Introduction to Oracle9i: SQL. Instructor Guide • Volume 2 SQL Statements Versus iSQL*Plus Commands Overview of .. to their particular criteria. For more information, see Oracle9i SQL Reference, “CREATE VIEW.”. The Oracle9i SQL Reference is intended for all users of Oracle SQL. Volume 1. Chapter 1, "Introduction". This chapter discusses the history of SQL and. Introduction to oracle9i pl sql student guide volume 1 pdf. Apple Online. Service Assistant currently unavailable Also, as for your Gmail account, I would not.
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Introduction to Oracle9i: SQL Student Guide •Volume 1 GC10 Production June D Results 5 - 21 Additional Practices • Volume 3 SQL Statements versus iSQL*Plus Commands .. Introduction to Oracle9i: SQL Additional Practices GC10 Production June D Student Guide • Volume 1.
Introduction to Oracle Oracle9i-SQL Oracle Introduction to T-SQL. Introduction to SQL. An Introduction to Mic PHP Introduction to Se
Benefits include: Oracle9i Oracle9i There are two products, Oracle9i Application Server and Oracle9i Database, that provide a complete and simple infrastructure for Internet applications.
The Oracle9i Database stores all your data. Oracle9iAS can run your: Oracle9i Database manages all your data. This is not just the object relational data that you expect an enterprise database to manage. It can also be unstructured data like: Oracle9i Database has services through which you can store metadata about information stored in file systems.
You can use the database server to manage and serve information wherever it is located. Oracle9i Database is the new flagship product from Oracle.
It has an incredibly rich feature set. Oracle9i Database is the only database specifically designed as an Internet development and deployment platform, extending Oracle's long-standing technology leadership in the areas of data management, transaction processing, and data warehousing to the new medium of the Internet.
Built directly inside the database, breakthrough Internet features help companies and developers build Internet-savvy applications that lower costs, enhance customer and supplier interaction, and provide global information access across platforms and across the enterprise. The Oracle9i Database is an object relational database management system. It has the full capabilities and functionality of a relational database, plus the features of an object database.
It includes several features for improved performance and functionality of online transaction processing OLTP applications, such as better sharing of run-time data structures, larger buffer caches, and deferrable constraints.
Data warehouse applications will benefit from enhancements such as parallel execution of insert, update, and delete operations; partitioning; and parallel-aware query optimization. Operating within the Network Computing Architecture NCA framework, Oracle9i supports client-server and Web-based applications that are distributed and multitiered. Oracle9i can scale tens of thousands of concurrent users, support up to petabytes of data a pedabyte is 1, terabytes , and can handle any type of data, including text, spatial, image, sound, video, and time series as well as traditional structured data.
For more information, see Oracle9i Concepts. This integrated platform includes everything needed to develop, deploy, and manage Internet applications. The Oracle Internet Platform is built on three core pieces: SQL I System Development Life Cycle From concept to production, you can develop a database by using the system development life cycle, which contains multiple stages of development.
This top-down, systematic approach to database development transforms business information requirements into an operational database. Interview users and managers to identify the information requirements.
Incorporate the enterprise and application mission statements as well as any future system specifications. Transfer the business narrative into a graphical representation of business information needs and rules. Confirm and refine the model with the analysts and experts. Design Design the database based on the model developed in the strategy and analysis phase.
Write and execute the commands to create the tables and supporting objects for the database. Move an application into production with user acceptance testing, conversion of existing data, and parallel operations. Make any modifications required. Production Roll out the system to the users. Operate the production system. Monitor its performance, and enhance and refine the system.
The various phases of the system development life cycle can be carried out iteratively. This course focuses on the build phase of the system development life cycle. A library keeps a list of members, books, due dates, and fines.
A company needs to save information about employees, departments, and salaries. These pieces of information are called data. Organizations can store data on various media and in different formats— for example, a hard-copy document in a filing cabinet or data stored in electronic spreadsheets or in databases. A database is an organized collection of information.
To manage databases, you need database management systems DBMS. A DBMS is a program that stores, retrieves, and modifies data in the database on request. There are four main types of databases: Oracle7 is a relational database management system and Oracle8, 8i, and 9i are object relational database management systems. Codd proposed the relational model for database systems.
The more popular models used at that time were hierarchical and network, or even simple flat file data structures. Relational database management systems RDBMS soon became very popular, especially for their ease of use and flexibility in structure.
In addition, a number of innovative vendors, such as Oracle, supplemented the RDBMS with a suite of powerful application development and user products, providing a total solution.
Addison-Wesley, Codd proposed the relational model for database systems in Definition of a Relational Database A relational database is a collection of relations or two-dimensional tables. Oracle server Table Name: For example, you might want to store information about all the employees in your company. In a relational database, you create several tables to store different pieces of information about your employees, such as an employee table, a department table, and a salary table.
Engineers build a model of a car to work out any details before putting it into production. In the same manner, system designers develop models to explore ideas and improve the understanding of the database design.
They can be used to do the following: Assign one or more employees to a department. Some departments do not yet have assigned employees. An entity relationship ER model is an illustration of various entities in a business and the relationships between them.
An ER model is derived from business specifications or narratives and built during the analysis phase of the system development life cycle. ER models separate the information required by a business from the activities performed within a business. Although businesses can change their activities, the type of information tends to remain constant.
Therefore, the data structures also tend to be constant. A thing of significance about which information needs to be known. Examples are departments, employees, and orders. Something that describes or qualifies an entity.
For example, for the employee entity, the attributes would be the employee number, name, job title, hire date, department number, and so on. Each of the attributes is either required or optional.
This state is called optionality. A named association between entities showing optionality and degree. Examples are employees and departments, and orders and items. Attributes To represent an attribute in a model, use the following conventions: The term cardinality is a synonym for the term degree. The convention is to read clockwise. Unique Identifiers A unique identifier UID is any combination of attributes or relationships, or both, that serves to distinguish occurrences of an entity.
Each entity occurrence must be uniquely identifiable. Table Name: Categories of data are listed across the top of each table, and individual cases are listed below. Using a table format, you can readily visualize, understand, and use information. Because data about different entities is stored in different tables, you may need to combine two or more tables to answer a particular question.
For example, you may want to know the location of the department where an employee works. A foreign key is a column or a set of columns that refer to a primary key in the same table or another table.
You can use the ability to relate data in one table to data in another to organize information in separate, manageable units. Employee data can be kept logically distinct from department data by storing it in a separate table. Relational Database Terminology 1 2 3 4 5 6 Terminology Used in a Relational Database A relational database can contain one or many tables.
A table holds all the data necessary about something in the real world: The numbers indicate the following: A single row or tuple representing all data required for a particular employee.
Each row in a table should be identified by a primary key, which allows no duplicate rows. The order of rows is insignificant; specify the row order when the data is retrieved. A column or attribute containing the employee number. In this example, the employee number column is designated as the primary key.
A primary key must contain a value, and the value must be unique. A column that is not a key value. A column represents one kind of data in a table; in the example, the salary of all the employees. Column order is insignificant when storing data; specify the column order when the data is retrieved. A column containing the department number, which is also a foreign key. A foreign key is a column that defines how tables relate to each other. A foreign key refers to a primary key or a unique key in in the same table or in another table.
A field may have no value in it. This is called a null value. A field can be found at the intersection of a row and a column.
There can be only one value in it. SQL I Properties of a Relational Database In a relational database, you do not specify the access route to the tables, and you do not need to know how the data is arranged physically. The language contains a large set of operators for partitioning and combining relations. The database can be modified by using SQL statements.
Relational Database Properties A relational database: SQL has the following advantages: Oracle server Statement is sent to Oracle Server.
Data is displayed. Oracle9i also supports Java and XML. The Oracle server offers the options of retrieving data based on optimization techniques.
It includes security features that control how a database is accessed and used. Other features include consistency and protection of data through locking mechanisms. The Oracle9i server is an object-relational database management system that provides an open, comprehensive, and integrated approach to information management.
An Oracle server consists of an Oracle database and an Oracle server instance. Every time a database is started, a system global area SGA is allocated, and Oracle background processes are started. The system global area is an area of memory used for database information shared by the database users. The combination of the background processes and memory buffers is called an Oracle instance.
Oracle Corporation ensures future compliance with evolving standards by actively involving key personnel in SQL standards committees. Show the department number, department name, and the number of employees working in each department that: a. Includes fewer than 3 employees: b.
Has the highest number of employees: c.
Show the employee number, last name, salary, department number, and the average salary in their department for all employees. Show all employees who were hired on the day of the week on whic h the highest number of employees has been hired.
Create an anniversary overview based on the hire date of the employees. Sort the anniveraries in ascending order. Find the job that was filled in the first half of and the same job that was filled during the same period in Write a compound query to produce a list of employees showing raise percentages, employee IDs, and old and new salaries.
Introduction to Oracle9i: SQL Additional Practices These exercises can be used for extra practice after you have discussed Oracle9i single row functions in Lesson Note: The output might be different based on the date when the command is executed.
Note: The results of the preceding question are based on a different date and in some cases they will not match the actual results that the students get. Also the time zone offset of the various countries might differ based on daylight savings time.
Note: The results of the preceding question are based on a different date, and in some cases they will not match the actual results that the students get. Introduction to Oracle9i: SQL Additional Practices These exercises can be used for extra practice after you have discussed advanced subqueries in Lesson Display their last names and salaries. Write a query to display the employee ID and last names of the employees who work in the state of California.
Hint: Use scalar subqueries. Delete the records of only those employees who have changed at least 2 jobs. Rollback the transaction. Write a query to display the job ids of those jobs whose maximum salary is above half the maximum salary in the whole company.
Use the WITH clause to write this query. Write a SQL statement to display employee number, last name, start date, and salary, showing: a. Write a hierarchical query to display the employee number, manager number, and employee last name for all employees who are two levels below employee De Haan employee number Also display the level of the employee.
Produce a hierarchical report to display the employee number, manager number, the LEVEL pseudocolumn, and employee last name. Use indentations for the NAME column.
Note: The output shown is only a sample. All the rows from the actual output are not included here. Appendix D Additional Practice Write a SQL script file to drop all objects tables, views, indexes, sequences, synonyms, and so on that you own.
The output shown is only a guideline. How many employees have a name that ends with an n? Show the names and locations for all departments and the number of employees working in each department. Make sure that departments without employees are included, as well. Show the department number, department name, and the number of employees working in each that: a. Write a query to display the job IDs of those jobs whose maximum salary is above half the maximum salary in the whole company.
Write a hierarchical query to display the employee number, manager number, and mployee last name for all employees who are two levels below employee De Haan employee number Produce a hierarchical report to display employee number, manager number, the LEVEL pseudocolumn, and employee last name.