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The shorthand masks one attractive property of the dual-circle representations, however: the fact that a UTT acting on a configuration always transforms every triad to the triad that occupies the same position in the new configuration. In Figure 4, for example, the actions b- u f -f--vE may be read directly from the figure, at the eleven o'clock position on the inner circle. Let A denote the set of all dual-circle configurations.
Then the group ' of all UTTs acts on A as described above. From the description of this action it is easy to see that if k1 and X2 are any two configurations in A, then there is exactly one UTT U that transforms X1 to X2; that is, the action oft on A is simply transitive.
In this case, A forms a GIS whose group of intervals is 9. The "interval" from one dual-circle configuration X1 to another configuration X2 is the unique UTT that transforms k1 to X2. In Figure 4, for example, 73 This content downloaded from Recall from Section 1.
The UTTs whose total transposition is 0 are of particular interest. As was suggested in the introduction to this paper, this condition codifies the symmetry inherent in Hugo Riemann's under- standing of harmony: whatever a Riemannian transformation does to a major triad, its effect on a minor triad is equal and opposite.
The following identities follow immediately from the product and inverse formulas for UTTs in Part 1: This content downloaded from In particular, the ten transpositions T, with n?
It must be remembered that the various special prop- erties of Riemannian UTTs to be derived in the following sections gen- erally do not apply to these other transformations. Am J Clin Nutr.
A longitudinal study of weight and the menopause transition: results from the Massachusetts Women s Health Study. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy prevents central distribution of body fat after menopause. Traversing the menopause: changes in energy expenditure and body composition.
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Trends Endocrinol Metab. Effect of hormone therapy on BP in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women. Hypertension and HRT. Int Congr Ser. Transdermal estrogen replacement therapy decreases sympathetic activity in postmenopausal women. Hirsutism is a common clinical problem in women, and the treatment depends on the cause.
The condition is often associated with a loss of self- -esteem. Hirsutism reflects the interaction between circulating androgen concentrations, local androgen concentrations, and the sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens. Polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism are the most common causes of the condition.
A woman s history and, physical examination are particularly important in evaluating excess hair growth. The vast majority of women with hirsutism have the idiopathic variety, and the diagnosis is made by exclusion. Treatment of hirsutism should be based on the degree of excess hair growth presented by the patient and in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Treatment includes lifestyle therapies, androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockage, and cosmetic treatments.
The current review discusses definition, pathogenesis, physiopathology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment. Hair appears in a masculine distribution pattern and is coarse. Hirsutism is more than a cosmetic problem. It may be linked to significant underlying diseases, and is often associated with a decreased quality of life, and an impaired self-image of the patient feminine identity 1. The causes of hirsutism may be divided into androgenic factors, non-androgenic factors, and idiophatic hirsutism.
Hirsutism must be distinguished from hypertrichosis, which is characterized by increased hair growth in a generalized nonsexual distribution and is independent of androgens. Usually, hypertrichosis presents generalized or localized growth of vellus type non-terminal 97 20 Hirsutism hair over the body. Hypertrichosis can result from the use of drugs, hereditary factors, or metabolic or other non-endocrine disorders, but, as previously mentioned, it is not caused by excess androgen.
Despite this, androgens may aggravate the problem. A long list of drugs is associated with hypertrichosis. These drugs include acetazolamide, citalopram, corticotrophin, cyclosporine, diazoxide, glucocorticoids, metoclopramide, methyldopa, mercure poisoning, minoxidil, penicillamine, phenothiazines, phenytoin, reserpine, streptomycin, valproic acid, and heavy metals 2.
In these cases, hypertrichosis can usually be treated within weeks or months after discontinuing the medications. Hypertrichosis can also occur in patients with some systemic disease, including porphyria, anorexia nervosa, malnutrition, juvenile dermatomyositis, tuberculosis, hypothyroidism, and even paraneoplastic syndrome 3. The number of hair follicles does not significantly change over an individual s lifetime, but the follicle size and type of hair can change in response to numerous factors, particularly androgens.
Hirsutism reflects the interaction between circulating androgen concentrations, local androgen concentrations, and the sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens 4,5. Structurally, there are three types of hair: lanugo soft hair densely covering the skin of the fetus, which disappears within the first months of post-partum life; vellus soft hair, but larger than lanugo.
They are usually non-pigmented and generally less than 0. Depending upon the body site, hormonal regulation plays an important role in the hair growth cycle, mainly after puberty. During puberty, vellus hair in certain areas are stimulated to become terminal hair. Transitioning between terminal and vellus hair follicles may also occur in pathological states, and abnormal transitioning of vellus hair to terminal hair occurs in hirsutism in women.
Androgens are the most significant hormones associated with hair growth modulation. They are necessary for terminal hair and sebaceous gland development, and cause differentiation of pilosebaceous units into either a terminal hair follicle or a sebaceous gland.
They are involved in keratinization, increased hair follicle size, hair fiber diameter, and the proportion of time terminal hair spends in the anagen phase 4. However, stimulation of hair growth from the follicle does not depend solely on circulatory androgen concentration, but also on local factors, such as peripheral metabolism of androgens and variability in end-organ sensitivity to circulatory androgens, as well as other hormonal variables, such as insulin resistance 6. Hair originates in the hair follicle, a highly dynamic organ.
It is a complex organ that functions autonomously with a molecular oscillator system responsible for hair cycling. The hair cycle consists of rhythmic repetitive growth, regression, and tissue-remodeling events.
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