pakistan studies muhammad raza kazmi | Read and Download PDF Ebook pakistan studies muhammad raza kazmi at Online Ebook Library. Get pakistan. M. R. Kazimi, Pakistan Studies (Karachi: Oxford University Press, ). M. R. Kazimi, A of Pakistan. ➢ echecs16.info This text covers the syllabi prescribed by the major public sector universities in Pakistan. The book provides a complete overview of the.
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In general, the trend of pH of both the water and sediment is neutral; therefore, presumably, it could hardly bring about major changes in the marine ecosystem of the Korangi creek. This is increment with the values previously reported Khatoon and Hussain ; Yousuf and Wasee Elevated BOD level suggested the high organic load in creek water that is possibly due to increased suspended solids of biological source. These suspended solids may be attributed to silt, decomposing biological material that contributes to turbidity. These sites are located at Ibrahim Haidry jetty. These sites also receive untreated wastewater mainly of domestic origin from the nearby settlements.
Anthropogenic sources around the study area are responsible for high BOD concentration.
Elevated BOD concentration at the sampling sites near fishing communities is also due to throwing away of spoiled fishes by the indigenous communities which undergo the process of putrefaction and thus increase organic load. Dissolved oxygen concentration tends to reduce due to elevated BOD level as the oxygen is consumed by microorganisms creating oxygen deficient environment which is harmful to marine life. Average COD concentration of the sampling sites was However, in estuary having relatively high concentration of sewage contamination, a linear correlation does exist between BOD and COD.
In the present study, there are numerous sources of industrial effluent, which ultimately find its way at Korangi creek. Moreover, untreated domestic effluent from the nearby communities also dumped into the creek area. This high volume of untreated domestic and industrial discharges is badly affecting the creek ecosystem. The high COD values of the sediments also indicate continuous accumulation of toxic chemicals.
The planktonic or benthic microalgae, macrophytes and epiphytic micro-flora are responsible for maintaining the dynamicity of the marine ecosystem Barnes ; Conde et al. Chlorophyll a, b and c represents important floral components of an aquatic ecosystem. However, chlorophyll a is the most important fraction which is used to determine the algal biomass. The mean chlorophyll value was 2.
The highest value of chlorophyll was at KC-3 4. The higher levels of chlorophyll represent the greater primary productivity of the creek area. The use of cyanide is a common practice in many parts of the world for fishing. Acute human toxicity of cyanide at a concentration of 0. However, it is reported that the cyanide concentration between 0. These affects include abridged growth, depressed swimming performance, reproduction impairment and enhanced respiratory rates Leduc This might be primarily due to blocking of cytochrome oxidase system as cyanide interferes with respiratory chain.
Alazemi et al. As reported by some workers such as Rubec and Pratt , very little scientific research has been published on the effects of cyanide on marine fishes. The average cyanide concentration of seawater and sediment in Korangi creek is 0. The concentration of cyanide in sediments is exceptionally higher. This is mainly due to the heavy discharges into the creek area from Korangi industrial estate.
Cyanide is widely used in electroplating, metal refining, organic chemical production and many other processes Nagaraja et al. These industries are located both in formal and informal sectors of Korangi industrial estate. Cyanide forms complex compounds which are often less toxic compared to free cyanide Fuller and Randle The mean dissolved oxygen concentration of seawater in Korangi creek area was 4. The DO level of the creek area ranged between 3. It can be argued that this level of DO concentration might be due to high BOD concentration, which indicates the extent of oxygen stress on the creek ecology Dhage et al.
Wildish et al. Allan et al. Remarkably, not all sites are facing anoxic state which generally exists when the level of DO is less than 2.
In estuaries and adjacent coastal waters, the DO level is less than 4. Marine water quality largely depreciates due to oil pollution Abdullah et al. Oil itself is less polluted as compared to the chemical components that are present in different types of oil of which petroleum hydrocarbons are most potent that occurs together in gaseous and liquid state.
The accumulation of considerable amount of petroleum compounds may cause immediate increment in BOD5 to any water body because of hydrocarbon degraders activities that hamper oxygen dissolution.
Oil and grease are known to block the assimilation of ambient oxygen in the water thereby produce suffocation toxic to marine life forms. Fishing activities and navigation operations in sea are the main contributor of oil and grease that undergo instantaneous degradation by aquatic bacteria particularly in oxygenated environment.
However, oil and grease also have a tendency to descend in the bottom and keep on deposit where it subject to relatively slow microbial degradation due to low dissolved oxygen concentration.
Oil and grease in seawater ranged between 6. The highest oil and grease value in seawater was at KC and KC These are the sites close to the Malir River outfall. The highest sediment value was observed at KC and KC, which are close to the outfall. Comparatively elevated amount of oil and grease have been estimated for creek water of Indus delta Khan and Shaukat This would mean that the normal system of removal of oil through the process of photooxidation, sedimentation and biodegradation is not working effectively at the bottom because of anoxic condition.
Oil biodegradation rates are however difficult to predict due to the complexity of the environment, while rates of biodegradation are also dependent on the characteristics of oil Zahed et al.
The growth, survival, metabolism and reproductive system of fish are affected once phenols enter in the fish body Holmberg et al. However, the literature about the phenol toxicity at the level of ecosystem is only scanty Saha et al. Photolysis is the most important transformation process for the polychlorinated phenols. They further suggested that microbial degradation and winter photolysis rates are lesser than those of summer.
Eklund and Kautsky described that macro-algae are more susceptible to phenol than other aquatic life forms. The mean levels of phenol in seawater were 0. The highest value of phenol concentration 0. View 2 comments.
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