This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook. Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Safa O. Kasap and others published Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices / S.O. Kasap. This book claims to be about principles and practices. Most of the prin Today, however cfm Principles and Practice of Pharmaceutical Medicine.
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Solutions Manual to Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition Safa Kasap. 浩 牛. Solutions Manual to Optoelectronics and. Second Edition Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices S.O. Kasap University of Saskatchewan Canada International Edition Contributions by . Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices. Second Edition. S.O. Kasap. University of Saskatchewan. Canada. Boston Columbus Indianapolis New.
About this title This book takes a fresh look at the last three decades and enormous developments in the new electo-optic devices and associated materials. General Treatment and various proofs are at a semiquantitative level without going into detailed physics. Contains numerous worked examples and solved problems. Chapter topics include wave nature of light, dielectric waveguides and optical fibers, semiconductor science and light emitting diodes, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, and polarization and modulation of light. For the study of optoelectronics by electrical engineers. From the Inside Flap: Preface This textbook represents a first course in optoelectronic materials and devices suitable for a half- or one-semester semester course at the undergraduate level in electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering departments.
Chapter topics include wave nature of light, dielectric waveguides and optical fibers, semiconductor science and light emitting diodes, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, and polarization and modulation of light. For the study of optoelectronics by electrical engineers. From the Inside Flap: Preface This textbook represents a first course in optoelectronic materials and devices suitable for a half- or one-semester semester course at the undergraduate level in electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering departments.
It can also be used at the graduate level as an introductory course by including some of the selected topics in the CD-ROM. Normally, the students would not have covered Maxwell's equations. Although Maxwell's equations are mentioned in the text to alert the students they are not used in developing the principles. It is assumed that the students would have taken a basic first- or second-year physics course, with modern physics, and would have seen rudimentary concepts in geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction, but not Fresnel's equations and concepts, such as group velocity and group index.
Typically, an optoelectronics course would either be given after a semiconductor devices course or concurrently. Students would have been exposed to elementary quantum mechanical concepts, perhaps in conjunction with a basic semiconductor science course. I tried to keep the general treatment and various proofs at a semiquantitative level without going into detailed physics.
Most topics are initially introduced through intuitive explanations to allow the concept to be grasped first before any mathematical development.
The mathematical level is assumed to include vectors, complex numbers, and partial differentiation, but excludes Fourier transforms. On the one hand, we are required to cover as much as possible and, on the other hand, professional engineering accreditation requires students to solve numerical problems and carry out "design calculations.
Obviously one cannot solve numerical problems, carry out design calculations, and derive each equation at the same time without expanding the size of the text to an unacceptable level. I have missed many topics but I have also covered many; though, undoubtedly, my own biased selection.
They can be printed on nearly any color printer to make overhead projector transparencies for the instructor and class-ready notes for the students so they do not have to draw the diagrams during the lectures. The diagrams have been also put into PowerPoint for directly delivering the lecture material from a computer. In addition, there are numerous selected topics and other educational features on the CD-ROM that follows a web-format. Both instructors and students will find the selected topics very useful.
The refractive index of GaAs is 3. What are the reflection and transmission coefficients and the reflectance and transmittance?
The conclusion is that the penetration depth decreases as the incidence angle increases 1. It is incident on a different semiconductor medium AlGaAs of refractive index 3. Will this result in total internal reflection? Calculate the phase change in the parallel and perpendicular components of the reflected electric field. Using Fresnel equations only i. Solution The above problem is solved using LiveMath and reproduced below.
It should be relatively straightforward to follow. Estimate the lateral Goos-Haenchen shift in the reflected wave for the perpendicular field component. Assume that the virtual reflection occurs from a virtual plane in medium B at a distance d that is the same as the penetration depth.
Note that d actually depends on the polarization, the direction of the field, but we will ignore this dependence. It appears as though it is reflected from a virtual plane at a depth d in the second medium from the interface.
The problem is shown in Figure 1. The shift is small when the refractive index difference is smaller. The wave penetrates more into the second medium when the refractive index 1. Find the functional form of this wave and discuss how its magnitude varies with the distance into medium 2. Consider the z at the same speed as the incident and reflected waves along z.
Explain what the requirements are for the indices n1, n2, n3. Will there be any losses at the reflections? Explain how this arrangement works for coupling an external light beam from a laser into a thin layer on the surface of a glass substrate.
Light is then propagated inside the thin layer along the surface of the substrate. What is the purpose of the adjustable coupling gap?
The incident beam is split into two beams by FTIR. The light propagates along the thin layer. There a Consider the prism A when the neighboring prism C in Figure 1. When the is however an evanescent wave whose field decays exponentially with distance in medium B. The tangential field must be continuous from B to C. One cannot just use the field expression for the evanescent wave because this was derived for a light beam incident at an interface between two media only; no third medium.
The transmitted light intensity from A to C depends on the thickness of B. There is no loss in TIR as the magnitude of the amplitude of the reflected way is the same as that of the incident wave. There is an additional requirement that the waves entering the thin film interfere constructively, otherwise the waves will interfere destructively to cancel each other.
Thus there will be an additional requirement, called the waveguide condition, which is discussed in Chapter 2. There is a small gap between the prism and the thin layer. This arrangement is a much more efficient way to couple the light into the thin layer because the incident light is received by the large hypotenuse face compared with coupling the light directly into the thin layer.
The negative sign has to be excluded because this would make the numerator negative and lead to a complex number for n. By definition, n is a real number, and not imaginary. Find the complex refractive index. How do your calculations match with the experimental Solution From problem 1. Table 1. Solution From Question 1. What is the coherence time and coherence length? Find its coherence time and length.
Solution a See Example 1. The cavity length is 50 cm and the refractive index of the medium is 1. The mirror reflectances are 0. What is the nearest mode number that corresponds to a radiation of wavelength What is the actual wavelength of the mode closest to What is the mode separation in frequency and wavelength?
What are the finesse F and Q-factors for the cavity? The refractive index is 1. The ends have been silvered and the reflectances are 0. Assume 0. How accurate the refractive index is 1, and use Eq. You may want to use a graphing software for this problem. The Graph below shows that the peak closest to What is the divergence of the transmitted beam? What is the 1. Let R be the distance from the aperture to the screen.
WDM stands of wavelength division multiplexing. Suppose that the diffraction grating has a What is the angular separation of the two wavelength component s at 1. How would you increase this separation? The 1. Each incident wavelength will result in a diffracted wave with a different diffraction angle.
Suppose that the slit is placed so that it is at right angles to the incident beam: What is the wavelength that will be detected? What is the resolution, that is, the range of wavelengths that will pass through the slit? How can you improve the resolution? What would be the advantage and disadvantage in decreasing the slit width s?
Substituting and 10 into above formula we get the values of What is your a conclusion? Clearly, certain 2 wavelengths, in this case, violet, green, orange-red are reflected more than others blue and yellow. Reflectance vs wavelength in the visible range for a soap film b Figure: Reflectance vs wavelength in the visible range for a MgF2 tin film coating on glass The reflectance is lowered substantially by the thin film coating, and remains low over the visible spectrum.
Without the coating, the reflectance is 6.
This will affect the spectrum of the reflected light from the soap film but Authors comment: The above are for normal incidence. Obviously reflections at other angles will have the MgF2 coating will still result in a relatively low reflectance over the visible because the minimum in the reflectance is very broad over the visible range.
If the film thickness is nm, find the minimum and maximum reflectances and transmittances and their corresponding wavelengths in the visible range for normal incidence. Assume normal incidence. The corresponding equations to Eq. Since n2 is not an intermediate index between n1 and n3, the n2-film does not reduce the reflection that would have occurred at the n1-n3 interface had there been no n2-layer. What should be the thickness od MgF2 to for minimum reflection at nm?
What is its refractive index? Do you think this is a good way to measure the refractive index? However, material of index n2 in a medium of index n1 as in Figure 1. In practice, this is not very good method because it does not give sufficient precision.
In a polar plot, the radial coordinate OP in Figure 1. Author's Note: There is a printing error. The minus sign should have been plus as in the above expression. This should have been obvious from Figure 1. The error will be corrected in the next reprint. The e-version of the book is correct. Do not confuse this with r. Another interesting plot is the density plot in which the density represents the intensity Is. The 2 0 -2 x 0 2 y -2 Density plot of Rayleigh scattering.
Lipson and C. Lu, which is essentially a Bragg reflector, has the dispersion behavior shown in Figure 1. What is the difference between a unit cell used in a photonic crystal and that used in a real crystal? What is the size limit on the unit cell of a photonic crystal? Is the refractive index a microscopic or a macroscopic concept? What is the assumption on the refractive index?
Solution The size limit on the unit cell of a photonic crystal is that it must be longer than the wavelength scale.
Refractive index is a macroscopic concept. It is a mathematical conclusion from the first line. The dot at The first line with a square is a mathematical statement. Italic text next to mathematical conclusions explains the mathematical operation e. Solutions Manual Preliminary Chapter 2 2. Currently none reported. The field distributions are shown in Figure 2Q Allowed upward and downward traveling waves inside the core of the planar waveguide set-up a standing wave along y.
The standing wave can only exist if the wave can be replicated after it has traveled along the y-direction over one round trip. Put differently, a wave starting at A in Figure 2.
At destroy itself. The condition for setting-up a standing wave is that the wave must be identical, able to replicate itself, after one round trip along y. Solution From Figure 2. Figure 2. Ray 1 experiences total internal reflection at A.
There is a phase difference between the two waves. Solution a From the geometry we have the following: See Figure 2Q From Example 2. Alternatively one can use a computer program for finding the roots of a function. This is shown in Figure 2Q Given the waveguide condition, 2. The following intuitive calculation shows how the small difference between the TE and TM waves can lead to dispersion that is time spread in the arrival times of the TE and TM optical signals.
One should be cautioned that we calculated dispersion using the phase velocity whereas we should have used the group velocity. It is assumed that the math-software package can carry 2. Using a convenient math-software package, or by other means, obtain the same vg vs. Solution [Revised 4 February ] The results shown in Figure 2.
Obviously other math software packages can also be used. Thus, it is only approximate. Equation 2. What is the cut-off wavelength beyond which only a single mode can propagate in the waveguide, assuming that the refractive index does not vary greatly with the wavelength? If a radiation of wavelength nm corresponding to bandgap radiation is propagating in the GaAs layer, what is the penetration of the evanescent wave into the AlGaAs layers?
What is the mode field width MFW of this radiation? The penetration depth is half the core thickness. Solution of the waveguide condition in Eq. Compare your plot with the dispersion diagram in Figure 2. The propagation constant along the guide, along z is given by Eq.
This is the dispersion diagram. Thus, the solutions of the waveguide condition as in Example 2. Black, TE0 mode. TE1 mode. Propagation along the cladding. Propagation along the core.
The calculation of the Author's Note: Consider operating this fiber Calculate the maximum acceptance angle. The refractive index of water is 1. Consider a water jet of diameter 3 mm that is illuminated by green light of wavelength nm. What is the V-number, numerical aperture, total acceptance angle of the jet? How many modes are there? What is the cut-off wavelength? The diameter of the jet increases slowly as the jet flows away from the original spout.
However, the light is still guided. Light guided along a thin water jet. A small hole is made in a plastic soda drink bottle full of water to generate a thin water jet. When the hole is illuminated with a laser beam from a green laser pointer , the light is guided by total internal reflections along the jet to the tray. Water with air bubbles produced by shaking the bottle was used to increase the visibility of light. Air bubbles scatter light and make the guided light visible.
First such demonstration has been attributed to Jean- Daniel Colladon, a Swiss scientist, who demonstrated a water jet guiding light in Is this a single mode fiber? Use 2. Then determine the group velocity vg of the fundamental mode at 1. How do your results compare with the findings in Example 2. Solution From example 2. The refractive index increases linearly with the addition properties: What of GeO2 to SiO2 from 0 to A single mode step index fiber is required to have the following should the core composition be?
Using the Sellmeier equation and the constants in Table 1. Other math programs such as Matlab can also be used. It is present even when the independent. Let us suppose that n1 and n2 are wavelength or k space wavelength.
In the range 1. Suppose that a 1. Estimate the waveguide dispersion per kilometer of fiber using Eqs. Data extracted from W. Gambling et al. The Radio and Electronics Engineer, 51, ,