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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 75,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . The first part of the book discusses the scope of electrical engineering and gives a. Download Basic Electrical Engineering By C L Wadhwa – Basic Electrical Engineering has been written as a core course for all engineering students viz.

An uncorrected copy, or prepublication, is an uncorrected proof of the book. We publish prepublications to facilitate timely access to the committee's findings. The final version of this book has not been published yet. You can pre-order a copy of the book and we will send it to you when it becomes available. We will not charge you for the book until it ships.

Complete a written Principles and Practice in Engineering PE examination, which tests the applicant's knowledge and skills in their chosen engineering discipline civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, etc.

However, each state's board of professional engineers individually sets the requirements to take the exams, as well as the passing score.

Regulation and licensure in engineering

For example, applicants in some states must provide professional references from several PEs before they can take the PE exam. There is a fairly large range in exam pass rates for FE and PE exams, but the pass rate for repeat test takers is significantly lower.

NCEES is developing the types of creditable activities that will satisfy the additional educational requirement. This has received some support from civil engineers. In Texas, for example, both FE and PE exam waivers are still available to individuals with several years of creditable experience. The requirement for years of experience may also vary. For example, in California it is possible to take a PE examination with only two years of experience after a Bachelor of Science in Engineering degree or one year of experience after a Master of Engineering.

In other states candidates may take one of the PE exams directly through NCEES, in some cases immediately after graduation, but they still must wait until obtaining the required experience before obtaining a license.

Some states also have state-specific examinations. California requires two additional exams in land surveying and earthquake engineering for civil engineering candidates and many states have exams based on their individual laws and ethics requirements.

Some states issue generic professional engineering licenses. Others, known as "discipline states", issue licenses for specific disciplines of engineering, such as civil engineering, mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering , electrical engineering and chemical engineering.

However, in all cases engineers are ethically required to limit their practice to their area of competency, which is usually a small portion of a discipline. While licensing boards do not often enforce this limitation, it can be a factor in negligence lawsuits.

In a few states, licensed civil engineers may also perform land survey work. In addition to the person's license, most states require that firms providing engineering services are authorized to do so. For instance, the state of Florida issues a certificate of authorization to firms that are owned by a professional engineer. Civil engineers account for a large portion of licensed professional engineers. In Texas, for example, about 37 percent of licenses are for civil engineers, with civil engineering exams making up more than half of the exams taken.

However, some engineers in other fields obtain licenses for the ability to serve as professional witnesses in courts, before government committees or just for prestige—even though they may never actually sign and seal design documents. Since regulation of the practice of engineering is performed by the individual states in the United States, areas of engineering involved in interstate commerce are essentially unregulated.

These areas include much of mechanical , aerospace and chemical engineering and may be specifically exempted from regulation under an "industrial exemption". An industrial exemption covers engineers who design products such as automobiles that are sold or have the potential to be sold outside the state where they are produced, as well as the equipment used to produce the product.

Structures subject to building codes are not covered by an industrial exemption, though small residential buildings often do not require an engineer's seal. In some jurisdictions, the role of architects and structural engineers overlap.

In general, the primary professional responsible for designing habitable buildings is an architect. The architect signs and seals design plans for buildings and other structures that humans may occupy. A structural engineer is contracted to provide technical structural design ensuring the stability and safety of the overall structure, however, no states currently allow engineers the ability to perform professional architecture without also being licensed as an architect.

At the company's discretion, as long as the company does not offer engineering services directly to the public or other businesses, such positions may not require an engineering license. However, it is important to make a distinction between a "graduate engineer" and a "professional engineer".

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A "graduate engineer" is anyone holding a degree in engineering from an accredited four-year university program, but is not licensed to practice or offer services to the public. Unlicensed engineers usually work as employees for a company or as professors in engineering colleges, where they are governed under the industrial exemption clause. Canada The practice of engineering in Canada is highly regulated under a system of licensing administered by a self regulated engineering association in each province.

In Canada the designation "professional engineer" can only be used by licensed engineers and the practice of engineering is protected in law and strictly enforced in all provinces. The regulation and licensing of engineers is done through each province's own engineering association which was created by acts passed by that province's legislature.

There is also Engineers Canada which regulates undergraduate programs for engineering. The process for registration is generally as follows: Graduate with a degree from an accredited program in engineering or applied science, accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board CEAB.

Complete an engineer-in-training EIT or engineering internship program under the direction of a professional engineer. With the exception of Quebec, this is a minimum four-year program. Pass a professional practice exam, [19] the content and format of which differs by province.


Professional engineers are not licensed in a specific discipline but are bound by their respective provincial code of ethics e. Breaches of the code are often sufficient grounds for enforcement measures, which may include the suspension or loss of license and financial penalties. It could also result in serving time jail, should negligence be shown to have played a part in any incident that causes loss of human life.

Engineers are not tested on technical knowledge during the licensing process if their education was accredited by the CEAB. Accreditation of schools and their accredited degree granting status are monitored and controlled.

The accreditation process is continuous and enforced through regular accreditation reviews of each school. These reviews typically include the review of the school's curriculum including marked final exams and assignments , interviews of current students, extracurricular activities and teaching staff as well additional areas the visiting board may feel need addressing.

The specific areas considered are curriculum content, program environment and general criteria. The associations are granted both an exclusive right to title and an exclusive right to practice. There are only a few exceptions specifically noted in the acts—which do not include any "industrial exemptions".

Therefore, a professional engineer is legally required to be registered. The level of enforcement varies depending on the specific industry. And, in some provinces, there is no requirement of having graduated from an accredited Canadian university in order to be a professional engineer.

The professional engineer's license is only valid in the province of delivery.

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There are, however, agreements between the associations to ease mobility. In , professional engineers Ontario led an initiative to develop a national engineering licensing framework.

The term "engineer" is often used loosely in some Canadian industry sectors to describe people working in the field of engineering technology—not professional engineering—as engineering technologists or engineering technicians and trades names such as stationary engineer. For example, the Canadian Coast Guard and the Canadian Navy often calls its technicians "marine engineers," "power engineers" and "military engineers" internally, but not in the public domain.

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The term "locomotive engineer" has been an integral part of the Canadian railroad since its inception. However there are a small number of areas of work, generally safety related, which are reserved by statute, regulations or industry standards to licensed or otherwise approved persons. There is no system for licensing, but registers are held of qualified persons. The Engineering Council is the UK regulatory body for its engineering profession.

It holds the national registers of , engineers registered as EngTech engineering technicians , ICTTech information and communications technology technicians , IEng incorporated engineers and CEng chartered engineers.

In order to protect these titles, action is taken through the courts against their unauthorized use. To receive designation as a CEng, it is required to have approved education typically to Master's level and also demonstrate significant technical and commercial leadership and management competencies.

IE India also offers registration as a professional engineer PE [India] and international professional engineer PE [Int'l] to member-engineers having seven years of active practical engineering experience after achieving their degrees.

Many municipalities exempt chartered engineers PE[India] or PE [Int'l] from their licenser or registration, by reciprocity comity. All such consulting engineers must be licensed, registered or chartered regardless of their discipline or area of practice.

Iran In Iran , registration or licensure of professional engineers and engineering practice is governed by Ministry of Science, Research and Technology Iran. Accumulate a certain amount of engineering experience requirement is at least four years. Complete a written Principles and Practice in Engineering PE examination, which tests the applicant's knowledge and skills in their chosen engineering discipline civil , electrical , industrial , mechanical , computer , etc.

PEC is a federal government organization. Registered engineer RE and professional engineer PE. Previously, every engineering graduate registered with the PEC and at least five years of relevant work experience was eligible for the title of professional engineer PE without any exam.

This system was realistically implemented starting 10 July Graduate engineers now enroll and practice as registered engineer RE in their general discipline of work.

Those who pass the EPE are given the prestigious title of professional engineer PE in their specialized discipline of work. To improve the quality of engineering services, engineers with professional engineer PE status are also required to engage in CPD activities in order to be able to retain their PE license. CPD points are awarded for various developmental activities such as formal education e.

For CPD points system, upper limit of points has also been implemented to prevent abuse of the system and encourage balanced participation in various CPD activities. In case of on-job work experience which is the primary engagement of engineering profession, one CPD point is awarded for hours of work.

Upper limit of 2 credit points per year has been established for on-job work experience. Registered person is a term distinct from registered engineer RE. Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka, the title "engineer" is not regulated. However, as per the Engineering Council Act No 4 of , all engineering practitioners in Sri Lanka needs to be registered with the engineering council to practice. The title is granted after successful application to a national member of the European Federation of National Engineering Associations FEANI , which includes representation from many European countries, including much of the European Union.

It allows a person who has an engineering degree and usually an engineering professional qualification in one of the member countries to use the qualification in others, but this depends on local legislation. The title Eur Ing is " pre-nominal ," i. Another association in Europe is the EurEta.

The professional title "Ing. EurEta" is used as a pre-nominal similar to Dr. The degrees Ing. Oberingenieur, supervisor engineer are no longer awarded. The designation "Dipl. To achieve this qualification, it is required to complete a month apprenticeship program, a minimum 2, hour college diploma in engineering or technology, two years of relevant experience and pass the state examination.

A bachelor's honours degree in engineering or engineering technology from an accredited university is also equated to level 6 on EQF. A state-certified engineer is not required to complete a university degree.

Before Jan. In the past, this led to wide and controversial discussions between bachelor's and master's degrees engineers and state-certified engineers.

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Today, this is on the same level as a bachelor's degree. One can continue to study to a master's degree with the SCE qualification. State-certified engineers now assist engineers with only a diploma or master's degree. They are also holding full engineering positions as systems engineers, integration engineers, test engineers, QA engineers, etc. The following top representatives and agents institutions were involved: federal government Federal Ministry for Education and Research, Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology , standing conference and economic ministerial meeting of countries, the Confederation of German Employers' Associations, German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, German Trade Union Federation and the Federal Institute for Vocational Application.

Designations Letters after or before a person's name post-nominal or pre-nominal letters are commonly used to denote the holder of an engineering license in various jurisdictions: Africa Ing. Eng" standing for professional certificated engineer is used as a post-nominal for engineers who have registered with Engineering Council of South Africa after passing the Engineers Certificate of Competence Examinations. Eng standing for registered engineer in Kenya Holders of five years of post-secondary engineering education and four years of work experience.

Eng is used as a pre-nominal in Uganda for registered engineers. In Uganda, a registered engineer must as a prerequisite be a member of the Uganda Institution of professional engineers UIPE and must have a Bachelor of Science or higher in engineering together with relevant engineering experience that must be documented, supported by two registered engineers and defended by the applicant in an interview with the Engineers' Registration Board ERB , which has the power to confirm designation as a registered engineer.

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