, which was allegedly treasonable. The Spanish forces, plunged in its conflict with the British and the local rebels, were unable to control the Mow plunderer raids on Christian pueblos in the Visayas and Luzon.
The height of Moro wars occurred in the second half of the 18th century. In , the Moros landed at Malate and plundered the place. According to Spanish records, an average of Christians were captured and sold annually as slaves in Betavia, Sandakan, and in other slave markets in the East Indies.
The Spanish government spent huge sum of money for military operations against the marauding troops of the South.